نوڤا سكوشا

(تم التحويل من Nova Scotia)

مقاطعة نوڤا سكوشا (Nova Scotia ؛ /ˌnvə ˈskʃə/ NOH-və SKOH-shə) هي واحدة من ثلاثة عشر مقاطعة وإقليم في كندا. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland". Most of the population are native English-speakers.

نوڤا سكوشا

New Scotland  (إنگليزية)
Nouvelle-Écosse  (فرنسية)[1]
الشعار: 
Munit Hæc et Altera Vincit
(باللاتينية: One defends and the other conquers)
الإحداثيات: 45°00′00″N 62°59′58″W / 45.00000°N 62.99944°W / 45.00000; -62.99944Coordinates: 45°00′00″N 62°59′58″W / 45.00000°N 62.99944°W / 45.00000; -62.99944
البلدكندا
Confederation1 July 1867 (1st, with Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick)
العاصمةHalifax
Largest cityHalifax
Largest metroHalifax
الحكومة
 • النوعConstitutional monarchy
 • Lieutenant GovernorArthur LeBlanc
 • PremierIain Rankin (Liberal)
LegislatureNova Scotia House of Assembly
التمثيل الاتحاديParliament of Canada
المقاعد بمجلس العموم11 of 338 (3.3%)
المقاعد بمجلس الشيوخ10 of 105 (9.5%)
المساحة
 • الإجمالي55٬284 كم² (21٬345 ميل²)
 • البر52٬942 كم² (20٬441 ميل²)
 • الماء2٬342 كم² (904 ميل²)  4.2%
ترتيب المساحةRanked 12th
 0.6% of Canada
التعداد
 (2016)
 • الإجمالي923٬598 [2][3]
 • Estimate 
(2021 Q1)
979٬449 [4]
 • الترتيبRanked 7th
 • الكثافة17٫45/km2 (45٫2/sq mi)
صفة المواطنNova Scotian, Bluenoser
Official languagesEnglish (de facto)[5]
GDP
 • Rank7th
 • Total (2016)قالب:CAD billion[6]
 • Per capitaقالب:CAD (12th)
HDI
 • HDI (2018)0.895[7]Very high (11th)
منطقة التوقيتUTC-04:00 (Atlantic)
Postal abbr.
NS
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 codeCA-NS
FlowerMayflower
TreeRed spruce
BirdOsprey
Rankings include all provinces and territories

With a population of 923,598 as of 2016,[2] it is the most populous of Canada's four Atlantic provinces. It is the country's second-most densely populated province and second-smallest province by area, both after neighbouring Prince Edward Island.[2] Its area of 55,284 kiloمتر مربعs (21,345 ميل2) includes Cape Breton Island and 3,800 other coastal islands. The peninsula that makes up Nova Scotia's mainland is connected to the rest of North America by the Isthmus of Chignecto, on which the province's land border with New Brunswick is located. The province borders the Bay of Fundy to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and east, and is separated from Prince Edward Island and the island of Newfoundland by the Northumberland and Cabot straits, respectively.

The land that comprises what is now Nova Scotia has been inhabited by the indigenous Miꞌkmaq people for thousands of years. In 1605, Acadia, France's first New France colony, was founded with the creation of Acadia's capital, Port-Royal. Britain fought France for the territory on numerous occasions for over a century afterwards. The Fortress of Louisbourg was a key focus point in the battle for control. Following the Great Upheaval (1755-1763) where the British deported the Acadians in mass, the Conquest of New France (1758-1760) by the British, and the Treaty of Paris (1763), France had to surrender Acadia to the British Empire. During the American Revolutionary War, thousands of Loyalists settled in Nova Scotia. In 1848, Nova Scotia became the first British colony to achieve responsible government, and it federated in July 1867 with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec) to form what is now the country of Canada.

Nova Scotia's capital and largest city is Halifax, which today is home to about 45 percent of the province's population. Halifax is the thirteenth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada,[8] the largest city in Atlantic Canada, and Canada's second-largest coastal city after Vancouver.

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أصل الاسم

"Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin[9] and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland" (French: Nouvelle-Écosse. Gaelic: Alba Nuadh). In general, Romance and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name.

The province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.[10]


التاريخ

 
During the colonial period, Nova Scotia issued its own postage stamps printed in England. This distinctive diamond shape (issued between 1851 and 1857) was also used by neighbouring New Brunswick.
 
Nova Scotia stamp issued 1860.

الجغرافيا

تبلغ مساحة الولاية حوالي 55,000 كيلومترا مربعا، وسكانها حوالي مليون نسمة، وعاصمتها مدينة هاليفاكس، وأهم مدنها دارتموت، وسيدني، ومينز. تكثر بالولاية السهول المتموجة ، والأراض الصالحة للزراعة.

المناخ

مناخها أحسن حالاً من داخل كندا بسبب المؤثرات البحرية، فالصيف دافيء تطول مدته وهذا أعطى مجالا للإنتاج الزراعي. تقدر مساحة غاباتها لحوالي 15,555 كيلو مترا مربعا، وقدر إنتاجها من الأسماك بحوالي 263 مليون دولار سنوي، وبلغ إجمالي الناتج المحلي للمقاطعة حوالي 31 مليار دولار أمريكي.

الأعاصير والعواصف الإستوائية

الإقتصاد

إنَّ صناعة الخدمات هي النشاط الاقتصادي الأساسي في نوفا سكوتيا وتشمل: التعليم، والحكومة، والفنادق، والمطاعم، كما أن صناعة الأغذية هامة لاقتصاد المقاطعة. وتحتل نوفا سكوتيا مركز الصدارة بين المقاطعات في تعدين الجبس، وتحتل المركز الثالث في إنتاج الفحم الحجري والملح.

الحكومة والسياسة

 
Halifax, provincial capital

التعليم

 
A satellite photo of Nova Scotia.

السكان والثقافة

احصائيات السكان

Top Ten Counties by Population

County 2001 2006
Halifax (county) 359,183 372,858
Cape Breton (county) 109,330 105,928
Kings County 58,866 60,035
Colchester County 49,307 50,023
Lunenburg County 47,591 47,150
Pictou County 46,965 46,513
Hants County 40,513 41,182
Cumberland County 32,605 32,046
Yarmouth County 26,843 26,277
Annapolis County 21,773 21,438

اللغات

Rank Language Respondants Percentage
1. English 832,105 92.53%
2. French 32,540 3.62%
3. Arabic 4,425 0.49%
4. Mi'kmaq 4,060 0.45%
5. German 4,045 0.45%
6. Chinese 3,370 0.37%
7. Dutch 2,440 0.27%
8. Polish 1,570 0.17%
9. Spanish 1,305 0.15%
10. Greek 1,035 0.12%
11. Italian 905 0.10%
12. Korean 860 0.10%
13. Gaelic 799 0.10%
 
Peggys Cove Harbour

الفنون والثقافة

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نوفا سكوتيا في الثقافة الشعبية

السياحة

 
The lighthouse situated on Peggys Point, immediately south of Peggys Cove.

وصلات خارجية

الوصلات الرسمية

المصادر

  • الأقليات المسلمة في الأمريكتين والبحر الكاريبي – سيد عبد المجيد بكر .

الدراسات الإستقصائية

منذ عام 1900

  • Beck, J. Murray. Politics of Nova Scotia. vol 2: 1896-1988. Tantallon, N.S.: Four East 1985 438 pp.
  • Bickerton, James P. Nova Scotia, Ottawa and the Politics of Regional Development. U. of Toronto Press 1990. 412 pp.
  • Creighton, Wilfred. Forestkeeping: A History of the Department of Lands and Forests in Nova Scotia, 1926-1969. Halifax: Nova Scotia Dept. of Lands and Forests, 1988. 155 pp.
  • Earle, Michael, ed. Workers and the State in Twentieth Century Nova Scotia. Fredericton: Acadiensis, 1989.
  • Frank, David. J. B. McLachlan: A Biography - the Story of a Legendary Labour Leader and the Cape Breton Coal Miners. Toronto: Lorimer, 1999. 592 pp.
  • Fraser, Dawn. Echoes from Labor's Wars: The Expanded Edition, Industrial Cape Breton in the 1920's, Echoes of World War One, Autobiography and Other Writings. Wreck Cove, N.S.: Breton Books, 1992. 177 pp.
  • McKay, Ian. The Quest of the Folk: Antimodernism and Cultural Selection in Twentieth-Century Nova Scotia. McGill-Queen's U. Pr., 1994. 371 pp.
  • McKay, Ian. The Craft Transformed: An Essay on the Carpenters of Halifax, 1885-1985. Halifax, N.S.: Holdfast, 1985. 148 pp.
  • March, William DesB. Red Line: The Chronicle-Herald and Mail-Star, 1875-1954. Halifax, N.S.: Chebucto Agencies, 1986. 415 pp.
  • Morton, Suzanne. Ideal Surroundings: Domestic Life in a Working-Class Suburb in the 1920s. U. of Toronto Pr., 1995. 201 pp. about Richmond Heights
  • Sandberg, L. Anders and Clancy, Peter. Against the Grain: Foresters and Politics in Nova Scotia. U. of British Columbia Pr., 2000. 352 pp.
  • Sandberg, L. Anders, ed. Trouble in the Woods: Forest Policy and Social Conflict in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Fredericton, N.B.: Acadiensis, 1992. 234 pp.

قبل عام 1900

  • Beck, J. Murray. Joseph Howe Volumes I & II : Conservative Reformer 1804-1848; The Briton Becomes Canadian 1848-1873 (1984)
  • Beck, J. Murray. Politics of Nova Scotia. vol 1 1710-1896 Tantallon, N.S.: Four East 1985 438 pp.
  • Bell, Winthrop P. The "Foreign Protestants" and the Settlement of Nova Scotia: The History of a Piece of Arrested British Colonial Policy in the Eighteenth Century. (1961). reprint Fredericton, N.B.: Acadiensis for Mount Allison U., Cen. for Can. Studies, 1990. 673 pp.
  • Brebner, John Bartlet. New England's Outpost. Acadia before the Conquest of Canada (1927)
  • Brebner, John Bartlet. The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal Colony During the Revolutionary Years (1937)
  • Byers, Mary and McBurney, Margaret. Atlantic Hearth: Early Homes and Families of Nova Scotia. U. of Toronto Press, 1994. 364 pp.
  • Campey, Lucille H. After the Hector: The Scottish Pioneers of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Toronto: Natural Heritage Books, 2004. 376 pp.
  • J. A. Chisholm, ed. Speeches and Public Letters of Joseph Howe 2 vol Halifax, 1909
  • Conrad, Margaret and Moody, Barry, ed. Planter Links: Community and Culture in Colonial Nova Scotia. Fredericton, : Acadiensis, 2001. 236 pp.
  • Conrad, Margaret, ed. Intimate Relations: Family and Community in Planter Nova Scotia, 1759-1800. Fredericton, : Acadiensis, 1995. 298 pp.
  • Conrad, Margaret, ed. Making Adjustments: Change and Continuity in Planter Nova Scotia, 1759-1800. Fredericton: Acadiensis, 1991. 280 pp.
  • Cuthbertson, Brian. Johnny Bluenose at the Polls: Epic Nova Scotian Election Battles, 1758-1848. Halifax: Formac, 1994. 344 pp.
  • Donald A. Desserud; "Outpost's Response: The Language and Politics of Moderation in Eighteenth-Century Nova Scotia" American Review of Canadian Studies, Vol. 29, 1999 online
  • Faragher, John Mack. A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from Their American Homeland (2006)
  • Frost, James D. Merchant Princes: Halifax's First Family of Finance, Ships, and Steel Toronto: Lorimer, 2003. 376 pp.
  • Gwyn, Julian. Excessive Expectations: Maritime Commerce and the Economic Development of Nova Scotia, 1740-1870 McGill-Queen's U. Pr., 1998. 291 pp.
  • Hornsby, Stephen J. Nineteenth-Century Cape Breton: A Historical Geography. McGill-Queen's U. Pr., 1992. 274 pp.
  • Johnston, A. J. B. Control and Order in French Colonial Louisbourg, 1713-1758. Michigan State U. Pr., 2001. 346 pp.
  • Krause, Eric; Corbin, Carol; and O'Shea, William, ed. Aspects of Louisbourg: Essays on the History of an Eighteenth-Century French Community in North America. Sydney, N.S.: U. Coll. of Cape Breton Pr., 1995. 312 pp.
  • Lanctôt, Léopold. L'Acadie des Origines, 1603-1771 Montreal: Fleuve, 1988. 234 pp.
  • McKay, Ian. The Craft Transformed: An Essay on the Carpenters of Halifax, 1885-1985. Halifax, N.S.: Holdfast, 1985. 148 pp.
  • MacKinnon, Neil. This Unfriendly Soil: The Loyalist Experience in Nova Scotia, 1783-1791. McGill-Queen's U. Pr., 1986. 231 pp.
  • Mancke, Elizabeth. The Fault Lines of Empire: Political Differentiation in Massachusetts and Nova Scotia, ca. 1760-1830 Routledge, 2005. 214 pp. online
  • Marble, Allan Everett. Surgeons, Smallpox, and the Poor: A History of Medicine and Social Conditions in Nova Scotia, 1749-1799. McGill-Queen's U. Pr., 1993. 356 pp.
  • Pryke, Kenneth G. Nova Scotia and Confederation, 1864-74 (1979) (ISBN 0-8020-5389-0)
  • Reid, John G. et al. The "Conquest" of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial, and Aboriginal Constructions. U. of Toronto Pr., 2004. 297 pp.
  • Waite, P. B. The Lives of Dalhousie University. Vol. 1: 1818-1925, Lord Dalhousie's College. McGill-Queen's U. Pr., 1994. 338 pp.
  • Walker, James W. St. G. The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783-1870. (1976). reprint U. of Toronto Pr., 1992. 438 pp
  • Whitelaw, William Menzies; The Maritimes and Canada before Confederation (1934) online

الهوامش

  1. ^ Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada. "Place names - Nouvelle-Écosse / Nova Scotia". www4.rncan.gc.ca. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  2. ^ أ ب ت "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 census". Statcan.gc.ca. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  3. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statcan.gc.ca. 24 January 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
  4. ^ "Population by year of Canada of Canada and territories". Statistics Canada. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  5. ^ "The Legal Context of Canada's Official Languages". University of Ottawa. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  6. ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2013)". Statistics Canada. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  7. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  8. ^ "Nova Scotia". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  9. ^ Scottish Settlement Archived 7 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Novascotia.com. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  10. ^ Nova Scotia: The Royal Charter of 1621 to Sir William Alexander. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (Reprinted from the Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute, Vol. XIV, Part 1). 1922.

وصلات خارجية