1713

تحويل 1-1-1713م الى هجري  (وصلة خارجية)  | تحويل 31-12-1713م الى هجري  (وصلة خارجية)  | ابحث في الموسوعة عن مواضيع متعلقة بسنة 1713

الألفية: الألفية 2
القرون: القرن 17 - القرن 18 - القرن 19
العقود: عقد 1680  عقد 1690  عقد 1700  - عقد 1710 -  عقد 1720  عقد 1730  عقد 1740
السنوات: 1710 1711 1712 - 1713 - 1714 1715 1716
1713 حسب الموضوع:
الفنون والعلوم
الآثارالعمارةالفنالأدب (الشعر) – الموسيقىالعلوم
البلدان
مصر - سوريا
قوائم الزعماء
حكام المستعمراتزعماء الدول
تصنيفا المواليد والوفيات
المواليدالوفيات
تصنيفا التأسيسات والانحلالات
التأسيساتالانحلالات
تصنيف الأعمال
الأعمال
1713 في التقاويم الأخرى
التقويم الگريگوري1713
MDCCXIII
آب أوربه كونديتا2466
التقويم الأرمني1162
ԹՎ ՌՃԿԲ
التقويم الآشوري6463
التقويم البهائي−131 – −130
التقويم البنغالي1120
التقويم الأمازيغي2663
سنة العهد البريطاني11 Ann. 1 – 12 Ann. 1
التقويم البوذي2257
التقويم البورمي1075
التقويم البيزنطي7221–7222
التقويم الصيني壬辰(الماء التنين)
4409 أو 4349
    — إلى —
癸巳年 (الماء الثعبان)
4410 أو 4350
التقويم القبطي1429–1430
التقويم الديسكوردي2879
التقويم الإثيوپي1705–1706
التقويم العبري5473–5474
التقاويم الهندوسية
 - ڤيكرام سامڤات1769–1770
 - شاكا سامڤات1635–1636
 - كالي يوگا4814–4815
تقويم الهولوسين11713
تقويم الإگبو713–714
التقويم الإيراني1091–1092
التقويم الهجري1124–1125
التقويم اليابانيShōtoku 3
(正徳3年)
تقويم جوچىN/A
التقويم اليوليوسيالگريگوري ناقص 11 يوم
التقويم الكوري4046
تقويم مينگوو199 قبل جمهورية الصين
民前199年
التقويم الشمسي التايلندي2256

سنة 1713 (MDCCXIII) كانت سنة بسيطة تبدأ يوم الأحد (الرابط يعرض التقويم كاملاً) التقويم الگريگوري، السنة 1713 بعد الميلاد (م)، السنة 713 في الألفية 2، السنة 13 في القرن 18، والسنة 4 في عقد 1710 بين 1583 و 1929 ومع فارق 1713 is 11 يوم عن التقويم اليوليوسي، والذين ظلوا مستخدمين حتى التحول الكامل إلى التقويم الگريگوري في 1929.

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أحداث

يناير-مارس

 
11 يناير: فروخ‌سيار، امبراطور المغل.
  • 11 يناير - فروخ‌سيار ينصب نفسه امبراطوراً على المغل في أگرا. وقد أطيح به في آخر الأمر وقـُتِل في 1719 على يد وزيريه عبد الله وحسين علي اللذين كانا قد ساعداه في الاستيلاء على السلطة. ونصّبوا على العرش الشقيقين رفيع الدرجات ورفيع الدولة.
  • 14 يناير - السلطان أحمد الثالث يأمر بالطرد الإجبار للملك السويدي كارل الثاني عشر من الدولة العثمانية، التي كان لاجئاً فيها منذ 1709 بعد هزيمته في پولتاڤا. Karl, who received the personal travel order on January 31st, refused to leave the country. The Ottoman commanders commissioned with the execution, the Turkish Serasker Ismail Pascha and the Tatar Khan Devlet II. Giray , have clear instructions to storm the Swedish fortifications at Bender if the monarch refuses to march.

أبريل-يونيو

يوليو-سبتمبر


أكتوبر-ديسمبر

مجهولة التاريخ

الحرب في منطقة بحر البلطيق

  • 18 يناير - Swedish troops under Field Marshal Magnus Stenbock begin the siege of the practically undefended city of Altona in the Great Northern War . After they were conquered, the city was systematically cremated on January 20th at the instigation of the Hamburg governor Mauritz Vellingk . 959 houses and 274 stalls fell victim to the conflagration. Only the three churches and about 30 houses are spared. The practice is later condemned across Europe.
  • فبراير: Duke Karl Friedrich von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf violates his neutrality and allows Swedish troops to stop off at Tönning fortress . Danish-Russian-Saxon units under Alexander Menshikov then begin the siege of Tönning . Danish troops also occupy Gottorp's share of the Duchy of Schleswig .
  • 16 مارس - The Danish King Friedrich IV appoints Christian Detlev von Reventlow as the new President of Altona and on March 18, by decree, instructs him to rebuild the city. The first 100 stone houses will be built in April.
  • 16 مايو - The Swedish troops under Field Marshal Magnus Stenbock , who moved into Tönning fortress in February, surrender to the Danish troops. However, the siege of the city continued until February 1714.
  • 21 مايو - A Russian squadron under General Admiral Fyodor Apraxin lands at Helsingfors ( Helsinki ). The Swedish garrison withdraws without a fight and burns the city to the ground.
  • 25 مايو - The Russian galley fleet under General Admiral Fjodor Apraxin occupies Borgå (Finland). The Swedish troops under Lieutenant General Georg Lybecker give up the city without a fight.
  • 4 يوليو - Russian and Saxon troops occupy the island of Rügen .
  • مطلع أغسطس - Russian and Saxon units begin the siege of Szczecin .
  • 17 أغسطس - A Russian command under General Michail Golitsyn and the galley fleet under Rear Admiral Iwan Botsis occupy the town of Abo in Finland .
  • 29 سبتمبر - The siege of Stettin ends with the capitulation of the Swedish occupation and the handover of the city to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm. The garrison of the Swedish fortress of Stettin under the command of Infantry General Johan August Meijerfeldt the Elder surrenders to the Russian army under Prince Alexander Danilowitsch Menshikov .
  • 6 أكتوبر - Under the leadership of the Holstein Minister Georg Heinrich von Görtz and the Saxon Count Jacob Heinrich von Flemming , Prussia signs the Schwedt Treaty with Russia, Saxony-Poland and Denmark-Norway . This includes that King Friedrich Wilhelm I has to pay his allies 400,000 thalers as a replacement for the war costs. Instead, the city of Stettin, the Western Pomerania district up to the Peene , the city of Wolgast , the island of Usedom and the city of Wollinplaced under Prussian sequestration. In addition, Prussia, together with the Holstein-Gottorp family, undertakes to ensure that the Swedes do not carry out any attacks on Poland or Russia from Pomerania . The lands are to remain under Prussian and Holstein sequestration until Sweden has paid back the 400,000 thalers in compensation to Prussia. After that, they should again be subject to the Swedish crown. After the conclusion of the contract, the Swedes will vacate Stettin and withdraw to Stralsund . This city and the Western Pomerania district between the Peene, Trebel and Recknitz and the island of Rügenremain in Swedish hands. The Russian troops are also withdrawing from Western Pomerania.
  • 17 أكتوبر - The Russian army under General Admiral Fyodor Matwejewitsch Apraxin and General Michail Michailowitsch Golitsyn defeat the Swedish army under General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt in the Battle of Pälkäne .


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آسيا

  • أبريل - The three-year-old Tokugawa Ietsugu is formally introduced into his office as the 7th Shogun of the Edo period in Japan . He is under the tutelage of advisor Arai Hakuseki .
  • After Kingkitsarat's death, his younger brother Inthasom and cousin Ong Kham agree to rule the kingdom of Luang Prabang together .
  • In the southernmost part of the Kingdom of Lan Xang , which was divided up in 1707 , the Kingdom of Champasak is formed , the area of ​​which does not appear to be of interest to either of the two successor kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane . The charismatic monk Phra Khru Phon Samet , who until then had acted as the de facto ruler, proclaims Soi Sisamut as king. This strengthens Buddhism in his realm.
  • Farrukh Siyar defeats and kills his uncle Jahandar Shah in the Battle of Delhi and ascends the throne of the Mughal Empire . He makes Qamar ud-Din governor of the Deccan provinces.

حسب الموضوع

الاقتصاد

  • أغسطس - Johann Andreas Kraut founds the Royal Warehouse on behalf of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm I , from which the Prussian Army can meet its needs at any time.
  • Christoph Gottfried Nicolai founds the Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung in Berlin .
  • In Two Bridges is Pfälzische Mercury founded.

العلوم والتكنولوجيا

  • 3 أغسطس - The Marqués of Villena and friends found the Real Academia Española , the main institution for maintaining the Spanish language .
  • Hans Carl von Carlowitz publishes Sylvicultura oeconomica, or haußwirthliche message and natural instruction for wild tree breeding , the first complete work on forestry . In it he formulates the principle of sustainability for the first time .
  • In England, coke is produced for the first time by coking coal .

الثقافة

 
The Gottorf giant globe, replica from 2005
كرة گوتورف

Tsar Peter I and King Friedrich IV of Denmark meet on February 6th in Gottorf Castle . Among other things, the Tsar is interested in the giant Gottorf globe , which is known throughout Europe and which is then transported a few weeks later to the Tsar's art chamber in Saint Petersburg .

الأدب

  • The Scriblerus Club is founded in London . Members include the poet and writer Alexander Pope , the satirist Jonathan Swift , the poet and writer John Gay , John Arbuthnot , polymath and personal physician Queen Annes , the politician and philosopher Henry St. John and the poet Thomas Parnell . Occasionally the Queen's Treasurer, Robert Harley , who sponsors the group , also attends the meetings.

الموسيقى والمسرح

 
صفحة العنوان من ليبريتو تزيو.

January 10th: Georg Friedrich Handel's third London opera Teseo has its world premiere . The opera represents the first collaboration with the musician and poet Nicola Francesco Haym . For the libretto, he used the French Thésée , which Philippe Quinault wrote for Jean-Baptiste Lully in 1675 . Adopting the structure of this tragédie lyrique means that Teseo Handel is the only opera with five acts. Georg Friedrich Handel wrote the Ode for the Birthday of Queen Anne . Since Anne on her birthday, the 6./16. February is ill, the work will probably not be premiered until a year later. July 13: After a public rehearsal on March 5, Handel's Te Deum and Jubilate in Utrecht will be officially premiered on the occasion of the Peace of Utrecht at a service in St Paul's Cathedral in London. The work earns the composer an annual pension from Queen Anne and is subsequently performed every year at the Festival of the Sons of the Clergy . May 17th: Ottone in villa , an opera in three acts by Antonio Vivaldi with a libretto by Domenico Lalli , premieres at the Teatro delle Grazie in Vicenza.

 
صفحة العنوان من ليبريتو توماسو ألبينوني.
  • 27 مايو - Lucio Vero by Tomaso Albinoni with the libretto by Apostolo Zeno is premiered at the Teatro Bonacossi in Ferrara.
  • 28 يونيو - ​​The cantata What I like is just the lively hunt by Johann Sebastian Bach is premiered in Weißenfels on the occasion of Christian von Sachsen-Weißenfels' 31st birthday . The libretto is by Salomon Franck .

مواليد


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وفيات

المراجع

  1. ^ أ ب Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  2. ^ Jackson, William G. F. (1986). The Rock of the Gibraltarians. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses. pp. 113, 333–34. ISBN 0-8386-3237-8.
  3. ^ Cates, William L. R. (1863). The Pocket Date Book. London: Chapman and Hall.
  4. ^ Litto, Fredric M. (1966). "Addison's Cato in the Colonies". William and Mary Quarterly. 23: 431–449. JSTOR 1919239.
  5. ^ "Police and public order in eighteenth-century Dublin", by Neal Garnham, in Two Capitals: London and Dublin, 1500-1840 By British Academy · (Oxford University Press, 2001) p. 84
  6. ^ Randall Lesaffer, "The Peace of Utrecht and the Balance of Power", Oxford Public International Law.
  7. ^ Antonio Gallenga, History of Piedmont, Volume 3 (Chapman and Hall, 1855) p. 118
  8. ^ أ ب Wilmshurst, David (2019). "West Syrian patriarchs and maphrians". In King, Daniel (ed.). The Syriac World. Routledge. p. 812.