أردشير الأول

أردشير الأول ( Ardashir I ؛ الفارسية الوسيطة: 𐭠𐭥𐭲𐭧𐭱𐭲𐭥، الفارسية الحديثة: اردشیر بابکان، Ardašir Bābakān)، ويُعرف أيضاً بإسم أردشير الموحـِّد[1] ؛ وُلِد 226 توفي 241) هو مؤسس السلالة الساسانية (226-651).

أردشير الأول
𐭠𐭥𐭲𐭧𐭱𐭲𐭥
Ardashir I
شاهنشاه إيران
ArdashirIGoldCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
دينار ذهبي لأردشير الأول، 230 م
ملك پارس
العهد211/2–224
سبقهشاپور
تبعهالمنصب أُلغِيَ
شاهنشاه الامبراطورية الساسانية
العهد224–242
التتويج226
قطسيفون
سبقهأردوان الرابع (الامبراطورية الپارثية)
تبعهشاپور الأول
حاكم مشاركشاپور الأول (240–242)
وُلِدغير معروف
تيرودا، خير، پارس
توفيفبراير 242
الزوجدينگ
مورود
الأنجالشاپور الأول
البيتبيت ساسان
الأبپاباگ أو ساسان
الأمرودك
الديانةالزرادشتية

اسمه أردشير بن بابك بن ساسان، وكان جده ساسان يحب الصيد والفروسية وكان شجاعاً قوياً، وتزوج امرأة من نسل ملوك فارس يعرفون بـ ( البادرنجبين )، فأنجبت له زوجته بابك ، ولما كبر ابنه أنجب أردشير .

ولد في إيران في قرية طيروده من قرى مدينة اصطخر .

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السنوات الأولى

 
‏ الملك أردشير الأول يستغيث بالبطل الأسطوري الفارسي رستم، هذا التمثال موجود في مدينة پرسپوليس.
 
‏ العملة المعدنية الفضية للدولة الساسانية تحمل صورة الملك أردشير الأول وعلى الجهة اليسرى استبدل الساسانيون الآلهة اليونانية بمذبح النار في الديانة الزرادشتية وقد كتبت هذه العملة بالرموز الزرادشتية ، واستبدل النص اليوناني بالنص الفارسي

ولد أردشير الأول أواخر القرن الثاني في المرزبان، وكان أردشير يحكم مدينة اصطخر ثار ضد أخيه وأخذ منه الملك في سنة 208 م، وقام أردشير بالسيطرة على كثير من بلاد فارس والسيطرة على الكثير من المحافظات المجاورة لـ ( كرمان ) و( إصفهان ).

وأثار هذا التوسع انتباه ملك الأرشيكونيين أرتبانوس الرابع (216 -224) ، الملك أردشير الأول سيطر على الإمبراطورية البارثية ، فتآمر الملوك ضده ، فحصلت المعركة بينه وبين الملك أرتبانوس الرابع في ( هرمزدجان ) وقُتِلَ الملك أرتبانوس الرابع ، واستمر الملك أردشير الأول في غزو المحافظات الغربية للإمبراطورية الباراثية وسيطر عليها ، هذا التقدم قاد أردشير الأول إلى مواجهة مع الأكراد ، وقد ألف أردشير بن بابك كتاباً مخطوطاً اسمه ( أعمال أردشير بن بابك ) يذكر فيه المعركة بينه وبينه ملك الأكراد ( مادِج ).

توج أردشير كملك وحيد لبلاد فارس سنة 226 م ، وتم تلقيبه بـ ( شاهنشاه )، وكان هناك قرين للقب ( شاهنشاه ) وهو ( أدهور أناهِد ).

قام أردشير الأول بإنهاء حكم الإمبراطورية الباراثية والذي استمر لـ 400 عام وابتدأ بحكمه الإمبراطورية الساسانية التي استمرت أربعة قرون .

على مدى السنوات القليلة القادمة استمرت الإمبراطورية الساسانية في عهد أردشير الأول بالتوسع إلى الشرق والمنطقة الشمالية الغربية وفتح محافظات ( جرجان ) و ( سيستان ) و ( خراسان ) و ( مرجيانا ) و ( بلخ ) و ( خوارزم ) و ( البحرين ) و ( الموصل ) .

ملوك كوشان وتوران ومكران (مناطق في باكستان) كانوا يرون أن أردشير حاكماً أعلى لهم ، وإجتاح الملك أردشير الأول أرمينيا . وفي سنة 386 م ، وحاول السيطرة على مدينة ( الحضر ) جنوب الموصل والهزوانيين ( الأديابينيين ) بين النهرين ولكن دون جدوى.


الحالة السياسية والدينية للدولة

 
‏ نقش الترسيم في طاق بستان: أردشير (في الوسط) يتلقى ملوكيته من أهورا مزدا (يمين). الإثنان يقفان فوق عدو ساجد. وإلى اليسار، ممسكا "برسوم" (رمز الكهنوت) يقف ميثرا فوق نبات اللوتس، رمز الحكمة المقترن بكل من أبان وأردوي سورا أناهيتا.

الإمبراطورية الساسانية كما أسسها أردشير الأول تميزت عن الإمبراطورية الباراثية التي سبقتها بأمرين :

1 - السيطرة السياسة المركزية القوية .

2 - الدعم السياسي للديانة الزرادشتية .

فأصبحت الديانة الزرادشتية هو دين الإمبراطورية الساسانية الرسمي . قام أردشير بعد تأسيس حكومة مركزية قوية بتقسيم إمبراطوريته إلى أقاليم ، وتم تصميم هذه الأقاليم لمقاومة تأثير المصالح الوراثية والتنافسات الإقطاعية ، لحماية الإمبراطورية الساسانية من التحديات الإقليمية والعسكرية والمصالح الشخصية ، وقام الملك أردشير بتوزيع العوائل المتفرعة من عائلته في الأقاليم لحكمها . أما الأمراء الإقطاعيون كبار السن فقد طلبهم الملك أردشير وأبقاهم في الخدمة العسكرية لقيادة قواتهم المحلية التي يتكون أغلبها من الفلاحين ، طبقة النبلاء القليلة العدد جعلها الملك أردشير مصدراً للقوة العسكرية حيث شكلوا سلاح الفرسان الخاص بالجيش ، والعائلة المالكة وجدت في الجيش قوة موثوقة ومفيدة باستئجار المرتزقة .

الديانة الزرادشتية ونصوصها المقدسة ( أفيستا ) ظهرت في الإمبراطورية الباراثية، ويمكن مشاهدة معابد الديانة الزرادشتية ( أناهيتا ) في مدينة اصطخر شيراز في إيران ، فقد كانت مدينة اصطخر هي العاصمة الأولى للإمبراطورية الساسانية بدايتها في عهد الملك أردشير الأول ، وقد بنى الساسانيون في هذه المدينة معابد النار الزرادشتية .

انتقلت عاصمة الإمبراطورية الساسانية من إصطخر إلى العاصمة الپارثية القديمة المدائن على نهر دجلة. وقد قام أيضاً بإعادة بناء مدينة سلوقية على الضفة المقابلة من دجلة، وكان الرومان قد دمروها عام 165، وأسماها "وه-أردشير". وقد انتعشت التجارة وقد اصلح ميناءي مسين و چرخ.

 
موقع نقش تتويج أردشير في فيروز أباد

الحرب مع روما

في السنوات الأخيرة من حكم الملك أردشير الأول انشغلت الإمبراطورية الساسانية العظيمة بالحرب مع منافسها في الغرب الإمبراطورية الرومانية ، الملك أردشير الأول الذي كان يميل إلى توسيع إمبراطوريته أصابه الإحباط من الغزوات الفاشلة لأرمنيا ، وكان هذا الغزو الساساني لأرمينيا سبباً في تحالف أرمينيا مع الرومان، الملك أردشير الأول كان لا يرى في الأرمن والقوات القوقازية المعادية له معارضاً أساسياً، ولكن كان يرى في روما وجحافلها المعارض الأساسي.

في سنة 230 م قاد الملك أردشير الأول جيشه تجاه المحافظة الرومانية في بلاد الرافدين حيث فشل في حصار قلعة نصيبين، وفي الوقت نفسه توغل فرسانه خلف الحدود الرومانية لتهديد سوريا وقپادوقيا مما جعل الرومان يلجؤون إلى الأساليب الدبلوماسية مع الملك أردشير مذكرين إياه بتفوق الأسلحة الرومانية ولكنه يرفض .

قام الملك أردشير الأول بحملة ثانية فاشلة على القوات الحدودية الرومانية سنة 231 م ، ونتيجة لهجمات الملك أردشير على الإمبراطورية الرومانية قام الإمبراطور الروماني إلكسندر سڤيروس (222 - 235) بالانتقال من روما إلى الشرق ومقيماً مركزاً لقيادة عملياته في مدينة أنطاكية ، ولكن صعوبة نقل القوات الرومانية من الغرب إلى الشرق جعلتهم يستخدمون الأساليب الدبلوماسية مع الملك أردشير ، ولكن الملك أردشير يرفض مرة أخرى .

وفي نهاية الأمر يقوم الإمبراطور الروماني إلكسندر سڤيروس سنة 232 م بقيادة جحافل جيوشه في هجوم ثلاثي الشـُعـَب ضد الفرس ، ولكن قوات الجيوش الرومانية المنفصلة لم تحرز أي تقدم، وينجح الملك أردشير في استغلال الفوضى في الجيوش الرومانية ويركز قواته ضد العدو ويتقدم عبر أرمينيا، واستطاع إيقاف التقدم الروماني، ولكن الرومان تقدموا من الشمال نحو العاصمة الساسانية المدائن فقام أردشير بالزحف على الجيش الروماني من الجنوب وحدثت معركة حاسمة انتهت بانتصار حاسم للملك أردشير رغم معاناة خسائر كبيرة في صفوف الفرس، يـُستدل عليها من عدم محاولة الفرس تعقب الرومان أثناء انسحابهم. واضح أن كلا الزعيمين أصبح لديه سبباً لعدم مواصلة القتال، فسڤيروس عاد إلى اوروبا في العام التالي (233) وأردشير الأول لم يعاود هجماته لعدة سنوات، فربما كان يوفر طاقاته للشرق.

 
قلعة دختر, أو "قلعة الصبية," إيران, بناها أردشير الأول في 209, قبل أن يستطيع في آخر المطاف أن يهزم الدولة الپارثية.


في سنة 237 م قام الملك أردشير الأول ووريثه شاپور الأول (241 -272) بغزو بلاد الرافدين ثانية، وهذا الغزو نتج عنه هجمات ناجحة على نصيبين وحران. المفاجأة التي أحدثها الغزو في روما جعلت الامبراطور الروماني يعيد إحياء مملكة الرها كدولة تابعة للرومان. وفي عام 241، استطاع الملك أردشير الأول وشاپور الأول أخيراً في التغلب على قلعة مدينة الحضر العنيدة، وتوفي الملك أردشير الأول في وقت لاحق من هذه السنة.

الملك أردشير الأول كان ملكاً نشيطاً ومسؤولاً عن نهوض بلاد فارس وتقوية الديانة الزرادشتية، وكان مؤسساً للأسرة الساسانية التي استمرت لأربعة قرون ، ولكن كانت حملاته ضد روما تتصف بالنجاح المحدود، والملك أردشير قدر على عمل أشياء لم يستطع عملها أي فارسي لمدة طويلة كالقوة للدولة الساسانية والردود القوية والجدية أمام حكومة روما وجيوشها ، وهذه النجاحات الكبيرة للملك أردشير الأول مهدت لابنه ووريثه شابور الأول أن يكون قوياً أمام العدو .

 
رسم من نقش صخري من وادي الحمامات بالصحراء الشرقية بمصر: آمون-من (يسار) يقف أمام خرطوش أردشير الأول (يمين). في السنة الخامسة من عهد أردشير الأول، الأسرة 27، الفترة المتأخرة بالتاريخ المصري القديم.

السلالة والنسل

 
Initial coinage of Ardashir I, as King of Persis Artaxerxes (Ardaxsir) V. 205/6–223/4ح. 205/6–223/4.
Obv: Bearded facing head, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara, legend "The divine Ardaxir, king" in Pahlavi.
Rev: Bearded head of Papak, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara, legend "son of the divinity Papak, king" in Pahlavi.

There are different historical reports about Ardashir's ancestry and lineage. According to Al-Tabari's report, Ardashir was son of Papak, son of Sasan. Another statement that exists in Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan and is told the same way in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, states that Ardashir was born as a result of the marriage of Sasan, a descendant of Darius III, with the daughter of Papak, a local governor in the province of Pars.[2] In Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan, which was written after him, Ardashir is announced "a Papakan king with a paternal line from Sasan and a maternal line from Darius III".[3] Daryaee intends to say that according to that line in the text, it can be deduced that Ardashir has claimed his lineage to whoever he could. Relating Ardashir to the legendary Kayanians with the nickname Kay beside connecting himself to Sasan, who has been a guardian and mysterious deity and also to Dara, which is a combination of Darius I and II the Achamenid with local Persian shahs Dara I and II, shows the former's fake lineage.[4]

Since Ardashir had claimed his royal lineage to Sasan, it is important to inspect who Sasan was. First it was composed that the epigraphic form "Ssn" on potterywares and other documents imply that Sasan was a Zoroastrian deity, though he is not mentioned in Avesta or other ancient Iranian texts. Martin Schwartz has recently shown that the deity shown on the potterywares is not related to Sasan, but shows Ssn, an old Semitic goddess that was worshiped in Ugarit in the second millennium B.C. The word "Sasa" is written on coins found in Taxila; it is probable to be related to "Sasan", since the symbols on the mentioned coins are similar to the coins of Shapur I. It is remarked in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh about Sasan's Oriental lineage that might imply that his house had come from the Orient. After all and considering all the difficulties, it can be said that Ardashir claimed his lineage to be belonging to gods and the Sasanians may have raised Sasan's rank to a god's.[5][6] The primary Islamic sources, which are adapted from Sasanian statements, have emphasized on Sasan being a mysticist and hermit and have actually stated India, which is the center of asceticism, as Sasan's origin. That was the only way for Ardashir to forge himself a double noble-religious lineage. It is not strange that Ardashir's religious lineage is emphasized in religious Sasanian statements and his noble lineage is emphasized in royal reports and then they are linked to religious statements about him. Anyway, whoever Sasan was and wherever he lived, he was not a native Persian and the eastern and western Iranian Plateau are mentioned as his origins in the references.[6]

 
Silver drachma of Ardashir I, struck at the Hamadan mint, dated c. 238–239. The obverse of the coin depicts Ardashir I with legend "The divine Mazdayasnian King Ardashir, King of King of the Iranians", while the reverse shows a fire altar with the legend "Ardashir's fire".[7]

Most of foreign sources are unanimous in considering an unknown lineage for Ardashir;[6] for example, Agathias has stated that Papak was a shoemaker who found out from astronomic proofs that Sasan would have a great son; thus Papak allowed Sasan to sleep with the former's wife and the result was Ardashir.[8] Shakki considered Agathias's narrative a useless and vulgar story by the familiar Sergeus, Surianian translator of Khosrow I's court, ordered by the opponents and foes of Sasanians. Shakki said it was obvious Sergeus the Christian had induced that nonsense to Agathias. Like he had cleared Ardashir's family tree, and it was adapted from the imaginations of Christians and the materialist and atheist league. Shakki's reasoning is based on the current norm in marital customs that the children resulting from a woman's marriage with a second spouse (after divorcing her first spouse) will belong to the first spouse.[9] In the three-language inscription of Shapur I's on Ka'ba-ye Zartosht in Naqsh-e Rustam, Sasan is introduced only as a nobleman and Papak as a king.[10]

There are opinions about the validity and authenticity of each of the mentioned narratives. Some have considered Al-Tabari's report suspicious since he presents an elaborate family tree of Ardashir that relates his generation to mythical and mighty ancient Iranian kings. Some consider the reports of Karnamag and Shahnameh more justifiable, since Ardashir being Sasan's son and his adoption by Papak aligns with Zoroastrian norms and customs.[10] However, some have questioned the reports of Karnamag and Shahnameh, considered them mythical and intended to legitimize the founder of the Sasanian dynasty.[3]

Due to the high number of reports about Ardashir's lineage, it is not easy to accept any; though it should not be ignored that most of the founders of dynasties claimed to be descendants of ancient kings in order to become legitimate. About that, Daryaee says: "If Ardashir had been evolved from a noble house, he would have insisted on a report; while various stories show that he intended to gain legitimacy from all Iranian traditions and perhaps foreign tribes."[4]

In sources, Ardashir's religious relations and his father being a cleric are mentioned; so it can be deduced that Ardashir had no connections with royal houses and was only a cleric's son who knew about religion, but was not a cleric himself; and that was how he, by his religious knowledge, found the chance to be the first person in his inscriptions receiving the royal ring from Ahura Mazda, something a Persian nobleman did not need and only a newcomer had to claim to be from the line of gods. It should be mentioned that it was not precedent to Ardashir to take a royal ring from Ahura Mazda, and it is not seen even in Achaemenid inscriptions.[4]


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پارس قبل بزوغ الساسان

 
Drachma of Vadfradad I; the picture behind it is a structure similar to Ka'ba-ye Zartosht.

Persis, the state in which the movement of establishing the new Sasanian government began, had lost its fame by third century AD. Since old times, a new city named Istakhr had risen beside the ruins of Persepolis, an Achaemenid capital which was burnt by troops of Alexander III of Macedon. Although the land's local shahs picked themselves famous Achaemenid names like Dara (Darius) and Ardashir in order to preserve old traditions, that was almost the only remaining instance of the ancient magnificence and greatness.[11] The local governors of Pars that considered themselves the rightful heirs of the Achaemenids, had accepted submitting to the Arsacids during the four and a half century of the latters' reign and always waited for a chance to retake their old glory.[12] They considered the Parthians primordial usurpers who had taken the formers' right by force.[12]

The remnants of Pasargadae and Persepolis could be permanent memorials of the past magnificence of Pars; though the knowledge about the existence of a large empire was almost forgotten.[13]

As of now, not much knowledge is gained about the four hundred-year history of that state, which was once part of the Seleucid Kingdom and then of Parthian Empire, and almost all the knowledge about the political status of Pars – before the rise of Ardashir, depends on the coins which were minted by the local semi-dependent kings; based on the existent information on the Persian coins, at least one local king ruled in Persian lands slightly after the demise of Alexander III. Even if the existence of the names of kings like Dara and Ardashir on the coins of local shahs of the land does not prove that a subsidiary house of the Achaemenids still ruled in Pars, it at least shows the continuance of some of Achaemenid traditions in that land.[10][11]

During the Seleucid era, the Frataraka (local Persian shahs) ruled Pars at the time of the rebellion of Alexander, Molon's brother, against Antiochus III. That shows those local shahs shared power with Seleucid satraps or each of them ruled part of Pars separately.[14] Also in the Parthian era, the local Persian shahs were entitled to mint coins with their own names like some other semi-dependent shahs of the Parthian Empire. During the time, the Persian governors called themselves "Frataraka", which probably meant "governor" based on its synonym achieved from the Aramaic documents of the Achaemenid era. Afterwards, the titles of local governors altered and they named themselves "Shahs". There have been royal crowns and symbols, temple pictures, fireboxes with aflame fires, and symbols of the moon, stars and the portrait of Ahura Mazda minted on coins of the Frataraka that shows the holy fire was adored and the Zoroastrian gods were worshiped and the old creed was permanent in Pars in contrast to other regions.[11]

In a portrait of Papak and his son Shapur carved on Takht-e Jamshid, Papak, while dressed as a priest, squeezes the hilt of his sword by one hand and manipulates the fire of the hearth and adds more firewood to it by the other hand, with his son Shapur taking the royal ring from him. In other pictures of granting the royal medal during the time, meaning granting Khwasak, the mayor of Susa, which is discovered there, and the picture of granting the medal to the governor of Elymais, discovered in Bardneshandeh, the Parthian emperor is granting the royal medal to local shahs; while in the mentioned picture of Papak and his son Shapur in Takht-e Jamshid, it is Papak who is granting the royal ring to Shapur wearing like priests. Lokonin believed that the carving of Papak granting the royal medal to his sone shows that the Sasanians took the power by force in Pars and wished to show their independence from the Parthian emperors; that was why Papak personally grants the royal medal to his son in the mentioned picture.[15][16] Lokonin also believes that the religious clothes and medals of Papak on the pictures and cois of Shapur (his son), show the separation of religious and royal rule -at the time; Papak was the grand priest and his son Shapur was the land's shah.[11] Daryaee believes that the picture shows multiple things; first that the House of Sasan had both the religious and irreligious powers together in Pars; second that the fire creed, related to Zoroastrianism, lived on before the rise of Ardashir; third that the carved picture of Shapur and Papak in Takht-e Jamshid shows the importance of the Achaemenid structure for the Sasanians.[17]

حالة الامبراطورية الپارثية قبل زوالها

After the demise of Commodus, Roman emperor, in 192 AD, a rivalry between his generals, Pescennius Niger and Septimius Severus, arose, and Vologases V, Parthian emperor, decided to support Niger against Severus. According to Herodian's History, the Parthian emperor only managed to request his local following governors to send troops to aid Niger, as Vologases V did not possess a great army. Eventually in 194, Severus won the quest for power in Rome, and he invaded Western Mesopotamia in order to retake the lost regions. The accurate details of the invasion is not known, but Osroene and Nusaybin were retaken anyway. Then Severus returned to Rome due to Clodius Albinus's rebellion; during Severus's return from Mesopotamia, the Parthian Empire was in disarray. In 197, Severus initiated hostilities with the Parthians.[18] Meanwhile, Vologases suppressed a rebellion in the east of the Empire. Narses, governor of Adiabene (a region to the west of current Lake Urmia), disobeyed to accompany Vologases to invade the East to suppress the rebellion. The noncompliance and also Narses's friendly relations with Rome caused Vologases to attack Adiabene, to destroy multiple cities there and to also kill Narses.[19]

Vologases later proceeded towards Nusaybin and laid siege to it, but aborted it due to Roman reinforcements and failed to capture the city. Afterwards, Severus started marching toward Euphrates and to South and took Seleucia and Babylon without resistance, although the Romans contended heavily in late 198 during the fall of Ctesiphon. However, the Romans did not manage to hold the captured regions; they had to retreat due to lack of provisions. The Romans decided to take Hatra while returning, but failed and tried once more in spring 199 to conquer Hatra, and were forced to cede control of Syria with heavy casualties.[18] It must have been that "highly disruptive period of Vologases V's reign" and the raid and destruction of Mesopotamia by Severus when Papak probably united most of Pars under his rule.[20] Apparently a peace treaty was then formed between the two powers, though the ancient historians have had no mention of it. Until Vologases' death in 206 or 207 and also Severus's in 211, the Parthian-Roman relations were peaceful.[18] After Vologases V's death, his son Vologases VI rose to the throne; but shortly afterward, his reign was challenged by his brother Artabanus IV.[18] In about 213, Artabanus launched a rebellion against his brother Vologases and took the rule of a large part of the Parthian Empire; it can be deduced from the coins found in Hamadan that he ruled the Median land.[21]

According to an inscription of his in Susa, the control of the region is considered to have been Artabanus's. Elsewhere, Vologases VI's coins found in Seleucia show his control over the land.[18] In Rome, Caracalla rose to power after the death of Septimius Severus, his father. Although the information about the contest between Artabanus and Vologases is trace, the Latin sources say that Caracalla gave special attention to the internal contest of Parthians and reported the disruption of the Parthians' status to the Roman Senate. Knowledge about the civil war in the Parthian Empire might have encouraged "the idea of a military conquest" in Caracalla and stimulated him towards successes larger than those of his father's (Septimius Severus) in fighting the Parthians.[22] At the time while Emperor Caracalla had already been formulating a plan to start a new war with the Parthians, he sent a request for extradition of two fugitives, a philosopher named Antiochus and an unknown man called Tiridates, to Vologases searching for an excuse to start a war in 214 or early 215; Vologases returned the two fugitives; but Caracalla invaded Armenia anyway.[23][21]

It can be deduced from Caracalla's request from Vologases for returning the two fugitives that the Romans considered Vologases the actual Parthian power and great shah at the time.[21] About one year later in 216, Caracalla made another excuse to attack Parthia; that time he demanded Artabanus (not Vologases) to give him his daughter for marriage, which Artabanus did not accept and the war started in summer 216. According to that request of Caracalla from Artabanus, it is assumed that Aratabanus gained "the upper hand" in his internal contest with Vologases then, though Vologases' coins were minted until 221–222 in Seleucia.[18] Although the exact path of the Romans' invasion is not known, they certainly conquered Erbil, center of Adiabene; apparently the Parthians avoided a large confrontation; but they applied an offensive policy toward Mesopotamia in early 217. That was the time Caracalla, who was heading to Harran, was killed by head of his security detail Macrinus, who showed his inclination towards peace with the Parthians by "putting the blame of starting the war on Caracalla" and "freeing Parthian prisoners"; but Artabanus demanded the Romans' "relinquishing of the whole Mesopotamia", "rebuilding the destroyed cities and fortresses" and "paying compensations for destroying the royal cemetery of Erbil", knowing of having the upper hand.[21]

Macrinus refused the extensive demands of the Parthians and war was restarted and its peak was in a three-day battle in Nusaybin. Although there is controversy about the result of the battle in the views of the ancient world's historians, the aftermath of the battle was obviously Roman defeat. After the end of the war, peace negotiations began and resulted in a peace treaty in 218 according to which the Romans paid 50 million dinars to the Parthians and kept Armenia and Northern Mesopotamia. It was probably in about 220 that the local Persian governors (Ardashir I) started taking far and close lands. At the time, Artabanus did not pay much attention to his actions and decided to fight him when it had become too late. Eventually, Ardashir ended the life of the House of Arsaces in the Battle of Hormozdgan and founded the Sasanian dynasty.[21] However, the end of the Parthian dynasty did not mean an endpoint for all Parthian houses. Movses Khorenatsi, Armenian historian, has quoted some reports of the roles and aids of some Parthian houses, like Suren and Ispahbudhan, in Ardashir's uprising.[24]

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "Sasanian Dynasty", A. Shapur Shahbazi, Encyclopædia Iranica, (July 20, 2005).[1]
  2. ^ Wiesehöfer. Ardašīr I i. History.
  3. ^ أ ب Daryaee. Sasanian History and Culture.
  4. ^ أ ب ت Daryaee. Sasanian Empire Untold.
  5. ^ Daryaee. Sasanian Kingdom.
  6. ^ أ ب ت Daryaee (November 17, 2012). "Ardaxšīr and the Sasanian's Rise to Power". Studia Classica et Orientalia.
  7. ^ Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh; Stewart, Sarah (2010). The Sasanian Era (in الإنجليزية). I.B.Tauris. pp. 25–28. ISBN 9780857733092.
  8. ^ Frye. Babak.
  9. ^ Shakki. Who Was Sasan?.
  10. ^ أ ب ت Frye. Political Persian History During the Sasanians.
  11. ^ أ ب ت ث Lokonin. Sasanian Persian Civilization.
  12. ^ أ ب Bayani. Parthian Dusk and Sasanian Dawn.
  13. ^ Frye. Political Persian History During the Sasanian Era.
  14. ^ Frye. Ancient Persian Legacy.
  15. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة :1
  16. ^ Guillemin. Zoroastrianism.
  17. ^ Daryaee. Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire.
  18. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح Schippmann. "Balāš", Encyclopædia Iranica.
  19. ^ Hansman. "Arbela", Encyclopædia Iranica.
  20. ^ Frye. Political Persian History in the Sasanian Era.
  21. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Schippmann. "Artabanus", Encyclopædia Iranica.
  22. ^ Kettenhofen. "Caracalla", Encyclopædia Iranica.
  23. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة :0
  24. ^ Pourshariati. Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian–Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran.

المصادر


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المراجع

  • تاريخ الأمم والملوك للطبري .
  • الكامل في التاريخ لابن الأثير .
  • ويكيبيديا الإنجليزية .
  • Christensen, A. 1965: "Sassanid Persia". The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XII: The Imperial Crisis and Recovery (A.D. 193-324). Cook, S.A. et al, eds. Cambridge: University Press, pp 109-111, 118, 120, 126-130.
  • Oranskij, I. M. 1977: Les Langues Iraniennes. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck, pp 71-76. ISBN 2-252-01991-3.
  • Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak
أردشير الأول
سبقه
بلاش السادس وأردوان الرابع
شاهنشاه فارس
226 - 241
تبعه
شاپور الأول