افتح القائمة الرئيسية

اوسركون الثاني

(تم التحويل من أوسركون الثاني)

اوسركون الثاني (874 – 850 ق.م)، هو أحد فراعنة الأسرة المصرية الثانية والعشرين في مصر القديمة، وهو ابن الفرعون تاكلوت الأول. and Queen Kapes. He ruled Egypt around 872 BC to 837 BC from Tanis, the capital of this Dynasty. After succeeding his father, he was faced with the competing rule of his cousin, King Harsiese A, who controlled both Thebes and the Western Oasis of Egypt. Osorkon feared the serious challenge posed by Harsiese's kingship to his authority, but, when Harsiese conveniently died in 860 BC, Osorkon II ensured that this problem would not recur by appointing his own son Nimlot C as the High Priest of Amun at Thebes. His younger son Shoshenq was made the High Priest of Ptah in Memphis. In this period of Egypt's history, religious and political power were at their most inseparable.

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فهرست

سياسته الخارجية والبرنامج الأثري

 
Entrance to the Tomb of Osorkon II

Despite his astuteness in dealings with matters at home, Osorkon was forced to be more aggressive on the international scene. The growing power of Assyria meant the latter's increased meddling in the affairs of Israel and Syria - territories well within Egypt's sphere of influence. In 853 BC, Osorkon's forces, in a coalition with those of Israel and Byblos, fought the army of Shalmaneser III at the Battle of Qarqar to a standstill thereby halting Assyrian expansion in Canaan, for a brief while.

نجد في تل بسطة بابا ضخما منحوتا من الجرانيت يخلد الإحتفال باليوبيل الملكي لهذا الملك، وفي تانيس وتل بسطة كذلك عثر على عدد من الأعمدة النخيلية الدقيقة الصنع التي اقتلعت من مدينة "بي رعمسيس" وامتلأت باسمه، والتي تبين كذلك تنحية الإله "ست" وتحريم عبادته ، وأيضا النقوش الجميلة المنحوتة على جدران المقبرة التي أعاد تجهيزها لنفسه في تانيس، والمدفن الذي بناه في مدينة منف لابنه الأكبر الذي كان كبيرا لكهنة بتاح. ومن تذكارات سكرتيره الخاص المدعو "حورمس Hormes، ومن الأثاث الجنائزي للأمير "حورنخت Hornakht" كبير أنبياء آمون الذي دفن في تانيس تشكلت باقة منتقاة من الفنون التطبيقية الرائعة. شيد أوسركون الثاني مقصورة في طيبة عهد بإدارتها لأحد أبنائه الآخرين هو "نامارت "Namart كبير أنبياء آمون. كما كلف حفيده نائب الملك في كوش بإصلاح وترميم المعبد الرئيسي في إلفنتين Elephantine.[1]


مدة حكمه

 
Reliefs from the Tomb of Osorkon II

Osorkon II died around 837 BC and is buried in Tomb NRT I at Tanis. He is now believed to have reigned for more than 30 years, rather than just 25 years. The celebrations of his first Sed Jubilee was traditionally thought to have occurred in his 22nd Year but the Heb Sed date in his Great Temple of Bubastis is damaged and can be also be read as Year 30, as Edward Wente noted.[2] The fact that this king's own grandson, Takelot F, served him as High Priest of Amun at Thebes-as the inscribed Walls of Temple J prove - supports the hypothesis of a longer reign for Osorkon II.

Recently, it has been demonstrated that Nile Quay Text No.14 (dated to Year 29 of an Usimare Setepenamun) belongs to Osorkon II on palaeographical grounds.[3] This finding suggests that Osorkon II likely did celebrate his first Heb Sed in his 30th Year as was traditionally the case with other Libyan era Pharaohs such as Shoshenq III and Shoshenq V. In addition, a Year 22 stela from his reign preserves no mention of any Heb Sed celebrations in this year as would be expected, (see Von Beckerath).

While Osorkon II's precise reign length is unknown, some Egyptologists such as Von Beckerath - in his 1997 book Chronology of the Egyptian Pharaohs[4] - and Aidan Dodson have suggested a range of between 38 to 39 years.[5] However, these much higher figures are not verified by the current monumental evidence. Gerard Broekman gives Osorkon II a slightly shorter reign of 34 Years.[6]

كانت الوصية السياسية التي قدمها الملك إلى وسيط الإله آمون الروحي تطالب ببقاء ذريته في نطاق الإقطاعيات التي أنعم عليهم بها هادفا من ذلك ألا يضمر الأخ لأخيه مشاعر الغيرة . لكن من بداية الجيل التالي سرعان ما اشتبك ورثة تلك الإقطاعيات وأبناء الملوك الجدد في صراعات ومنازعات. وقد علمنا بسقوط ذلك النظام من خلال النصوص العديدة المسهبة التي نقشها أحد أحفاد أوسركون الثاني على جدران معبد الكرنك. ولقد رقى الأمير أوسركون الابن الأكبر للملك تاكلوت الثاني Takelot II إلى مرتبة كبير أنبياء آمون، وكان يتشدق بأسلوب كلامه الملكي ليوارى أعماله السياسية وأوجه نشاطه تحت ستار قرارات أوصى بها إليه الإله آمون و الإله حريشف Herychef، بل إنه اضطر أكثر من مرة إلى استعادة مركزه من أيدي منافسيه ومنازعيه المنحدرين من بعض السلالات القريبة منه.

الزواج والأبناء

Osorkon II is known to be the father of Tjesbastperu, Nimlot C--a High Priest of Amun at Thebes--and Shoshenq, a High Priest of Ptah at Memphis who died young in his father's reign.[7] Nimlot C, in turn, would be the father of Takelot II who later ruled Upper Egypt at the same time that Shoshenq III ruled Lower Egypt.

خليفته

David Aston has convincingly argued in a JEA 75 paper that Osorkon II was succeeded by Shoshenq III at Tanis rather than Takelot II Si-Ese as Kitchen assumed because none of Takelot II's monuments have been found in Lower Egypt where other genuine Tanite kings such as Osorkon II, Shoshenq III and even the short-lived Pami(at 6-7 Years) are mentioned on donation stelas, temple walls and/or annal documents.[8] The only documents which mention a king Takelot in here such as a Royal Tomb at Tanis, a Year 9 donation stela from Bubastis and a heart scarab featuring the nomen 'Takelot Meryamun' — have now been attributed exclusively to king Takelot I. The English Egyptologist Aidan Dodson in his 1994 book, The Canopic Equipment of the Kings of Egypt, observes that Shoshenq III built "a dividing wall, with a double scene showing Osorkon II" and himself "each adoring an unnamed deity" in the antechamber of Osorkon II's tomb.[9] Dodson concludes that while one may argue Shoshenq III erected the wall to hide Osorkon II's sarcophagus, it made no sense for Shoshenq to create such an elaborate relief if Takelot II had really intervened between him and Osorkon II at Tanis for 25 years unless Shoshenq III was Osorkon II's immediate successor. Shoshenq III must, hence, have wished to associate himself with his predecessor - Osorkon II.[10] Consequently, the case for establishing Takelot II as a Twenty-second Dynasty king and successor to Osorkon II disappears, as Dodson writes. Other scholars such as Gerard Broekman and Karl Jansen-Winkeln have also strongly endorsed this position. Gerard Broekman writes in a recent 2005 GM article that "in light of the monumental and geneaological evidence," Aston's Chronology for the position of the 22nd Dynasty kings "is highly preferable" to Kitchen's chronology.[11]


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قبره

The French excavator, Pierre Montet discovered Osorkon II's thoroughly plundered royal tomb at Tanis on February 27 1939. It revealed that Osorkon II was buried in a massive granite sarcophagus with a lid carved from a Ramesside era statue. Only some fragments of a Hawk-headed coffin and canopic jars remained in the robbed tomb to identify him.San el-Hagar

المصادر

  1. ^ پاسكال ڤيرنوس (1999). موسوعة الفراعنة. دار الفكر. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  2. ^ Edward Wente, Review of Kenneth Kitchen's The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt c.1100-650 BC, JNES 35(1976), pp.275-278
  3. ^ Gerard Broekman, "The Nile Level Records of the Twenty-Second and Twenty-Third Dynasties in Karnak," JEA 88(2002), pp.174-178
  4. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, MAS:Philipp von Zabern, (1997), p.98 & p.191
  5. ^ Aidan Dodson, A new King Shoshenq confirmed?, GM 137(1993), p.58
  6. ^ Gerard Broekman, 'The Reign of Takeloth II, a Controversial Matter,' GM 205(2005), pp.31 & 33
  7. ^ Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité, 1991. Christian Settipani, p. 153 and 166
  8. ^ Aston, op. cit., pp.139-153
  9. ^ Aidan Dodson, "The Canopic Equipment of the Kings of Egypt," (Kegan Paul Intl: 1994), p.95
  10. ^ Dodson, op. cit., p.95
  11. ^ Gerard Broekman, 'The Reign of Takeloth II, a Controversial Matter,' GM 205(2005), pp.31