افتح القائمة الرئيسية

بوسطن، مساتشوستس

(تم التحويل من Boston)
هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية

بوسطن أو بوستن (بالإنجليزية: Boston ؛ الأمريكي /ˈbɔːstən/, UK /ˈbɒstən/)[10]) هي عاصمة كومنولث مساتشوسِتس، الولايات المتحدة، والمدينة الأكبر[3] بها. and the 21st most populous city in the United States.[11] The city proper covers 48.4 ميل مربعs (125 kم2)[12] with an estimated population of 692,600 in 2019,[4] also making it the most populous city in New England.[3] It is the seat of Suffolk County (although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999).[13] The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest MSA in the country.[14] As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.[15]

Boston, Massachusetts
City of Boston
Top to bottom: Downtown (from the Boston Harbor); Massachusetts State House; Old State House; Back Bay (from the Charles River)
Flag of Boston, Massachusetts
Flag
Official seal of Boston, Massachusetts
Seal
Nickname(s): 
الشعار الحادي: 
Sicut patribus sit Deus nobis (Latin)
'As God was with our fathers, so may He be with us'
Interactive map outlining Boston
Boston is located in الولايات المتحدة
Boston
Boston
Location within the United States
الإحداثيات: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35806°N 71.06361°W / 42.35806; -71.06361Coordinates: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35806°N 71.06361°W / 42.35806; -71.06361
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountySuffolk
RegionNew England
Historic countriesKingdom of England
Commonwealth of England
Kingdom of Great Britain
Historic coloniesMassachusetts Bay Colony, Dominion of New England, Province of Massachusetts Bay
Settled (town)
September 7, 1630
(date of naming, Old Style)[أ]
Incorporated (city)March 19, 1822
السَمِيْBoston, Lincolnshire
الحكم
 • النوعStrong mayor / Council
 • MayorMarty Walsh (D)
 • CouncilBoston City Council
المساحة[1]
 • City89٫62 ميل² (232٫11 كم²)
 • البر48٫34 ميل² (125٫20 كم²)
 • الماء41٫28 ميل² (106٫91 كم²)
 • الحضر1٬770 ميل² (4٬600 كم²)
 • العمران4٬500 ميل² (11٬700 كم²)
 • CSA10٬600 ميل² (27٬600 كم²)
الارتفاع141 ft (43 m)
التعداد(2010)[3][4][5][6][7]
 • City617٬594
 • تقدير (2019)[8]692٬600
 • الكثافة14٬327٫68/sq mi (5٬531٫93/km2)
 • الحضر4٬180٬000 (US: 10th)
 • العمرانية4٬628٬910 (US: 10th)[2]
 • CSA8٬041٬303 (US: 6th)
 • DemonymBostonian
منطقة التوقيتEST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق−5)
 • الصيفيEDT (UTC−4)
ZIP Codes
Area codes617 and 857
FIPS code25-07000
GNIS feature ID617565
Primary AirportLogan International Airport
InterstatesI-90.svg I-93.svg
Commuter RailMBTA Commuter Rail
Rapid TransitMBTA subway
الموقع الإلكترونيBoston.gov

Boston is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from the English town of the same name.[16][17] It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston. Upon American independence from Great Britain, the city continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture.[18][19] The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year.[20] Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park (Boston Common, 1634), first public or state school (Boston Latin School, 1635)[21] and first subway system (Tremont Street subway, 1897).[22]

Today, Boston is a thriving center of scientific research. The Boston area's many colleges and universities make it a world leader in higher education,[23] including law, medicine, engineering and business and the city is considered to be a global pioneer in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 5,000 startups.[24][25][26] Boston's economic base also includes finance,[27] professional and business services, biotechnology, information technology and government activities.[28] Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States;[29] businesses and institutions rank among the top in the country for environmental sustainability and investment.[30] The city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States[31][32] as it has undergone gentrification,[33] though it remains high on world livability rankings.[34]

وهي أيضاً واحدة من المراكز العلمية الكبرى بالولايات المتحدة حيث تضم نحو 39 جامعة، وبضاحيتها كمبردج توجد جامعة هارڤرد، إحدى أقدم جامعات العالم ومعهد مساتشوستس للتكنولوجيا.

تأسست بوسطن عام 1630، ويعتمد اقتصادها الآن على التعليم العالي، والأبحاث، والرعاية الصحية، والتمويل، والتقانة، وبالدرجة الأولى على التقانة الحيوية. تلقب المدينة بـ "المدينة فوق التل"، و "مدينة الفول"، و "المحور"، و "أثينا الولايات المتحدة"، و "مدينة المتطهرين"، و "مهد الحرية"، وغيرها من ألقاب. تقع بوسطن في مقاطعة سفوك Suffolk County. ومنطقة بوسطن الكبرى تشتمل على مدن كامبريدج (ماساتشوستس)، وكوينسي، ونيوتن (ماساتشوستس)، وبروكلاين.

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فهرست

التاريخ

 
Boston in 1772.
 
Part of current downtown Boston by its harbor.
 
Scollay Square in the 1880s
 
Trinity Church reflected in the façade of the John Hancock Tower.


الجغرافيا

 
A simulated-color satellite image of the Boston area taken on NASA's Landsat 3
 
The headquarters of the Church of Christ, Scientist in the Back Bay are dominated by a reflecting pool. The tall buildings in the background are the Prudential Tower and 111 Huntington Avenue.
 
Boston skyline from the North side of the Charles River.

المناخ

 
Per capita income in the greater Boston area, by U.S. Census block group, 2000. The dashed line shows the boundary of the city of Boston.

تتمتع مدينة بوسطن بمناخ قاري ، مثل ذلك السائد في نيو إنجلاند. ويكون الطقس حار رطب صيفا ، بارد شتاء مع بعض الرياح الثلجية. بوسطن أساسا لها ما يمكن ان توصف بأنها المناخ القاري ، مثل شائع جدا في نيو انغلاند. وعادة ما تكون في الصيف الحار والرطب ، في حين يكون الشتاء الباردة ، والرياح الثلجيه. أنماط الرياح الساءده التي تهب في الخارج تؤثر في بوسطن ، والحد من نفوذ المحيط الاطلسي.

 
Boston's skyline in the background, with fall foliage in the foreground
Boston
جدول الطقس (التفسير)
يفمأمييأسأند
 
 
3.4
 
36
22
 
 
3.3
 
39
25
 
 
4.3
 
45
31
 
 
3.7
 
56
41
 
 
3.5
 
66
50
 
 
3.7
 
76
60
 
 
3.4
 
81
65
 
 
3.4
 
80
65
 
 
3.4
 
72
57
 
 
3.9
 
61
47
 
 
4
 
52
38
 
 
3.8
 
41
28
متوسطات درجات الحرارة القصوى والدنيا - °ف
إجمالي الهطل - بوصة


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التوزيع السكانى

التعداد تاريخياً
الإحصاء التعداد
179018٬320
180024٬93736.1%
181033٬78735.5%
182043٬29828.1%
183061٬39241.8%
184093٬38352.1%
1850136٬88146.6%
1860177٬84029.9%
1870250٬52640.9%
1880362٬83944.8%
1890448٬47723.6%
1900560٬89225.1%
1910670٬58519.6%
1920748٬06011.6%
1930781٬1884.4%
1940770٬816-1.3%
1950801٬4444.0%
1960697٬197-13.0%
1970641٬071-8.1%
1980562٬994-12.2%
1990574٬2832.0%
2000589٬1412.6%
تقديري 2006590٬7630.3%


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الحكومة

الاقتصاد

Distribution of Greater Boston NECTA Labor Force (2016)[37] ██ Nat'l resources & mining (0%)██ Construction (5%)██ Manufacturing (8%)██ Trade, transportation & utilities (15%)██ Information (3%)██ Finance & real estate (8%)██ Professional & business services (15%)██ Educational & health services (28%)██ Leisure & hospitality (9%)██ Other services (4%)██ Government (4%)


 
Hyatt in downtown Boston
 
بيانات من City-Data.com[38]


التعليم

 
Harvard Yard, Cambridge, heart of the oldest institution of higher education in the الولايات المتحدة, Harvard University, and located just across the Charles River from the Allston neighborhood of Boston.


Higher education

 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is often cited as among the world's top universities.
 
Map of Boston-area universities
 
Harvard Business School, one of the country's top business schools

Some of the most renowned and highly ranked universities in the world are near Boston.[39][40] Three universities with a major presence in the city, Harvard, MIT, and Tufts, are just outside of Boston in the cities of Cambridge and Somerville, known as the Brainpower Triangle.[41] Harvard is the nation's oldest institute of higher education and is centered across the Charles River in Cambridge, though the majority of its land holdings and a substantial amount of its educational activities are in Boston. Its business school and athletics facilities are in Boston's Allston neighborhood, and its medical, dental, and public health schools are located in the Longwood area.[42]

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) originated in Boston and was long known as "Boston Tech"; it moved across the river to Cambridge in 1916.[43] Tufts University's main campus is north of the city in Somerville and Medford, though it locates its medical and dental schools in Boston's Chinatown at Tufts Medical Center, a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children.[44]

Four members of the Association of American Universities are in Greater Boston (more than any other metropolitan area): Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston University, and Brandeis University.[45] Furthermore, Greater Boston contains seven Highest Research Activity (R1) Universities as per the Carnegie Classification. This includes, in addition to the aforementioned four, Boston College, Northeastern University, and Tufts University. This is, by a large margin, the highest concentration of such institutions in a single metropolitan area. Hospitals, universities, and research institutions in Greater Boston received more than $1.77 billion in National Institutes of Health grants in 2013, more money than any other American metropolitan area.[46]

Greater Boston has more than 100 colleges and universities, with 250,000 students enrolled in Boston and Cambridge alone.[47] The city's largest private universities include Boston University (also the city's fourth-largest employer),[48] with its main campus along Commonwealth Avenue and a medical campus in the South End, Northeastern University in the Fenway area,[49] Suffolk University near Beacon Hill, which includes law school and business school,[50] and Boston College, which straddles the Boston (Brighton)–Newton border.[51] Boston's only public university is the University of Massachusetts Boston on Columbia Point in Dorchester. Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College are the city's two public community colleges. Altogether, Boston's colleges and universities employ more than 42,600 people, accounting for nearly seven percent of the city's workforce.[52]

Smaller private colleges include Babson College, Bentley University, Boston Architectural College, Emmanuel College, Fisher College, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wellesley College, Wheelock College, Wentworth Institute of Technology, New England School of Law (originally established as America's first all female law school),[53] and Emerson College.[54]

Metropolitan Boston is home to several conservatories and art schools, including Lesley University College of Art and Design, Massachusetts College of Art, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, New England Institute of Art, New England School of Art and Design (Suffolk University), Longy School of Music of Bard College, and the New England Conservatory (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States).[55] Other conservatories include the Boston Conservatory and Berklee College of Music, which has made Boston an important city for jazz music.[56]

الثقافة


وسائل الاعلام

 
Copley Square with the Boston Public Library designed by Charles Follen McKim on the left, and Old South Church designed by Charles Amos Cummings on the right.


الرياضة

 
Prudential Tower lit up for the 2007 World Series.
 
A Boston Red Sox baseball game at Fenway Park


السياسة

Presidential election results[57]
Year Democratic Republican
2016 80.6% 221,093 13.9% 38,087
2012 78.8% 200,190 19.3% 48,985
2008 79.0% 185,976 19.4% 45,548
2004 77.3% 160,884 21.4% 44,518
2000 71.7% 132,393 19.7% 36,389
1996 73.8% 125,529 19.6% 33,366
1992 62.4% 114,260 22.9% 41,868
1988 65.2% 122,349 33.2% 62,202
1984 63.4% 131,745 36.2% 75,311
1980 53.3% 95,133 32.9% 58,656
1976 60.4% 115,802 35.3% 67,604
1972 66.2% 139,598 33.3% 70,298
Voter registration and party enrollment اعتبارا من 1 فبراير 2019 (2019-02-01)[58]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Democratic 210,570 50.73%
Republican 24,034 5.79%
Libertarian 1,443 0.35%
Green 403 0.10%
Unaffiliated 175,308 42.23%
الإجمالي 415,103 100%

الرعايه الصحية والمرافق العامة

 
Longwood Medical Area

النقل

 
An MBTA sign at the Chinatown stop.


العلاقات الدولية

The City of Boston has eleven official sister cities:[59]

Boston has formal partnership relationships through a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) with four additional cities or regions:

انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

  1. ^ On the New Style (modern) calendar, anniversaries fall on September 17.

المراجع

الهامش

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  7. ^ "Table 2. Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 (CBSA-EST2011-02)". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Archived from the original (CSV) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
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المصادر

وصلات خارجية