ڤلنيوس

(تم التحويل من Vilnius)

ڤيلنيوس Vilnius هي عاصمة لتوانيا, يبلغ تعداد سكانها حوالي 540,000 نسمة في عام 2003.

Vilnius
علم Vilnius
Flag
الكنية: 
Jerusalem of Lithuania,[1] Rome of the North,[2] Athens of the North,[3] New Babylon,[4] The city/capital of Palemon[5]
الشعار: 
Unitas, Justitia, Spes
(Latin: Unity, Justice, Hope)
موقع Vilnius
المنطقة العرقيةAukštaitija
المقاطعةمقاطعة ڤيلنيوس
بلديةبلدية مدينة فيلنيوس
Capital ofLithuania
First mentioned1323
Granted city rights1387
Elderships
الحكومة
 • النوعCity council
 • MayorRemigijus Šimašius
المساحة
 • Capital city401 كم² (155 ميل²)
 • العمران
2٬530 كم² (980 ميل²)
المنسوب
112 m (367 ft)
التعداد
 (2021)[9]
 • Capital city592٬389[8]
 • الترتيب(31st in EU)
 • الكثافة1٬392/km2 (3٬610/sq mi)
 • Urban
718٬507[7]
 • العمرانية
701٬337[6]
صفة المواطنVilnian
منطقة التوقيتUTC+2 (EET)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
01001–14191
مفتاح الهاتف(+370) 5
GMP (nominal)[10]2020
 – Total€21.1 billion
 – Per capita€25,600
City budget~€1.0 billion[11]
HDI (2019)0.920[12]very high
ClimateDfb
الموقع الإلكترونيvilnius.lt
الاسم الرسميHistoric Centre of Vilnius
النوعCultural
المعيارii, iv
التوصيف1994 (18th session)
الرقم المرجعي[13]
UNESCO regionEurope

فيلنيوس عاصمة لتوانيا، وأكبر مدينة بها. تقع فيلنوس في الجنوب الشرقي من لتوانيا على ضفاف نهر نيرس. عدد السكان 591,066 نسمة.

تعتبر فيلنيوس مركزًا صناعيًا وثقافيًا وتعليميًا مهمًا، إضافة إلى أنها مركز نقل. تشمل منتجاتها الكيميائيات والأثاث والمعدات الصناعية والورق والمنسوجات. تمر خطوط السكة الحديد به عبر المدينة ويوجد بها مطار. وقد أنُشئت جامعة كابسوكاس الحكومية في فيلنيوس عام 1579.

اشتهرت فيلنيوس بكنائسها القديمة وغيرها من المباني التي يرجع تاريخها إلى مابين القرنين الخامس عشر والتاسع عشر. وبالمدينة أيضًا مبانٍ حديثة تم تشييدها بعد انتهاء الحرب العالمية الثانية عام 1945.

Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies,[14] and is known for the architecture in its Old Town, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994.[15] Before World War II, Vilnius was one of the largest Jewish centres in Europe. Its Jewish influence has led to its nickname "the Jerusalem of Lithuania". Napoleon called it "the Jerusalem of the North"[16] as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with Linz, Austria.[17] In 2021, Vilnius was named among top-25 fDi's Global Cities of the Future – one of the most forward-thinking cities with the greatest potential in the World.[18]

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Etymology and other names

The name of the city originates from the Vilnia River, from the Lithuanian for ripple.[19] The city has also had many derivative spellings in various languages throughout its history: Vilna was once common in English. The most notable non-Lithuanian names for the city include بالپولندية: Wilno, بالبيلاروسية: Вiльня (Vilnia), بالألمانية: Wilna, باللاتڤية: Viļņa, بالاوكرانية: Вільно (Vilno), باليديشية: ווילנע (Vilne). A Russian name from the time of the Russian Empire was Вильна (Vilna),[20][21] although Вильнюс (Vilnyus) is now used. The names Wilno, Wilna and Vilna were also used in older English-, German-, French- and Italian-language publications when the city was one of the capitals of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and an important city in the Second Polish Republic. The name Vilna is still used in Finnish, Portuguese, Spanish, and بالعبرية: וילנה‎. Wilna is still used in German, along with Vilnius.

The neighborhoods of Vilnius also have names in other languages, which represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the area.

According to legend, Grand Duke Gediminas (c. 1275–1341) was hunting in the sacred forest near the Valley of Šventaragis, near where the Vilnia River flows into the Neris River. Tired after the successful hunt of a wisent, the Grand Duke settled in for the night. He fell soundly asleep and dreamed of a huge Iron Wolf standing on top a hill and howling as strong and loud as a hundred wolves. Upon awakening, the Duke asked the krivis (pagan priest) Lizdeika to interpret the dream. The priest told him,

"What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site. This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, and the glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world."

Therefore, Gediminas, obeying the will of the gods, built the city, and gave it the name Vilnius, from the Vilnia River.[22]


التاريخ

أنشأ الدوق الكبير جيديميناس فيلنوس في حوالي عام 1323. وقد سيطر الروس على المدينة في الفترة بين عامي 1795 – 1918. وأصبحت لتوانيا دولة مستقلة في عام 1918، لكن بولندا فرضت سيطرتها على المدينة في الفترة بين عامي 1920 – 1939، وهو العام الذي أعيدت فيه فيلنيوس إلى لتوانيا. وفي عام 1940، استولى الاتحاد السوفيتي (سابقًا) على لتوانيا عنوةً فأصبحت جزءاً من البلاد. وفي عام 1991، انفصلت لتوانيا عن الاتحاد السوفيتي وأصبحت دولة مستقلة.

Early history and Grand Duchy of Lithuania

 
King Mindaugas Monument

Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with Voruta, one of the castles of Mindaugas, who was King of Lithuania after coronation in 1253. During the reign of Grand Dukes Butvydas and Vytenis, a city started emerging from a trading settlement and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built.[23]

Vilnius is the historic and present-day capital of Lithuania. Archeological findings indicate that this city was the capital of the Kingdom of Lithuania and later that of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After Lithuania formed a dual confederation with the Kingdom of Poland, Vilnius still remained as Lithuania's capital.[24]

The city was first mentioned in written sources in 1323 as Vilna,[25] when the Letters of Grand Duke Gediminas were sent to German cities inviting Germans (including German Jews) to settle in the capital city, as well as to Pope John XXII. These letters contain the first unambiguous reference to Vilnius as the capital;[24] Old Trakai Castle had been the earlier seat of the court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Grand Duke Algirdas (left) consolidated Lithuania as a superpower of the region and multiple times devastated Moscow as a response to the Muscovy attacks on the Lithuanian lands.[26] Under the reign of Vytautas the Great (right), Vilnius emerged as the capital of Europe's largest state.

Vilnius's location offered practical advantages: it lay in the Lithuanian heartland at the confluence of two navigable rivers (Vilnia and Neris), surrounded by impenetrable forests and wetlands.

At the time of the 14th century, Lithuania was continuously invaded by the Teutonic Order.[27] The future King of England Henry IV (then Henry Bolingbroke) spent a full year of 1390 supporting the unsuccessful siege of Vilnius by Teutonic Knights with his 300 fellow knights. During this campaign he bought captured Lithuanian women and children and took them back to Königsberg for their conversion.[28] King Henry's second expedition to Lithuania in 1392 illustrates the financial benefits of these guest crusaders to the Order. His small army consisted of over 100 men, including longbow archers and six minstrels, at a total cost to the Lancastrian purse of £4,360. Despite the efforts of Bolingbroke and his English crusaders, two years of attacks on Vilnius proved fruitless.[29]

 
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania and Grand Duke Gediminas Monument with the howling iron wolf

Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the residence of the Grand Duke. Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy through warfare along with strategic alliances and marriages.[24] At its height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Transnistria, and portions of modern-day Poland and Russia. His grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, however, fought civil wars. During the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, Vytautas besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from Jogaila.[24] The two Gediminids cousins later settled their differences; after a series of treaties culminating in the 1569 Union of Lublin, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was formed. The Commonwealth's rulers held two titles: Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. In 1387, Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, granted Magdeburg rights to the city.[24]


 
St. Anne's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius
 
Orthodox كاتدرائية ثيوتوكوس, with Gediminas Tower in background
 
مركز مدينة ڤلنيوس الجديد


الجغرافيا

 
وسط فلنيوس في الشتاء.


المناخ

متوسطات الطقس لڤلنيوس، ليتوانيا
شهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر السنة
متوسط العظمى °م (°ف) -3.5 (25.7) -1.7 (28.9) 3.3 (37.9) 10.7 (51.3) 18.2 (64.8) 21.1 (70) 22.1 (71.8) 21.6 (70.9) 16.4 (61.5) 10.2 (50.4) 3.5 (38.3) -0.5 (31.1) 10٫1 (50٫2)
متوسط الصغرى °م (°ف) -8.7 (16.3) -7.6 (18.3) -3.8 (25.2) 1.6 (34.9) 7.5 (45.5) 10.8 (51.4) 12.3 (54.1) 11.5 (52.7) 7.7 (45.9) 3.4 (38.1) -0.9 (30.4) -5.2 (22.6) 3٫4 (36٫4)
هطول الأمطار mm (بوصة) 41 (1.61) 38 (1.49) 39 (1.53) 46 (1.81) 62 (2.44) 77 (3.03) 78 (3.07) 72 (2.83) 65 (2.56) 53 (2.09) 57 (2.24) 55 (2.17) 683 (26٫9)
المصدر: The World Meteorological Organization[30] Nov 2006


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التوزيع السكانى

السياحة

 
View over the Cathedral roof

الاقتصاد

 
Vilnius Financial Center


التعليم

الثقافة

الدين

 
St. Nicholas is the oldest surviving church in Lithuania, built before 1387
 
The Choral Synagogue of Vilnius, the only synagogue in the city to survive the Holocaust.


النقل

 
Solaris Trollino 15AC trolleybus in Vilnius

مدن شقيقة


مدنية فيلنويس على علاقات شراكة مع 14 مدينة. بالإضافة إلى إتفاقيات تعاون مع 16 مدينة أخرى.


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التقسيمات الفرعية

 
Map of Vilnius elderates. Numbers on the map correspond with numbers in the list

انظر ايضا

وصلات خارجية

  1. ^ "Vilnius: In Search of the Jerusalem of Lithuania – Lithuanian Jewish Community". lzb.lt. 18 November 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  2. ^ Widespread use of the nickname from the 16th century to this day as a reference to the many Catholic churches and monasteries in Vilnius and overall religious atmosphere in the centre. This nickname was/is used not only by the foreigners but also by the local population. The 19th-century Lithuanian cultural figure Dionizas Poška nicknamed Vilnius "Rome of the North", as, according to him, Vilnius is "the old religious centre, that transformed from a pagan city into the bastion of Christianity". D. Poška, 'Raštai', Vilnius, 1959, p. 67
  3. ^ Cultural newspaper, that has been published in Vilnius since 1990, is named "Šiaurės Atėnai" (The Athens of the North) as a reference to one of Vilnius's nicknames, which was widespread in the first half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, mostly because of Vilnius University. During the interwar period, a Polish scientific newspaper published in Vilnius was also named "Atheneum Wileńskie".
  4. ^ Especially in the 16th–17th centuries, Vilnius was called the ‘New Babylon’ because of the many languages spoken there as well as its many religions (there were various Christian communities as well as Jews and a Muslim Tatar community). E.g.: S. Bodniak, "Polska w relacji włoskiej z roku 1604", Pamiętnik biblioteki kórnickiej, 2, (Kórnik, 1930), p. 37.
  5. ^ This nickname was very popular among the Lithuanian nobility, citizens of Vilnius and poets, especially during the Baroque period. Many poets of the period, including Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, nicknamed Vilnius "the capital of Palemon" or "the city of Palemon". Živilė Nedzinskaitė, Vilnius XVII–XVIII a. LDK lotyniškojoje poezijoje, Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis, Vilnius, 2010, p. 16; Eugenija Ulčinaitė, Motiejus Kazimieras Sarbievijus: Antikos ir krikščionybės sintezė; Vilniaus pasveikinimas, Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, Vilnius, 2001, pp. 47, 59, 61, 63; etc.
  6. ^ with Vilnius district municipality
  7. ^ "Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional urban areas". appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  8. ^ "Gyventoju skaicius pagal savivaldybes" (PDF). Registrucentras.lt. 2022-01-05. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  9. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة pop.lt
  10. ^ "Statistinių rodiklių analizė". Statistics Lithuania.
  11. ^ "Vilniaus biudţeto planas 2022-iesiems – minus 96,7 mln. Eur" [Vilnius budget plan for 2022 - minus 96.7 million. Eur]. Verslo ţinios. 2022-01-10. Retrieved 2022-02-28.
  12. ^ Sub-national HDI. "Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org.
  13. ^ "Vilnius Historic Centre". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2022-01-01.
  14. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC - Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  15. ^ "Lithuania". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 14 January 2018.
  16. ^ Steele, Jonathan (19 June 2008). "In the Jerusalem of the North, the Jewish story is forgotten". Opinion. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  17. ^ "Ex-Post Evaluation of 2009 European Capitals of Culture" (PDF). ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 January 2018.
  18. ^ "fDi's Global Cities of the Future 2021/22 — overall winners". fdiintelligence. fDi Intelligence A service from The Financial Times Ltd. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  19. ^ "Portrait of the Regions of Lithuania – Vilnius city municipality". Department of Statistics. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  20. ^ Лавринец, Павел (20 October 2004). Русская Вильна: идея и формула. Балканская Русистика (in الروسية). Вильнюс. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  21. ^ Васютинский, А.М.; Дживелегов, А.К.; Мельгунов, С.П. (1912). "Фон Зукков, По дороге в Вильно". Задруга Французы в России. 1812 г. По воспоминаниям современников-иностранцев. (in الروسية). 1–3. Москва. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  22. ^ "The Legend of the Founding of Vilnius - Gediminas Dream". Ironwolf.lt. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  23. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة zita
  24. ^ أ ب ت ث ج "Vilniaus istorija". vle.lt (in الليتوانية). Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  25. ^ Rowell, Stephen Christopher (2003). Chartularium Lithuaniae res gestas magni ducis Gedeminne illustrans – Gedimino laiškai (PDF). Vilnius: Leidykla Vaga. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  26. ^ "Algirdas". vle.lt. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  27. ^ Briedis 2009, p. 20.
  28. ^ Given-Wilson, Chris (2016). Henry IV. English Monarchs series. Yale University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0300154207.
  29. ^ Basilevsky, Alexander (2016). Early Ukraine: A Military and Social History to the Mid-19th Century. McFarland. pp. 178–179. ISBN 978-1476620220. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  30. ^ "(إنگليزية) Weather Information for Vilnius". Unknown parameter |accessyear= ignored (|access-date= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |accessmonthday= ignored (help)