1859

تحويل 1-1-1859م الى هجري  (وصلة خارجية)  | تحويل 31-12-1859م الى هجري  (وصلة خارجية)  | ابحث في الموسوعة عن مواضيع متعلقة بسنة 1859

الألفية: الألفية 2
القرون: القرن 18 - القرن 19 - القرن 20
العقود: عقد 1820  عقد 1830  عقد 1840  - عقد 1850 -  عقد 1860  عقد 1870  عقد 1880
السنوات: 1856 1857 1858 - 1859 - 1860 1861 1862
1859 في موضوعات:
الإنسانيات
الآثارالعمارةالفنالأدب (الشعر) – الموسيقى
حسب البلد
مصرسوريا - إيرانالصين - فرنساألمانياالدولة العثمانيةإيطاليا - اسبانيا - المغربروسيا - اليابانالبرازيل - الهند - المملكة المتحدةالولايات المتحدةإندونسيا
موضوعات أخرى
السكك الحديديةالعلومالرياضة
قوائم الزعماء
الدول ذات السيادةزعماء الدولحكام الأقاليمالزعماء الدينيون
تصنيفا المواليد والوفيات
المواليدالوفيات
تصنيفا التأسيسات والانحلالات
التأسيساتالانحلالات
تصنيف الأعمال
الأعمال
1859 في التقاويم الأخرى
التقويم الگريگوري1859
MDCCCLIX
آب أوربه كونديتا2612
التقويم الأرمني1308
ԹՎ ՌՅԸ
التقويم الآشوري6609
التقويم البهائي15–16
التقويم البنغالي1266
التقويم الأمازيغي2809
سنة العهد البريطاني22 Vict. 1 – 23 Vict. 1
التقويم البوذي2403
التقويم البورمي1221
التقويم البيزنطي7367–7368
التقويم الصيني戊午(التراب الحصان)
4555 أو 4495
    — إلى —
己未年 (التراب الماعز)
4556 أو 4496
التقويم القبطي1575–1576
التقويم الديسكوردي3025
التقويم الإثيوپي1851–1852
التقويم العبري5619–5620
التقاويم الهندوسية
 - ڤيكرام سامڤات1915–1916
 - شاكا سامڤات1781–1782
 - كالي يوگا4960–4961
تقويم الهولوسين11859
تقويم الإگبو859–860
التقويم الإيراني1237–1238
التقويم الهجري1275–1276
التقويم اليابانيAnsei 6
(安政6年)
تقويم جوچىN/A
التقويم اليوليوسيالگريگوري ناقص 12 يوم
التقويم الكوري4192
تقويم مينگوو53 قبل جمهورية الصين
民前53年
التقويم الشمسي التايلندي2402

سنة 1859 (MDCCCLIX) كانت سنة بسيطة تبدأ يوم السبت (الرابط يعرض التقويم كاملاً) التقويم الگريگوري، السنة 1859 بعد الميلاد (م)، السنة 859 في الألفية 2، السنة 59 في القرن 19، والسنة 10 والأخيرة في عقد 1850 بين 1583 و 1929 ومع فارق 1859 is 12 يوم عن التقويم اليوليوسي، والذين ظلوا مستخدمين حتى التحول الكامل إلى التقويم الگريگوري في 1929.

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أحداث

January-March

April-June

يوليو-سبتمبر

أكتوبر-ديسمبر

مجهولة التاريخ

مواليد

يناير-يونيو


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يوليو-ديسمبر

مجهولة التاريخ

الاقتصاد

قناة السويس

  • April 25: The construction of the Suez Canal begins - still without permission - with the groundbreaking near today's Port Said by Ferdinand Vicomte de Lesseps .

الهروع إلى الذهب والفضة ورواج النفط

  • January 15: In the Nebraska Territory , the first gold vein is discovered in what later becomes the US state of Colorado . The region around Gold Hill is becoming attractive for miner settlement .

May 6: The first vein of gold is found at Pike's Peak in western Kansas by prospector John H. Gregory, giving new impetus to an already established Colorado gold rush in the American Midwest . On June 16, the city of Golden is founded. August 27: Edwin L. Drake encounters the coveted raw material while drilling near Titusville in Pennsylvania , where oil suddenly seeped out of the ground in 1857 . The age of the petroleum industry begins with the industrial production that is now possible . The Comstock Lode silver ore vein is discovered in Nevada Territory near the capital city of Carson City . In the ensuing silver rush, Virginia City is formed .

براءات الاختراع

  • September 20: George B. Simpson receives a US patent for the electric stove he invented .

Henry Steinway Jr. Receives US patent for grand piano cross- stringing .

الشركات

  • June 7: The Chicago and North Western Railway , based in Chicago , is formed.

Mathias Salcher founds the iron thread factory Mathias Salcher & Sons in Harland . His son Josef Salcher becomes manager of this factory . The Südbahngesellschaft is founded in Austria . As the successor company to the kk Südliche Staatsbahn , the company operates the Vienna-Trieste railway, which also includes the Semmeringbahn . The capital comes mainly from French investors. George Huntington Hartford and George Gilman form The Great American Tea Company .

المرور

  • May 17: With the opening of the section from Trento to Bolzano , the route of the future Brenner Railway through the Adige Valley is complete.
  • August 18: The Rhine bridge between Waldshut and Koblenz , built by the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways together with the Swiss Northeastern Railway , is put into operation. The completed Turgi–Koblenz–Waldshut railway line is the first connection between the Baden main line and the Swiss railway network.

متفرقات

  • December 20: In Austria, a new trade code is enacted that introduces freedom of trade . It comes into force on May 1, 1860.
  • The sixth and last trade exhibition in the Kingdom of Hanover is organized by the trade association for the Kingdom of Hanover .

العلوم والتكنولوجيا

حملة نوڤارا

  • January 2: The Novara Expedition , an Austrian expedition that began in 1857, leaves New Zealand .

February 2nd to 23rd: stay in Tahiti

  • April 24: Stay before Valparaíso
  • August 1: The expedition reaches Gibraltar .
  • August 26: The Novara Expedition comes to an end after more than two years of voyage with the return of the frigate SMS Novara to Trieste .


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الدراسات الأفريقية

  • September 16: Lake Nyasa is sighted by David Livingstone and his companions as the first Europeans.

العلوم الطبيعية

  • November 24: Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species , the seminal work in the field of his theory of evolution , is published. The first edition sold out after a short time.

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen discovered that different chemical elements colored the flame of a gas burner in a characteristic way and thus laid the basis for spectroscopy . In the course of this research, Kirchhoff established his law of thermal radiation, which became known as Kirchhoff's radiation law . The Austrian physician and botanist Friedrich Welwitsch discovered the plant welwitschia in the Portuguese colony of Angola . George Engelmann 's extensively illustrated work Cactaceae of the Boundary is published, giving an overview of all known North American cactus species up to that point .

  • The British botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker is the first to describe the pitcher plant Nepenthes rajah .

الفلسفة/العلوم السياسية/الاقتصاد

  • January: Karl Marx publishes On the Critique of Political Economy .

بناء السفن

اللاهوت والتاريخ

  • February 7: The Codex Sinaiticus is found by Konstantin von Tischendorf in St. Catherine 's Monastery on Mount Sinai (Egypt).

الثقافة والمجتمع

العمارة

  • Commissioned by the impresario Rudolf Cerf , the architect Eduard Titz built the Victoria Theater in Berlin based on plans by Carl Ferdinand Langhans reclining common stage.

الفنون الجميلة

  • Édouard Manet offers his work The Absinthe Drinker , which he had begun the previous year, to the biennial Salon de Paris . However, the picture was rejected by the jury, only Eugène Delacroix spoke out in favor of inclusion in the exhibition.
  • Eastman Johnson paints his most famous work, Negro Life at the South .

الموسيقى والمسرح

  • 22 January: The composer himself sits at the piano at the world premiere of Johannes Brahms' Piano Concerto No. 1 at the Royal Court Theater in Hanover, conducted by Joseph Joachim . Another performance will take place on January 27th at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig. The reviews are scathing.

17 February: Giuseppe Verdi 's opera Un ballo in maschera (A Masked Ball) premieres to triumphant success at Rome's Teatro Apollo .

  • March 19: The premiere of Charles Gounod 's opera Faust takes place at the Théâtre-Lyrique in Paris. The work with the libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré based on Goethe's Faust I was a great success from the start.

March 31: The play Lohengrin by Johann Nestroy and Carl Binder has its premiere at the Carltheater in Vienna. The play parodies the opera Lohengrin by Richard Wagner , Nestroy's second such play after the travesty Tannhäuser . In contrast to this, audiences and critics are disappointed this time.

  • April 4: The first version of Giacomo Meyerbeer's Opéra-comique Dinorah ou Le pardon de Ploërmel has its premiere at the Opéra-Comique in Paris. The libretto was written by Jules Barbier with the collaboration of Michel Carré based on his story Les chercheurs de trésor . At the end of the year there will also be a German-language premiere at the ducal court theater in Coburg.

الأدب

  • March: Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky writes the novel Unkelchens Traum (Uncle's Dream) while in exile in Siberia , which is published in the Russian Word magazine.
  • 30 April to 26 November: Charles Dickens publishes his novel A Tale of Two Cities in several parts in All the Year Round magazine, which he founded . The subsequently printed book becomes the most printed original English-language book of all time with over 200 million copies sold.
  • Summer: Joseph Victor von Scheffel writes the Frankenlied .
  • Wilhelm Busch publishes his first picture story: The Little Honey Thieves .

متفرقات

  • 31 May: Big Ben makes its first sound from the clock tower of the Palace of Westminster with the Westminster chime .

June 28: The world's first dog show takes place in Newcastle upon Tyne , UK . 20 September: The first Danish zoo opens its doors to visitors in Copenhagen . October: Four years after its founding in 1855, the German Schiller Foundation is constituted on the occasion of the poet's 100th birthday .

  • 8 to 10 November: On the occasion of the 100th birthday of Friedrich Schiller is at all German colleges and universities Schiller hard committed.
  • November 12: Jules Léotard becomes the first person to perform a somersault from the trapeze at the Cirque Napoléon in Paris . The aerial rope act Flying Trapeze is born.

The Freies Deutsches Hochstift is founded.

  • The honest clothes sellers in Braunschweig were founded under the direction of the private scholar Carl Schiller with the aim of setting up a local history museum. Wilhelm Brandes and Ludwig Hänselmann were among the first members .

المجتمع

  • August 29: Giuseppe Verdi marries his longtime partner, former singer Giuseppina Strepponi .

September 17: Joshua Norton , a San Francisco businessman who filed for bankruptcy the previous year, proclaims himself Emperor of this United States in letters to local media . On October 12, he issued a decree ordering the dissolution of Congress in Washington.

  • October 10: The men 's association Schlaraffia , a worldwide German-speaking association for the cultivation of friendship, art and humor, is founded in Prague.

الطبيعة والبيئة

In the night from September 1st to 2nd, the solar storm of 1859 takes place as the most powerful solar storm to date . The telegraph network , which was still in its infancy at the time , was massively damaged, and northern lights were sighted far south, for example in Rome, Havana and Hawaii . The English astronomer Richard Christopher Carrington observes solar flares for the first time on this occasion .

الكوارث

  • October 26: The British clipper Royal Charter is caught in a severe storm off Anglesey . The ship is thrown against the rocks, breaks apart and sinks. 449 people die, including all women and children on board. The sinking of the Royal Charter is the deadliest shipwreck on the Welsh coast to date. Later known as the Royal Charter Storm , the storm hit the coasts of Wales, England and Scotland and caused severe devastation. 133 ships and boats are sunk, and around 800 people die in the storm.
  • November 5: During the great fire in Rodenberg , Rodenberg Castle burns down, among other things.
  • December 17: In Frederiksborg Palace , the Danish royal residence, a major fire that had started the day before raged , destroying the furnishings of the entire main building.

وفيات

يناير-يونيو

يوليو-ديسمبر

الهامش

  1. ^ http://html.rincondelvago.com/venezuela_4.html Problemas Limítrofes de Venezuela (In Spanish)
  2. ^ Prestwich, Joseph (January 1860). "On the Occurrence of Flint-implements, associated with the Remains of Animals of Extinct Species in Beds of a late Geological Period, in France at Amiens and Abbeville, and in England at Hoxne". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. London. 150: 277–317. doi:10.1098/rstl.1860.0018. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  3. ^ Evans, John (January 1860). "On the Occurrence of Flint Implements in undisturbed Beds of Gravel, Sand, and Clay". Archaeologia. London. 38: 280–307. doi:10.1017/s0261340900001454. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-24. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  4. ^ "Historic Figures: Wilhelm II (1859 - 1941)". BBC History. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Washington Irving - American author". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 January 2017.

5. ^ Meynell, P-J. (1976). Methane: Planning a Digester. New York: Schocken Books. pp. 3.