لتوانيا

(تم التحويل من Lithuania)

ليتوانيا (باللتوانية: Lietuva) هي أكبر دولة من دول البلطيق الثلاث وإحدى جمهوريات الاتحاد السوفياتي السابق إلا إنها ليست من دول شرقي أوروبا فلتوانيا ولاتفيا وإستونيا هي من دول أوروبا الشمالية ولذلك شعوب دول البلطيق مختلفين ثقافياً ولغوياً وجغرافيا عن الشعوب في أوروبا الشرقية.

Republic of Lithuania

Lietuvos Respublika  (لتوانية)
علم لتوانيا
العلم
Coat of arms of Lithuania
الدرع
النشيد: Tautiška giesmė
(بالإنگليزية: "National Hymn")
EU-Lithuania.svg
Lithuania in the world (W3).svg
موقع  لتوانيا  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

العاصمة
و أكبر مدينة
Vilnius
54°41′N 25°19′E / 54.683°N 25.317°E / 54.683; 25.317
اللغات الرسميةLithuanian[1]
الجماعات العرقية
(2021[2])
الدين
(2021[3])
صفة المواطنLithuanian
الحكومةUnitary semi-presidential republic[4][5][6][7]
• President
Gitanas Nausėda
Ingrida Šimonytė
Viktorija Čmilytė-Nielsen
التشريعSeimas
Formation
9 March 1009
1236
• Coronation of Mindaugas
6 July 1253
2 February 1386
• Commonwealth created
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
16 February 1918
11 March 1990
• Admitted to NATO
29 March 2004
• Joined the EU
1 May 2004
المساحة
• الإجمالية
65,300 kم2 (25,200 ميل2) (121st)
• الماء (%)
1.98 (2015)[8]
التعداد
• تقدير 2021
زيادة محايدة 2,795,680[9] (137th)
• الكثافة
43/كم2 (111.4/ميل2) (138th)
ن.م.إ. (ق.ش.م.)تقدير 2021 
• الإجمالي
$107 billion[10] (83rd)
• للفرد
$41,288[10] (34th)
ن.م.إ.  (الإسمي)تقدير 2021 
• الإجمالي
$56 billion[10] (80th)
• للفرد
$22,412[11] (54th)
جيني (2019) 35.4[12]
medium
م.ت.ب. (2019) 0.882[13]
very high · 34th
العملةEuro () (EUR)
التوقيتUTC+2 (EET)
• الصيفي (التوقيت الصيفي)
UTC+3 (EEST)
صيغة التاريخyyyy-mm-dd (CE)
جانب السواقةright
مفتاح الهاتف+370
النطاق العلوي للإنترنت.lta
الموقع الإلكتروني
lithuania.lt
  1. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24

مدن لتوانيا

انضمت لتوانيا إلى الاتحاد الاوروبي عام 2004. تحدها لاتفيا من الشمال، روسيا البيضاء من الشرق والجنوب، بولندا من الجنوب الغربي وإقليم كاليننگراد الروسي وبحر البلطيق من الغرب.

For millennia the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, founding the Kingdom of Lithuania on 6 July 1253. In the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe;[14] present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were all lands of the Grand Duchy. The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were in a de facto personal union from 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, who was crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries dismantled it in 1772–1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I ended, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, founding the modern Republic of Lithuania. In World War II, Lithuania was occupied first by the Soviet Union and then by Nazi Germany. Towards the end of the war in 1944, when the Germans were retreating, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. Lithuanian armed resistance to the Soviet occupation lasted until the early 1950s. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania passed the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania, becoming the first Soviet republic to proclaim its independence.[15]

Lithuania is a developed country, with a high income advanced economy; ranking very high in the Human Development Index. It ranks favourably in terms of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance, and peacefulness. Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, eurozone, the Nordic Investment Bank, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD. It participates in the Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8) regional co-operation format and is a permanent observer of Nordic Council.

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أصل الاسم

 
Lithuania's name in writing, 1009

The first known record of the name of Lithuania (لتوانية: Lietuva) is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno in the Quedlinburg Chronicle.[16] The Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua[17] (pronounced [litua]). Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions.[18]

Since Lietuva has a suffix (-uva), the original word should have no suffix.[18] A likely candidate is Lietā. Because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. Usually, such names evolved through the following process: hydronym → toponym → ethnonym.[19] Lietava, a small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the eventual Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is usually credited as the source of the name.[19] However, the river is very small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. On the other hand, such naming is not unprecedented in world history.[20]

Artūras Dubonis proposed another hypothesis,[21] that Lietuva relates to the word leičiai (plural of leitis). From the middle of the 13th century, leičiai were a distinct warrior social group of the Lithuanian society subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself. The word leičiai is used in the 14–16th century historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians (but not Samogitians) and is still used, usually poetically or in historical contexts, in the Latvian language, which is closely related to Lithuanian.[22][23][24]


الجغرافيا

يبلغ طول الساحل حوالي 100 كم، فقط 38 كم منه يقع مباشرة على بحر البلطيق. الباقي تُشكله بحيرة كورسيو (Kuršių) التي يفصلها شريط ضيق عن البحر. أهم أنهر البلاد هو نيموناس (Nemunas)، التي تُستخدم بعض أجزاءه للملاحة النهرية. تضاريس البلاد بشكل عام سهلية ما عدا بعض الهضاب في الغرب والشرق لا يتعدى علوها 300 متر، مع اعتبار جوزابينس (Juozapinės) ب 292 متر أعلى نقطة في لتوانيا. الأرض مغطاة بالعديد من البحيرات والغابات (التي تُشكل 30% من المساحة). المناخ هو خليط من المناخ الساحلي والقاري، مع فصول معتدلة وممطرة على مدار العام. العاصمة فيلنيوس تقع على بعد كيلومترات عدة من نقطة الوسط الجغرافي في أوروبا.

 
صورة ساتلية

البيئة

Typical Lithuanian flatlands with lakes, swamps and forests. Thousands of various lakes lie in Lithuania and create magnificent sights from the bird's eye view.
Sand dunes of the Curonian Spit near Nida, which are the highest drifting sand dunes in Europe (UNESCO World Heritage Site).[25]


التنوع الحيوي

 
White stork is the national bird of Lithuania[26] which has the highest-density stork population in Europe.[27]


السكان

حوالي 83.5% من سكان البلاد هم لتوانيون و يتحدثون اللتوانية. هناك بعض الأقليات الأخرى، أهمها الروسية (6%)، البولندية (6%) و الروسية البيضاء (1.5%).

اللغة

اللتوانية هي لغة البلاد الرسمية. يُشار إلى اللتوانية كلغة البلطيق أحياناً. اللغة تتبع اللغات الهندو-أوروبية.

الديانة

الكاثوليكية هو الدين السائد في البلاد، الأرثوذوكسية والبروتستانتينية و اليهودية إضافة لاقلية مسلمة تتارية هم الأديان الباقية في لتوانيا.

الأعياد والعطل

العطل الرسمية هي رأس السنة الميلادية (الأول من كانون الثاني/يناير)، يوم إعادة تأسيس الجمهورية (6 شباط/فبراير)، الاستقلال عن الاتحاد السوفياتي (11 آذار/مارسعيد الفصح، عيد العمال (الأول من أيار/مايو) ، عيد تنصيب الملك (6 تموز/يوليوعيد رفع مريم العذراء (15 آب/أغسطسعيد جميع القديسين (الأول من تشرين الثاني/نوفمبر) و ليلة و عيد الميلاد المجيد (25-26 كانون الأول/ديسمبر).


التاريخ

 
عنبر البلطيق كان لحين سلعة تجارية قيمة. It was transported from the region of modern-day Lithuania to the Roman Empire and Egypt through the Amber Road.

The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: Kunda, Neman and Narva cultures.[28] They were traveling hunters and did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, and forests developed. The inhabitants of what is now Lithuania then travelled less and engaged in local hunting, gathering and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land. Crafts and trade also started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes.[29]

The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire,[30] but they did maintain trade contacts (see Amber Road). Tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were probably Balts, around the year 97 AD. The Western Balts differentiated and became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingians, and early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old Prussians, Curonians and Semigallians.[31]

The Lithuanian language is considered to be very conservative for its close connection to Indo-European roots. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian language, the most closely related existing language, around the 7th century.[32] Traditional Lithuanian pagan customs and mythology, with many archaic elements, were long preserved. Rulers' bodies were cremated up until the conversion to Christianity: the descriptions of the cremation ceremonies of the grand dukes Algirdas and Kęstutis have survived.[33]

گراندوقية لتوانيا

 
Changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th to 15th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe.[14] Lithuania's strength was its toleration of various cultures and religions.[34]

توسعت الدولة الليتوانية في القرن الخامس عشر حتى وصلت حدودها إلى موسكو والبحر الأسود يوماً ما. شكلت ليتوانيا و بولندا اتحادا اسميا عام 1384، والذي استمر حوالي أربعة قرون من الزمن.

 
The victory of the Polish-Lithuanian forces over the Muscovites at the Battle of Orsha in 1514


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الكومنولث الپولندي-اللتواني

 
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius, marked 6, in 1600

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was created in 1569 by the Union of Lublin. As a member of the Commonwealth, Lithuania retained its institutions, including a separate army, currency, and statutory laws – the Statute of Lithuania.[35] Eventually Polonization affected all aspects of Lithuanian life: politics, language, culture, and national identity. From the mid-16th to the mid-17th centuries, culture, arts, and education flourished, fueled by the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation. From 1573, the Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania were elected by the nobility, who were granted ever-increasing Golden Liberties. These liberties, especially the liberum veto, led to anarchy and the eventual dissolution of the state.

The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century. Its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War; this neutrality spared the country from the ravages of a political-religious conflict that devastated most of contemporary Europe. The Commonwealth held its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, and vassals of the Ottoman Empire, and even launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbours. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege.[36]

 
Emilia Plater, often nicknamed as a Lithuanian Joan of Arc, leading peasant scythemen during the 1831 uprising

الامبراطورية الروسية

 
Bishop Motiejus Valančius resisted Russification. He urged protest against the closing of Catholic churches and organised book printing in Lithuanian in Lithuania Minor

Eventually, the Commonwealth was partitioned in 1772, 1792, and 1795 by the Russian Empire, Prussia, and the Habsburg monarchy.


دخلت البلاد عام 1795 تحت السيطرة الروسية. الألمان احتلوا ليتوانيا وجمهوريات البلطيق عام 1915 م أثناء الحرب العالمية الأولى(1914-1915). في عام 1918 أُعلن الاستقلال. اعترف الاتحاد السوفياتي بليتوانيا عام 1920 و أُعلن قيام جمهورية برلمانية. انضمت دول البلطيق الثلاث إلى عصبة الأمم المتحدة عام 1921. اتفاق هتلر-ستالين عام 1939 أعطى الضوء الأخضر للاتحاد السوفيتي باحتلال جمهوريات البلطيق ومن ضمنها ليتوانيا، الذي تم في عام 1940 أثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية (1939-1945) بدون أي سابق انذار. بعد نشوب الحرب بين ألمانيا والاتحاد السوفيتي، قامت الأولى باحتلال جمهوريات البلطيق عام 1941، إلى أن أعاد الجيش الأحمر احتلالهم و إعادتهم تحت سيطرة الاتحاد السوفيتي.

تماماً كجمهوريات البلطيق الأخرى بقي تاريخ ليتوانيا جزء من التاريخ السوفياتي في السنوات المقبلة حتى الأعوام 1988 -1990، عندما بدأ الاتحاد السوفيتي بالانهيار و تزايد الأصوات المطالبة باستقلال البلاد. ليتوانيا أعلنت استقلالها عام 1990، رفض الاتحاد السوفياتي الأمر في البداية وأرسل قوات عسكرية سوفياتية لفرض السيطرة ولكنه مع تزايد الضغوطات الدولية، اعترف في العام التالي بالجمهورية الجديدة. انضمت ليتوانيا إلى الأمم المتحدة عام 1991 وإلى الاتحاد الاوروبي عام 2004.

1990–الحاضر

On 11 March 1990, the Supreme Council announced the restoration of Lithuania's independence.[37] After refusal to revoke the Act, the Soviet forces stormed the Seimas Palace, while Lithuanians defended their democratically elected Council. The Act was the first such declaration in the USSR and later served as a model, inspiration to other Soviet republics, and strongly influenced the dissolution of the USSR.
 
On 13 January 1991, Soviet forces fired live rounds at unarmed independence supporters and crushed two of them with tanks, killing 13 in total. To this day, Russia refuses to extradite the perpetrators, who were convicted of war crimes.[38]



السياسة

 
المقاطعات اللتوانية

النظام السياسي

الرئيس هو أعلى منصب سياسي في البلاد، يُنتخب مباشرة كل خمس سنوات و يشغل أيضاً منصب القائد العام للقوات المسلحة. كما يقوم رئيس البلاد تعيين رئيس الوزراء بعض موافقة البرلمان عليه، اللذي بدوره يُشكل الحكومة و يُعين عدد من القضاة و الموظفين المدنيين الكبار. لدى البرلمان الليتواني (Seimas) عدد أعضاء يبلغ 141 عضواً ، يتم انتخابهم كل أربعة سنوات. كل حزب يجب أن يحصل على نسبة 5% على الأقل في الانتخابات ليستطيع تمثيل نفسه بالبرلمان. أهم أحزاب البلاد هم: حزب الوطن ، حزب العمال ، حزب الليبرالي الديمقراطي ، حزب الوسط الليبرالي و الحزب الاشتراكي الجديد.

التقسيم الاداري وأهم المدن

لتوانيا مقسمة إلى ١٠ مقاطعات (باللتوانية: apskritys)، تأتي تسميتهم نسبة إلى عواصمهم:

العاصمة هي ڤلنيوس (541,٦00 نسمة /عام ٢٠٠٣). أهم المدن الأخرى: كلايپيدا (192.000 نسمة /عام ٢٠٠٣) و كاوناس (374.000 نسمة /عام ٢٠٠٣) .

The current system of administrative division was established in 1994 and modified in 2000 to meet the requirements of the European Union. The country's 10 counties (Lithuanian: singular – apskritis, plural – apskritys) are subdivided into 60 municipalities (Lithuanian: singular – savivaldybė, plural – savivaldybės), and further divided into 500 elderships (Lithuanian: singular – seniūnija, plural – seniūnijos).

Municipalities have been the most important unit of administration in Lithuania since the system of county governorship (apskrities viršininkas) was dissolved in 2010.[39] Some municipalities are historically called "district municipalities" (often shortened to "district"), while others are called "city municipalities" (sometimes shortened to "city"). Each has its own elected government. The election of municipality councils originally occurred every three years, but now takes place every four years. The council appoints elders to govern the elderships. Mayors have been directly elected since 2015; prior to that, they were appointed by the council.[40]

Elderships, numbering over 500, are the smallest administrative units and do not play a role in national politics. They provide necessary local public services—for example, registering births and deaths in rural areas. They are most active in the social sector, identifying needy individuals or families and organizing and distributing welfare and other forms of relief.[41] Some citizens feel that elderships have no real power and receive too little attention, and that they could otherwise become a source of local initiative for addressing rural problems.[42]

المقاطعة المساحة (كم²) التعداد (بالآلاف) (2019)[43] ن.م.أ. اسمي (مليار يورو)[43] ن.م.ا للفرد (يورو)[43]
مقاطعة أليتوس 5,425 134 1.4 10,600
مقاطعة كاوناس 8,089 562 10.2 18,000
مقاطعة كلايپيدا 5,209 319 5.3 16,400
مقاطعة مريامپولى 4,463 136 1.5 10,800
Panevėžys County 7,881 221 2.7 13,000
Šiauliai County 8,540 261 3.5 13,400
مقاطعة تاوراگى 4,411 91 0.9 9,700
Telšiai County 4,350 130 1.6 12,600
مقاطعة أوتنا 7,201 124 1.3 10,500
مقاطعة ڤلنيوس 9,731 820 21.1 25,600
لتوانيا 65,300 2,828 49.5 17,600


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الاقتصاد و البنية التحتية

انضمام ليتوانيا إلى الاتحاد الأوروبي عام 2004، ساهم كثيراً في دفع عجلة النمو الاقتصادي في البلاد. أهم الصناعات هم الأثاث، المنسوجات و المواد الغذائية. 80% من الكهرباء المنتجة في البلاد تتم من خلال المفاعلات النووية. بذللك تكون ليتوانيا (الى جانب فرنسا) من أكثر الدول في العالم يتم انتاج طاقتهم بإستخدام الطاقة النووية.

تملك البلاد شبكة طرق جيدة. المدن الرئيسية: فيلينيوس، كاوناس و كلابيدا موصولة فيما بينهم بطريق سريع. يوجد ميناء بحري هام في كلابيدا، يقوم بخدمة منطقة بحر البلطيق بأكملها.

الثقافة

تقع ليتوانيا في منطقة ثقافية متنوعة الأصول، ففي مناطق العاصمة تتنشر الثقافة البولندية، بينما في مدن الساحل يكثر تأثير الثقافات الاسكندنافية والألمانية. يرى المرء عدة أنمطة عمارة في البلاد، تعود أصولها إلى التأثير الكاثوليكي.

المدينة القديمة للعاصمة فلنيوس هي إحدى مدن اليونسكو المحمية.

اللغة اللتوانية

A priest, lexicographer Konstantinas Sirvydas – cherisher of Lithuanian language in the 17th century.
Jonas Jablonskis is the father of standard Lithuanian language.

اللغة اللتوانية (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.96 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania and about 0.2 million abroad.

Lithuanian is a Baltic language, closely related to Latvian, although they are not mutually intelligible. It is written in an adapted version of the Roman script. Lithuanian is believed to be the linguistically most conservative living Indo-European tongue, retaining many features of Proto Indo-European.[44] Lithuanian language studies are important for comparative linguistics and for reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European language.[45] Lithuanian was studied by linguists such as Franz Bopp, August Schleicher, Adalbert Bezzenberger, Louis Hjelmslev,[46] Ferdinand de Saussure,[47] Winfred P. Lehmann, Vladimir Toporov[48] and others.

 
The earliest known Lithuanian glosses (between 1520 and 1530) written in the margins of Johannes Herolt book Liber Discipuli de eruditione Christifidelium. Words: teprÿdav[ſ]ʒÿ (let it strike), vbagÿſte (indigence)

There are two main dialects of the Lithuanian language: Aukštaitian dialect and Samogitian dialect. Aukštaitian dialect is mainly used in the central, southern and eastern parts of Lithuania while Samogitian dialect is used in the western part of the country.[49] The Samogitian dialect also has many completely different words and is even considered a separate language by some linguists.[50] Nowadays, the distinguishing feature between the two main Lithuanian dialects is the unequal pronunciation of accented and unaccented two-vowels uo and ie.[49]

The groundwork for written Lithuanian was laid in 16th and 17th centuries by Lithuanian noblemen and scholars, who promoted Lithuanian language, created dictionaries and published books – Mikalojus Daukša, Stanislovas Rapolionis, Abraomas Kulvietis, Jonas Bretkūnas, Martynas Mažvydas, Konstantinas Sirvydas, Simonas Vaišnoras-Varniškis.[51] The first grammar book of the Lithuanian language Grammatica Litvanica was published in Latin in 1653 by Danielius Kleinas.

Jonas Jablonskis' works and activities are especially important for the Lithuanian literature moving from the use of dialects to a standard Lithuanian language. The linguistic material which he collected was published in the 20 volumes of Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian and is still being used in research and in editing of texts and books. He also introduced the letter ū into Lithuanian writing.[52]

الأدب

 
The first Lithuanian printed book Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas (1547, Königsberg)
 
The title page of Radivilias (1592, Vilnius). The poem celebrating commander Mikalojus Radvila Rudasis (1512–1584) and recounts the famous victory of Lithuanian Armed Forces over Moscow troops (1564).[53]

There is a great deal of Lithuanian literature written in Latin, the main scholarly language of the Middle Ages. The edicts of the Lithuanian King Mindaugas is the prime example of the literature of this kind. The Letters of Gediminas are another crucial heritage of the Lithuanian Latin writings.

One of the first Lithuanian authors who wrote in Latin was Nicolaus Hussovianus (around 1480 – after 1533). His poem Carmen de statura, feritate ac venatione bisontis (A Song about the Appearance, Savagery and Hunting of the Bison), published in 1523, describes the Lithuanian landscape, way of life and customs, touches on some actual political problems, and reflects the clash of paganism and Christianity. A person under the pseudonym lt (Michalo Lituanus) (around 1490 – 1560) wrote a treatise De moribus tartarorum, lituanorum et moscorum (On the Customs of Tatars, Lithuanians and Muscovites) in the middle of the 16th century, but it was not published until 1615. An extraordinary figure in the cultural life of Lithuania in the 16th century was the lawyer and poet of Spanish origin Petrus Roysius Maurus Alcagnicensis (around 1505 – 1571). The publicist, lawyer, and mayor of Vilnius, Augustinus Rotundus (around 1520 -1582) wrote a no longer existent history of Lithuania in Latin around the year 1560. loannes Radvanus, a humanist poet of the second half of the 16th century, wrote an epic poem imitating the Aeneid of Vergil. His Radivilias, intended to become the Lithuanian national epic, was published in Vilnius in 1588.[54]

17th century Lithuanian scholars also wrote in Latin – Kazimieras Kojelavičius-Vijūkas, Žygimantas Liauksminas are known for their Latin writings in theology, rhetorics and music. Albertas Kojalavičius-Vijūkas wrote first printed Lithuanian history Historia Lithuania.

Lithuanian literary works in the Lithuanian language started being first published in the 16th century. In 1547 Martynas Mažvydas compiled and published the first printed Lithuanian book Katekizmo prasti žodžiai (The Simple Words of Catechism), which marks the beginning of literature, printed in Lithuanian. He was followed by Mikalojus Daukša with Katechizmas. In the 16th and 17th centuries, as in the whole Christian Europe, Lithuanian literature was primarily religious.

The evolution of the old (14th–18th century) Lithuanian literature ends with Kristijonas Donelaitis, one of the most prominent authors of the Age of Enlightenment. Donelaitis' poem Metai (The Seasons) is a landmark of the Lithuanian fiction literature, written in hexameter.[55]

With a mix of Classicism, Sentimentalism and Romanticism, the Lithuanian literature of the first half of the 19th century is represented by Maironis, Antanas Baranauskas, Simonas Daukantas, Oscar Milosz, and Simonas Stanevičius.[55] During the Tsarist annexation of Lithuania in the 19th century, the Lithuanian press ban was implemented, which led to the formation of the Knygnešiai (Book smugglers) movement. This movement is thought to be the very reason the Lithuanian language and literature survived until today.

20th-century Lithuanian literature is represented by Juozas Tumas-Vaižgantas, Antanas Vienuolis, Bernardas Brazdžionis, Antanas Škėma, Balys Sruoga, Vytautas Mačernis and Justinas Marcinkevičius.

In 21st century debuted Kristina Sabaliauskaitė, Renata Šerelytė, Valdas Papievis, Laura Sintija Černiauskaitė, Rūta Šepetys.

العمارة

Several famous Lithuania-related architects are notable for their achievements in the field of architecture. Johann Christoph Glaubitz, Marcin Knackfus, Laurynas Gucevičius and Karol Podczaszyński were instrumental in introducing Baroque and neoclassical architectural movements to the Lithuanian architecture during the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries.[56] Vilnius is considered as a capital of the Eastern Europe Baroque.[57] Vilnius Old Town that is full of astonishing Baroque churches and other buildings is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[58]

 
Gryčia (traditional dwelling house, built in the 19th century)

Lithuania is also known for numerous castles. About twenty castles exist in Lithuania. Some castles had to be rebuilt or survive partially. Many Lithuanian nobles' historic palaces and manor houses have remained till the nowadays and were reconstructed.[59] Lithuanian village life has existed since the days of Vytautas the Great. Zervynos and Kapiniškės are two of many ethnographic villages in Lithuania.[60] Rumšiškės is an open space museum where old ethnographic architecture is preserved.

During the interwar period, Art Deco, Lithuanian National Romanticism architectural style buildings were constructed in the Lithuania's temporary capital Kaunas. Its architecture is regarded as one of the finest examples of the European Art Deco and has received the European Heritage Label.[61]

الفنون والمتاحف

 
Kings' Fairy Tale (1908–1909) by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis

The Lithuanian Art Museum was founded in 1933 and is the largest museum of art conservation and display in Lithuania.[62] Among other important museums are the Palanga Amber Museum, where amber pieces comprise a major part of the collection, National Gallery of Art, presenting collection of Lithuanian art of the 20th and 21st century, National Museum of Lithuania presenting Lithuanian archaeology, history and ethnic culture. In 2018 two private museums were opened – MO Museum devoted to modern and contemporary Lithuanian art and Tartle,[63] exhibiting a collection of Lithuanian art heritage and artefacts.

Perhaps the most renowned figure in Lithuania's art community was the composer Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875–1911), an internationally renowned musician. The 2420 Čiurlionis asteroid, identified in 1975, honors his achievements. The M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum, as well as the only military museum in Lithuania, Vytautas the Great War Museum, are located in Kaunas. Franciszek Smuglewicz, Jan Rustem, Józef Oleszkiewicz and Kanuty Rusiecki are the most prominent Lithuanian painters of the 18th and 19th centuries.[64]

المسرح

Lithuania has some very famous theatre directors well known in the country and abroad. One of them is Oskaras Koršunovas. He was awarded more than forty times with special prizes. Possibly most prestigious award is Swedish Commander Grand Cross: Order of the Polar Star.[65] Today's the most famous theatres in Lithuania are in Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipėda and Panevėžys. It is Lithuanian National Drama Theatre, Keistuolių teatras (Theatre of Freaks) in Vilnius, Kaunas National Drama Theatre, Theatre of Oskaras Koršunovas, Klaipėda Drama Theatre, Theatre of Gytis Ivanauskas, Miltinis Drama Theatre in Panevėžys, The Doll's Theatre, Russian Drama Theatre and others.[66] There are some very popular theatre festivals like Sirenos (Sirens), TheATRIUM, Nerk į teatrą (Dive into the Theatre) and others.[67][68][69] The figures dominating in Lithuanian theatre world are directors like Eimuntas Nekrošius, Jonas Vaitkus, Cezaris Graužinis, Gintaras Varnas, Dalia Ibelhauptaitė, Artūras Areima; number of talented actors like Dainius Gavenonis, Rolandas Kazlas, Saulius Balandis, Gabija Jaraminaitė and many others.[70]

السينما

 
Romuva Cinema, the oldest still operational cinema in Lithuania

On 28 July 1896, Thomas Edison live photography session was held in the Concerts Hall of the Botanical Garden of Vilnius University. After a year, similar American movies were available with the addition of special phonograph records that also provided sound. In 1909, Lithuanian cinema pioneers lt (Antanas Račiūnas) and Ladislas Starevich released their first movies. Soon the Račiūnas' recordings of Lithuania's views became very popular among the Lithuanian Americans abroad. In 1925, Pranas Valuskis filmed movie Naktis Lietuvoje (Night in Lithuania) about Lithuanian book smugglers that left the first bright Lithuanian footprint in Hollywood. The most significant and mature Lithuanian American movie of the time Aukso žąsis (Golden goose) was created in 1965 by lt (Birutė Pūkelevičiūtė) that featured motifs from the Brothers Grimm fairy tales. In 1940, Romuva Cinema was opened in Kaunas and currently is the oldest still operational cinema in Lithuania. After the occupation of the state, movies mostly were used for the Soviet propaganda purposes, nevertheless Almantas Grikevičius, Gytis Lukšas, Henrikas Šablevičius, Arūnas Žebriūnas, Raimondas Vabalas were able to overcome the obstacles and create valuable films. After the restoration of the independence, Šarūnas Bartas, Audrius Stonys, Arūnas Matelis, Audrius Juzėnas, Algimantas Puipa, lt (Janina Lapinskaitė), Dijana and her husband Kornelijus Matuzevičius received success in international movie festivals.[71]

In 2018, 4,265,414 cinema tickets were sold in Lithuania with the average price of €5.26.[72]

الموسيقى

Lithuanians dancing at Skamba skamba kankliai festival and singing at Lithuanian Song and Dance Festival in Vingis Park

Lithuanian folk music belongs to Baltic music branch which is connected with neolithic corded ware culture. Two instrument cultures meet in the areas inhabited by Lithuanians: stringed (kanklių) and wind instrument cultures. Lithuanian folk music is archaic, mostly used for ritual purposes, containing elements of paganism faith. There are three ancient styles of singing in Lithuania connected with ethnographical regions: monophony, heterophony and polyphony. Folk song genres: Sutartinės (Multipart Songs),[73] Wedding Songs, War-Historical Time Songs, Calendar Cycle and Ritual Songs and Work Songs.[74]

Italian artists organized the first opera in Lithuania on 4 September 1636 at the Palace of the Grand Dukes by the order of Władysław IV Vasa.[75] Currently, operas are staged at the Lithuanian National Opera and Ballet Theatre and also by independent troupe Vilnius City Opera.

 
Painter and composer M.K. Čiurlionis

Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis is the most renowned Lithuanian painter and composer. During his short life he created about 200 pieces of music. His works have had profound influence on modern Lithuanian culture. His symphonic poems In the Forest (Miške) and The Sea (Jūra) were performed only posthumously. Čiurlionis contributed to symbolism and art nouveau and was representative of the fin de siècle epoch. He has been considered one of the pioneers of abstract art in Europe.[76]

In Lithuania, choral music is very important. Vilnius is the only city with three choirs laureates (Brevis, Jauna Muzika and Chamber Choir of the Conservatoire) at the European Grand Prix for Choral Singing.[77] There is a long-standing tradition of the Dainų šventė (Lithuanian Song and Dance Festival). The first one took place in Kaunas in 1924. Since 1990, the festival has been organised every four years and summons roughly 30,000 singers and folk dancers of various professional levels and age groups from across the country.[78] In 2008, Lithuanian Song and Dance Festival together with its Latvian and Estonian versions was inscribed as UNESCO Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.[79] Gatvės muzikos diena (Street Music Day) gathers musicians of various genres annually.[80]

Conductor Mirga Gražinytė-Tyla performing on the scenes of Rome, New York and Birmingham.

Modern classical composers emerged in seventies – Bronius Kutavičius, Feliksas Bajoras, Osvaldas Balakauskas, Onutė Narbutaitė, Vidmantas Bartulis and others. Most of those composers explored archaic Lithuanian music and its harmonic combination with modern minimalism and neoromanticism.[81]

Jazz scene was active even during the years of Soviet occupation. The real breakthrough would occur in 1970–71 with the coming together of the Ganelin/Tarasov/Chekasin trio, the alleged instigators of the Vilnius Jazz School.[82] Most known annual events are Vilnius Jazz Festival, Kaunas Jazz, Birštonas Jazz. Music Information Centre Lithuania (MICL) collects, promotes and shares information on Lithuanian musical culture.

موسيقى الروك والاحتجاج

 
Rock band Antis, which under firm censorship actively mocked the Soviet Union regime by using metaphors in their lyrics, during an Anti-Sovietism, Anti-communism concert in 1987

After the Soviet reoccupation of Lithuania in 1944, the Soviet's censorship continued firmly controlling all artistic expressions in Lithuania, and any violations by criticizing the regime would immediately result in punishments.[83] The first local rock bands started to emerge around 1965 and included Kertukai, Aitvarai and Nuogi ant slenksčio in Kaunas, and Kęstutis Antanėlis, Vienuoliai, and Gėlių Vaikai in Vilnius, among others. Unable to express their opinions directly, the Lithuanian artists began organizing patriotic Roko Maršai and were using metaphors in their songs' lyrics, which were easily identified for their true meanings by the locals.[84][85] Postmodernist rock band Antis and its vocalist Algirdas Kaušpėdas were one of the most active performers who mocked the Soviet regime by using metaphors. For example, in the song Zombiai (Zombies), the band indirectly sang about the Red Army soldiers who occupied the state and its military base in Ukmergė.[86][87] Vytautas Kernagis' song Kolorado vabalai (Colorado beetles) was also a favourite due to its lyrics in which true meaning of the Colorado beetles was intended to be the Soviets decorated with the Ribbons of Saint George.[88]

In the early independence years, rock band Foje was particularly popular and gathered tens of thousands of spectators to the concerts.[89] After disbanding in 1997, Foje vocalist Andrius Mamontovas remained one of the most prominent Lithuanian performers and an active participant in various charity events.[90] Marijonas Mikutavičius is famous for creating unofficial Lithuania sport anthem Trys milijonai (Three million) and official anthem of the EuroBasket 2011 Nebetyli sirgaliai (English version was named Celebrate Basketball).[91][92]

المطبخ

 
Lithuanian dark rye bread
 
Cepelinai, a potato-based dumpling dish characteristic of Lithuanian cuisine with meat, curd or mushrooms

Lithuanian cuisine features the products suited to the cool and moist northern climate of Lithuania: barley, potatoes, rye, beets, greens, berries, and mushrooms are locally grown, and dairy products are one of its specialties. Fish dishes are very popular in the coastal region.[93] Since it shares its climate and agricultural practices with Northern Europe, Lithuanian cuisine has some similarities to Scandinavian cuisine. Nevertheless, it has its own distinguishing features, which were formed by a variety of influences during the country's long and difficult history.

Dairy products are an important part of traditional Lithuanian cuisine. These include white cottage cheese (varškės sūris), curd (varškė), soured milk (rūgpienis), sour cream (grietinė), butter (sviestas), and sour cream butter kastinis. Traditional meat products are usually seasoned, matured and smoked – smoked sausages (dešros), lard (lašiniai), skilandis, smoked ham (kumpis). Soups (sriubos) – boletus soup (baravykų sriuba), cabbage soup (kopūstų sriuba), beer soup (alaus sriuba), milk soup (pieniška sriuba), cold-beet soup (šaltibarščiai) and various kinds of porridges (košės) are part of tradition and daily diet. Freshwater fish, herring, wild berries and mushrooms, honey are highly popular diet to this day.[94][95]

 
Lithuania has longlasting beer brewing traditions

One of the oldest and most fundamental Lithuanian food products was and is rye bread. Rye bread is eaten every day for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Bread played an important role in family rituals and agrarian ceremonies.[96]

Lithuanians and other nations that once formed part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania share many dishes and beverages. German traditions also influenced Lithuanian cuisine, introducing pork and potato dishes, such as potato pudding (kugelis or kugel) and potato sausages (vėdarai), as well as the baroque tree cake known as Šakotis. The most exotic of all the influences is Eastern (Karaite) cuisine – the kibinai are popular in Lithuania. Lithuanian noblemen usually hired French chefs, so French cuisine influence came to Lithuania in this way.[97]

Balts were using mead (midus) for thousands of years.[98] Beer (alus) is the most common alcoholic beverage. Lithuania has a long farmhouse beer tradition, first mentioned in 11th century chronicles. Beer was brewed for ancient Baltic festivities and rituals.[99] Farmhouse brewing survived to a greater extent in Lithuania than anywhere else, and through accidents of history the Lithuanians then developed a commercial brewing culture from their unique farmhouse traditions.[100][101] Lithuania is top 5 by consumption of beer per capita in Europe in 2015, counting 75 active breweries, 32 of them are microbreweries.[102] The microbrewery scene in Lithuania has been growing in later years, with a number of bars focusing on these beers popping up in Vilnius and also in other parts of the country.

Eight Lithuanian restaurants are listed in the White Guide Baltic Top 30.[103]

الإعلام

The Constitution of Lithuania provides for freedom of speech and press, and the government generally respects these rights in practice. An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to promote these freedoms. However, the constitutional definition of freedom of expression does not protect certain acts, such as incitement to national, racial, religious, or social hatred, violence and discrimination, or slander, and disinformation. It is a crime to deny or "grossly trivialize" Soviet or Nazi German crimes against Lithuania or its citizens, or to deny genocide, crimes against humanity, or war crimes.[104]

Best-selling daily national newspapers in Lithuania are Lietuvos rytas (about 18.8% of all daily readers), lt (Vakaro žinios) (12.5%), Kauno diena (3.7%), lt (Šiaulių kraštas) (3.2%) and Vakarų ekspresas (2.7%). Best-selling weekly newspapers are Savaitė (about 34% of all weekly readers), Žmonės (17%), Prie kavos (11.9%), Ji (8.7%) and Ekspress nedelia (5.4%).[105]

In July 2018, the most popular national television channels in Lithuania were TV3 (about 35.9% of the auditorium), LNK (32.8%), Lithuanian National Radio and Television (30.6%), BTV (19.9%), Lietuvos rytas TV (19.1%).[106]

The most popular radio stations in Lithuania are M-1 (about 15.8% of all listeners), Lietus (12.2%), LRT Radijas (10.5%) and Radiocentras (10.5%).[107]

Public holidays and festivals

As a result of a thousand-years history, Lithuania has two National days. First one is the Statehood Day on 6 July, marking the establishment of the medieval Kingdom of Lithuania by Mindaugas in 1253. Creation of modern Lithuanian state is commemorated on 16 February as a Lithuanian State Reestablishment Day on which declaration of independence from Russia and Germany was declared in 1918. Joninės (previously known as Rasos) is a public holiday with paganic roots that celebrates a solstice. As of 2018, there are 13 public holidays (which come with a day off).[108]

Kaziuko mugė is an annual fair held since the beginning of the 17th century that commemorates the anniversary of Saint Casimir's death and gathers thousands of visitors and many craftsmen. Other notable festivals are Vilnius International Film Festival, Kauno Miesto Diena, Klaipėda Sea Festival, Mados infekcija, Vilnius Book Fair, Vilnius Marathon, Devilstone Open Air, lt (Apuolė 854), Great Žemaičių Kalvarija Festival.

قالب:Holidays of Lithuania

الرياضة

Basketball is the most popular and national sport of Lithuania. The Lithuania national basketball team has had significant success in international basketball events, having won the EuroBasket on three occasions (1937, 1939 and 2003), as well a total of 8 other medals in the Eurobasket, the World Championships and the Olympic Games. The men's national team also has extremely high TV ratings as about 76% of the country's population watched their games live in 2014.[109] Lithuania hosted the Eurobasket in 1939 and 2011. The historic Lithuanian basketball team BC Žalgiris, from Kaunas, won the European basketball league Euroleague in 1999. Lithuania has produced a number of NBA players, including Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame inductees Arvydas Sabonis and Šarūnas Marčiulionis,[110] and current NBA players Jonas Valančiūnas, Domantas Sabonis, and Ignas Brazdeikis.[111]

Lithuania has won a total of 26 medals at the Olympic Games, including 6 gold medals in athletics, modern pentathlon, shooting, and swimming. Numerous other Lithuanians won Olympic medals representing Soviet Union. Discus thrower Virgilijus Alekna is the most successful Olympic athlete of independent Lithuania, having won gold medals in the 2000 Sydney and 2004 Athens games, as well as a bronze in 2008 Beijing Olympics and numerous World Championship medals. More recently, the gold medal won by a then 15-year-old swimmer Rūta Meilutytė at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London sparked a rise in popularity for the sport in Lithuania.

Lithuania has produced prominent athletes in athletics, modern pentathlon, road and track cycling, chess, rowing, aerobatics, strongman, wrestling, boxing, mixed martial arts, Kyokushin Karate, and other sports.

Lithuania hosted the 2021 FIFA Futsal World Cup, the first time Lithuania had hosted a FIFA tournament.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Few Lithuanian athletes have found success in winter sports, although facilities are provided by several ice rinks and skiing slopes, including Snow Arena, the first indoor ski slope in the Baltics.[112] In 2018 Lithuania national ice hockey team won gold medals at the 2018 IIHF World Championship Division I.[113]

مواقع الكترونية

  دول الاتحاد الأوروبي  
إسپانيا | إستونيا | ألمانيا | أيرلندا | إيطاليا | البرتغال | بلجيكا | بلغاريا | بولندا | التشيك | الدانمارك | رومانيا | سلوفاكيا | سلوفينيا | السويد | فرنسا | فنلندا | قبرص | لاتفيا | لتوانيا | لوكسمبورغ | مالطا | مجر | المملكة المتحدة | النمسا | هولندا | اليونان
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