مقدونيا (مملكة قديمة)

(تم التحويل من مقدون)

مقدون بالإنجليزية: Macedon or Macedonia باليونانية: Μακεδονία Makedonía ، هي مملكة قديمة شملت معم الجزء الشمالي من بلاد اليونان القديمة. يحدها من الغرب مملكة إيبرس وإقليم تراقيا من الشرق. أصبحت مقدون في فترة وجيزة أقوى دولة في الشرق الأدنى القديم وخاصة بعد أن غزاها الإسكندر الأكبر.

Macedonia

Μακεδονία
  • 808–168 BC
  • 150–148 BC
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The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)
The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)
العاصمة
اللغات الشائعةAncient Macedonian, Attic Greek, Koine Greek
الدين Greek polytheism, Hellenistic religion
الحكومةMonarchy
King 
• 808–778 BC
Caranus (first)
• 179–168 BC
Perseus (last)
التشريعSynedrion
الحقبة التاريخيةClassical Antiquity
• Founded by Caranus
808 BC
• Vassal of Persia[3]
512/511–493 BC
492–479 BC
359–336 BC
338–337 BC
335–323 BC
323 BC
168 BC
Area
323 BC[4][5]5,200,000 kم2 (2,000,000 ميل2)
CurrencyTetradrachm
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Greek Dark Ages
Achaemenid Macedonia
League of Corinth
Achaemenid Empire
Pauravas
Kingdom of Pergamon
Seleucid Empire
Ptolemaic Kingdom
Macedonia province
خريطة توضح مملكة مقدون القديمة

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التاريخ

الامبراطورية

Left, Bust of Alexander the Great by the Athenian sculptor Leochares, 330 BC, Acropolis Museum, Athens. Right, Bust of Alexander the Great, a Roman copy of the Imperial Era (1st or 2nd century AD) after an original bronze sculpture made by the Greek sculptor Lysippos, Louvre, Paris.
 
امبراطورية الإسكندر ومساره


 
ممالك الديادوخي ح. 301 ق.م.، بعد معركة إپسوس ██ Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter ██ Kingdom of Cassander ██ Kingdom of Lysimachus ██ Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator ██ إپيروس Other ██ Carthage ██ Roman Republic ██ Greek States
 
A golden stater of Philip III Arrhidaeus (r. 323–317 BC) bearing images of Athena (left) and Nike (right)


العصر الهليني


 
Paintings of Hellenistic-era military arms and armor from a tomb in ancient Mieza (modern-day Lefkadia), Imathia, Central Macedonia, Greece, 2nd century BC



النزاع مع روما

[[File:Macedonia and the Aegean World c.200.png|thumb|400px|The Kingdom of Macedonia (orange) under Philip V

[[File:Philip V. 221-179 BCE.jpg|thumb|300px|left|A tetradrachm of Philip V of Macedon (r. 221–179 BC), with the king's portrait on the obverse and Athena Alkidemos brandishing a thunderbolt on the reverse]]


المؤسسات

الرسل الملكيون

Left, the god Dionysos riding a cheetah, mosaic floor in the "House of Dionysos" at Pella, Greece, c. 330–300 BC. Right, a framentary votive relief depicting a youth ladling wine from a krater next to a round table with vases, from the agora of Pella, end of 4th century BC, Archaeological Museum of Pella.

Companions, friends, councils, and assemblies

Left, an atrium with a pebble-mosaic paving, in Pella, Greece. Right, a fragmentary inscription bearing the names of six city archons (politarchs), 2nd century BC, Archaeological Museum of Pella.
Left, a tetradrachm of Perseus of Macedon (r. 179–168 BC), British Museum. Right, The Triumph of Aemilius Paulus (detail) by Carle Vernet, 1789.


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Military

Left, a Macedonian infantryman, possibly a hypaspist, equipped with a hoplon shield and wearing a linothorax cuirass and Thracian helmet; bas relief from the Alexander Sarcophagus, 4th century BC. Right, an ancient Macedonian bronze shield excavated from the archaeological site at Bonče in North Macedonia, dated 4th century BC.

Early Macedonian army


Ethnic identity

   
Terracotta statues depicting ancient Macedonians wearing the kausia, a headgear that led the Persians to refer to the Macedonians as "Yaunã Takabara" ("Greeks with hats that look like shields").[6] Left, Athenian terracotta figurine, c. 300 BC. Right, Macedonian terracotta figurine, 3rd century BC


التكنولوجيا والهندسة

العمارة

The facade of the Macedonian Tomb of the Palmettes in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece, 3rd century BC; decorated by colored Doric and Ionic moldings, the pediment is also painted with a scene of a man and woman reclining together.[7]
Left, fragments of ancient Macedonian painted roof tiles (raking, simas, pan-tiles), Archaeological Museum of Pella, Greece. Right, the Ionic capital of a pilaster from the palace at Pella, Archaeological Museum of Pella.

التكنولوجيا والهندسة العسكرية



العملة والمالية والموارد

 
Tetradrachms (above) and drachms (below) issued during the reign of Alexander the Great, now in the Numismatic Museum of Athens

See also

هناك كتاب ، Macedonia: the Ancient Kingdom of Greece، في معرفة الكتب.



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References

Notes

Citations

  1. ^ Hatzopoulos 1996, pp. 105–106; Roisman 2010, p. 156.
  2. ^ Engels 2010, p. 92; Roisman 2010, p. 156.
  3. ^ أ ب Sprawski 2010, pp. 135–138; Olbrycht 2010, pp. 342–345.
  4. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  5. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  6. ^ Engels 2010, p. 87; Olbrycht 2010, pp. 343–344.
  7. ^ Bolman 2016, pp. 120–121.


المصادر

 
Macedon during Peloponnesian War around 431 BC.
 
Kingdom of Macedon after Philip's II death.
 
مملكة مقدون في أثناء حكم الملك فيليب الثاني
 
The Vergina Sun, the 16-ray star covering what appears to be the royal burial larnax of Philip II of Macedon, discovered in Vergina, Greece.
 
An atrium with a pebble-mosaic paving, in Pella, Greece


External links