ون‌ژو

(تم التحويل من Wenzhou)

ون‌ژو (تُنطق [wə́n.tʂóʊ] ( استمع)؛ الون‌ژوية: [ʔy33-11 tɕiɤu33-32الصينية المبسطة: 温州)، هي مدينة على مستوى محافظة في جنوب شرق مقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ في الصين. تقع ون‌ژو في أقصى جنوب شرق مقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ حيث تصلها حدودها مع ليشوي من الغرب، تاي‌ژو من الشمال، وفوجيان من الجنوب. المدينة محاطة بالجبال، بحر الصين الشرقي، 436 جزيرة، بينما تمتد أراضيها الوطيئة على ساحل بحر الصين الشرقي، والذي يبلغ طوله 355 كم. معظم مساحة ون‌ژو أراضي جبلية حيث تصنف 76 بالمائة من مساحتها البالغة 11.784 كم² كجبال وتلال.[3] يقال أن ون‌ژو بها 7/10 الجبال، 1/10 المياه، و2/10 المزارع.[بحاجة لمصدر]

ون‌ژو
Wenzhou

温州市
مدينة ون‌ژو.
مدينة ون‌ژو.
موقع مدينة ون‌ژو في ژى‌جيانگ.
موقع مدينة ون‌ژو في ژى‌جيانگ.
ون‌ژو Wenzhou is located in الصين
ون‌ژو Wenzhou
ون‌ژو
Wenzhou
موقع ون‌ژو في الصين.
الإحداثيات: 28°00′N 120°42′E / 28.000°N 120.700°E / 28.000; 120.700Coordinates: 28°00′N 120°42′E / 28.000°N 120.700°E / 28.000; 120.700
البلد الصين
المقاطعةژى‌جيانگ
تقسيمات على مستوة الناحية9
الحكومة
 • أمانة الحزب الشيويعژو جيانگ‌يونگ (周江勇)
 • العمدةژانگ گنگ (张耕)
المساحة
 • البر12٬255٫74 كم² (4٬731٫97 ميل²)
 • الحضر
1٬243٫4 كم² (1٬243٫6 ميل²)
التعداد
 (تعداد 2010)[1]
 • مدينة بمستوى محافظة9٫122٫102
 • Urban
3٫039٫439
 • الكثافة الحضرية0٫0٬024/km2 (0٫0٬024/sq mi)
 • العمرانية
6٫642٫592
 • الترتيب في الصين
15
منطقة التوقيتUTC+8 (توقيت الصين)
الرمز البريدي
325000
مفتاح الهاتف0577
ن.م.إ. (2012)[2]365 بليون CNY
(59.44 بليون دولار)
ن.م.إ. للفرد45.667 CNY
(7.436 دولار)
لوحة القيادةC
أيزو 3166-2cn-33-03
اللغات المنطوقةون‌ژوي
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.wenzhou.gov.cn
ون‌ژو
Wenzhou (Chinese characters).svg
"Wenzhou" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese温州
Traditional Chinese溫州
WuIu1-ciou1 (Wenzhounese)
Uen1tseu1 (Shanghainese)
Literal meaning"Wen[qiao Mountains] Prefecture"

في التعداد الصيني 2010، كان هناك 3.039.500 شخص يعيشون في منطقة ون‌ژو الحضرية؛[1] المساحة الداخلة ضمن ولايتها (والتي تشمل مدينتين تابعتين وستة نواحي) ويصل عدد سكانها 9.122.100 نسمة، 31.16% منهم مقيمون غير محليون من خارج ون‌ژو.[4]

كانت ون‌ژو تعرف في الأصل باسم يونگ‌جيا (بالصينية: 永嘉[5] وكانت ون‌ژو ميناءاً للتجارة الخارجية المزدهرة، والذي ظل محتفظاً بمكانته عليه حتى يومنا هذا. تقع المدينة في منطقة جبلية، ونتيجة لذلك، فقد عزلت لمعظم سنوات تاريخها عن بقية البلاد، مكونة ثقافة ولغة محلية شديدة التميز ليس فقط عن بقية الصين ولكن عن المناطق المجاورة أيضاً. اشتهرت كذلك بمهاجريها الذين تركوا أراضيهم الأم متجهين إلى أوروپا والولايات المتحدة، والذين اشتهروا بكونهم رواد الأعمال الذين بدأوا بانشاء مطاعم، متاجر للبيع بالجملة والتجزئة في بلدان المهجر. شعب ون‌ژو يشكل عدد ضخم من العرقية الصينية في إيطاليا (حيث يشكلون 90% من جميع المقيمين الصينين)، فرنسا، وإسپانيا.

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التاريخ

التاريخ القديم

Wenzhou has a history which goes back to about 2500 BC, when it became known for its pottery production as one of the cities of origin of celadon in ancient China.

Wenzhou was the capital of the ancient Dong'ou Kingdom which existed from 191 BC until it was conquered by Minyue Kingdom in 138 BC.

About 80% of the people in Wenzhou trace their ancestry from Fujian, the vast majority of them coming from northern Fujian[6]

الصين الامبراطورية

In the early 2nd century BC, shortly after the destruction of Qin dynasty, military and political leader Zou Yao (驺摇) of Wenzhou helped the emperor Gaozu of Han, the first emperor of Han Dynasty, defeat the prominent warlord Xiang Yu of Qin Dynasty. After the victory, emperor Hui of Han, the second emperor of Han dynasty named Zhou Yao the King of Dong'ou (Wenzhou), and under the administration of emperor Hui, Wenzhou became the capital of the Dong'ou Kingdom which is the modern-day area of southern Zhejiang.

Around 760AD in Tang dynasty, the founding emperor Emperor Gaozu of Tang named Yongkia (earlier as Dong'ou) by its current name Wenzhou because of its mild weather.

التاريخ الحديث

Throughout its history, Wenzhou's traditional economic role has been as a port giving access to the mountainous interior of southern Zhejiang Province. In early European sources, the name Wenzhou-Fu or -Foo was often transcribed Ouen-tcheou-fou after the accounts of French-speaking missionaries.[7] In 1876, Wenzhou was opened for tea exports, but no foreign settlement was ever established there. Between 1937 and 1942, during the Second Sino-Japanese War (i.e., World War II), Wenzhou achieved importance as one of the few ports still under Chinese control. It declined in the later years of the war, but began to recover after coastal trade along the Zhejiang coast was re-established in 1955.


فنگ‌شوي (风水) بمدينة ون‌ژو

المدينة الوحيدة في الصين من تصميم گوو پو

شعب التميز وأرض الحكمة

There is a popular saying in China that reflects the status of the city of Wenzhou related to the Fengshui of Wenzhou which is "People of Excellence and Land of Wisdom" (人傑地靈), as the local Wenzhounese peoples are usually described in China as the people of excellence and the city of Wenzhou is usually praised as the city of wisdom.[8][9][10]

الجغرافيا

 
على ساحل خليج دايوو في مديرية كانگ‌نان.



المناخ



بيانات مناخ ون‌ژو (1971−2000)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 25.6
(78.1)
26.2
(79.2)
29.5
(85.1)
31.3
(88.3)
35.7
(96.3)
36.8
(98.2)
39.6
(103.3)
38.1
(100.6)
38.0
(100.4)
35.0
(95)
29.4
(84.9)
25.9
(78.6)
39٫6
(103٫3)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 12.2
(54)
12.4
(54.3)
15.3
(59.5)
20.6
(69.1)
24.7
(76.5)
28.3
(82.9)
32.2
(90)
31.9
(89.4)
28.8
(83.8)
24.8
(76.6)
20.1
(68.2)
15.2
(59.4)
22٫2
(72٫0)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 8.0
(46.4)
8.5
(47.3)
11.4
(52.5)
16.3
(61.3)
20.8
(69.4)
24.6
(76.3)
28.0
(82.4)
28.0
(82.4)
24.9
(76.8)
20.4
(68.7)
15.5
(59.9)
10.4
(50.7)
18٫1
(64٫6)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 5.0
(41)
5.7
(42.3)
8.6
(47.5)
13.3
(55.9)
18.0
(64.4)
22.0
(71.6)
25.0
(77)
25.0
(77)
21.9
(71.4)
17.2
(63)
12.1
(53.8)
6.9
(44.4)
15٫1
(59٫1)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) −4.5
(23.9)
−3.9
(25)
−1.7
(28.9)
2.4
(36.3)
9.0
(48.2)
14.9
(58.8)
17.9
(64.2)
19.1
(66.4)
13.7
(56.7)
5.7
(42.3)
0.2
(32.4)
−3.5
(25.7)
هطول mm (inches) 58.3
(2.295)
82.7
(3.256)
145.1
(5.713)
161.7
(6.366)
203.4
(8.008)
245.5
(9.665)
178.4
(7.024)
250.1
(9.846)
204.9
(8.067)
95.0
(3.74)
74.7
(2.941)
42.6
(1.677)
1٬742٫4
(68٫598)
Humidity 76 79 82 83 84 88 84 82 81 77 74 72 80٫2
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13.5 14.8 19.0 18.4 18.4 18.1 14.7 16.6 13.4 10.3 9.4 8.1 174٫7
Sunshine hours 113.2 90.5 96.4 119.5 122.0 126.9 214.8 213.3 166.2 157.0 138.2 148.0 1٬706٫0
Source: هيئة الأرصاد الجوية الصينية[11]


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الادارة

 
مركز التجارة العالمية في ون‌ژو.
 
روي‌آن، إحدى المدن التابعة تحت ولاية ون‌ژو.



خريطة
# الاسم هان‌زي پن‌ين السكان
(تعداد 2000)
السكان
(تعداد 2010)
المساحة(كم2)
1 Lucheng District 鹿城区 Lùchéng Qū 875,006 1,293,300 294.38
2 Longwan District 龙湾区 Lóngwān Qū 204,935 749,300 279
3 Ouhai District 瓯海区 Ōuhǎi Qū 835,607 996,900 614.5
6 Dongtou District 洞头区 Dòngtóu Qū 96,744 87,700 100
4 مدينة روي‌آن 瑞安市 Ruì'ān Shì 1,207,788 1,424,700 1271
5 Yueqing City 乐清市 Yuèqīng Shì 1,162,765 1,389,300 1174
7 Yongjia County 永嘉县 Yǒngjiā Xiàn 722,390 789,200 2674
8 Pingyang County 平阳县 Píngyáng Xiàn 740,448 761,700 1042
9 Cangnan County 苍南县 Cāngnán Xiàn 1,167,589 1,184,600 1272
10 Wencheng County 文成县 Wénchéng Xiàn 264,878 212,100 1271
11 Taishun County 泰顺县 Tàishùn Xiàn 279,799 233,400 1762

الاقتصاد

 
شارع يوما للتسوق.

Wenzhou exports food, tea, wine, jute, timber, paper, Alunite (a non-metallic mineral used to make alum and fertilizer). Alunite is abundant and Wenzhou claims to be the "Alunite Capital of the World". Its 10 main industries each exceeding 1.5 billion dollars are electrical machinery, leather products, general equipment, power supply, plastic manufacturing, textile and garment, transport equipment, chemical products, metal products and metal processing.

From the 1990s, low-voltage electric appliances manufacturing became one of the major industries in Wenzhou, with some of the large private enterprises setting up joint ventures with GE and Schneider.

In 1994, exploration for oil and natural gas commenced in the East China Sea 100 kم (328,084 قدم) off the coast of Wenzhou. Companies such as Texaco, Chevron, Shell and JAPEX have started to drill for oil but the operations have been largely unsuccessful.

Wenzhou is a city full of vibrant business activities. When China began economic reforms in 1978, Wenzhou was the first city in China to set up individual and private enterprises as well as shareholder cooperatives. It has also taken the lead in carrying out financial system reform and structural reform in townships. Being a pioneer in utilizing marketing mechanism to develop urban constructions, Wenzhou has won a number of firsts in China and set many national records.

From 1978 through 2016, the GDP of Wenzhou, a third-tier city in China, has increased from 1.32 billion RMB to 504.54 billion RMB with the gross fiscal revenue increasing from 0.135 billion RMB to 72.4 billion RMB, and the disposable net per capita income for rural residents increasing from 113.5 RMB to 22,985 RMB. The per capita disposable income for urban residents increased from 422.6 RMB in 1981 to 47,785 RMB in 2016, which is the among the highest in China.


مشروع ريادي للاصلاح المالي

In late March 2012, China's State Council announced that Wenzhou would be the site of a pilot project for the reform of private investment rules. The city had been a significant source of illegal loans, and this project would legalize and provide a regulatory framework for such activities. It has been seen not only as an attempt to legitimize Wenzhou's private finance market, but also as a model for cleaning up underground lending in China as a whole.[12]

محل ميلاد الاقتصاد الخاص للصين

In the early days of economic reforms, local Wenzhounese took the lead in China in developing a commodity economy, household industries and specialized markets. Many thousands of people and families were engaged in household manufacturing to develop individual and private economy (private enterprise). Up till now, Wenzhou has a total of 240,000 individually owned commercial and industrial units and 130,000 private enterprises of which 180 are group companies, 4 among China's top 500 enterprises and 36 among national 500 top private enterprises. There are 27 national production bases such as "China's Shoes Capital" and "China's Capital of Electrical Equipment", China's 40 famous trademarks and China's famous-brand products and 67 national inspection-exempt products in the city.[بحاجة لمصدر] The development of private economy in Wenzhou has created the "Wenzhou Economic Model", which inspires the modernization drive in China.[بحاجة لمصدر]

The city of Wenzhou is a world leader in lighter manufacturing with over 500 such companies in the city.[13] The plastic weaving cluster in Wenzhou comprised 1600 enterprises in 2001, employing 42,000 people with an annual output value of 20 billion Yuan. The Local cluster comprised 400 manufacturers in 2001 with a total output of 5 billion Yuan, representing 65 percent of the domestic market share. The cluster is the first in China in terms of market share and sold it products to 60 countries.[14]

There are many areas in which people of Wenzhou opened the first example of private economy in post-1949 China. For instance, Juneyao Airlines started in July 1991, which is the first private airline company in China. Jinwen Rail Way is also the first rail way company which is built with private capital.

المناطق الصناعية

  • Wenzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone

Wenzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established and approved by State Council in 1992. The main traffic system around the zone include No.104 National Highway, Ningbo-Wenzhou Expressway and Wenzhou Bridge. It is located near to Wenzhou International Airport and Wenzhou Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electrical equipment, electronic information, chemical medicine, building materials, and textiles.[15]

  • Wenzhou Oujiang River Estuary Industrial Zone

Located in the east of the city proper, it has an overall planned area of 3.3 million square kilometers, with industrial focuses mainly on logistics, cultual and tourism industry, smart manufacturing, information technology, as well as electronics and petrochemical industry near the coastal area of Dongtou.

النقل

الجوي

السكك الحديدية

 
محطة قطارات جنوب ون‌ژو.




. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

محل ميلاد الأوپرا الصينية

المعجزات الأربعة لأسرة يوان

رواية الپيپا

نانسي ريگان وأغنية العود

الأشكال الأربعة لأوپرا نان في أسرة مينگ

مسقط رأس الرياضيات في الصين

Home of Mathematics in China

Wenzhou has a long history of mathematics and many mathematical records in modern China are made by local Wenzhounese mathematicians and scholars. In 1896, the father of Oracle Bone Script decipherment, Wenzhounese scholar Sun Yirang, founded the first-ever mathematics academy in the history of China, Ruian Mathematics Academy (瑞安學計館) in Wenzhou. A year later, in 1897, local Wenzhounese Huang Qingcheng founded the first-ever periodical of mathematics in China, "Suan Xue Bao" (算学報). In 1899, a mathematical association was established in Wenzhou, named "Ruian Heaven Calculation Association" (瑞安天算學社), making the history of being the very first regional mathematical association in the history of China.[16][17][18][19][20][21]

Wenzhou is renowned as the cradle of mathematicians in China and the world; it has given births to over 200 mathematicians known both internationally and domestically in the past 100 years. According to numerous reports, in the 20th century, over one-fourth to one-third of chairs of mathematics department of colleges and mathematical associations all over China were local Wenzhounese mathematicians and scholars. During 2002 International Mathematical Union conference in Beijing, a case study named "analysis of vast communal formation of Wenzhounese mathematicians" (温籍数学家群体成因分析) was discussed by mathematicians from all over the world. The goal of analyzing the case study was to understand and acknowledge the significance cultural influence of Wenzhounese mathematicians and their contributions to mathematics. The case study was also brought up during the conference to analyze the future trend of cultivating a new generation of mathematicians in China and around the world. Such a rare phenomenon has never existed in the history of the world as throughout the history of the city, Wenzhou has given births to more mathematicians more than any other city in the world.[22][23]

In an interview with local Wenzhounese mathematician, one of the pioneers of mathematics in modern China Su Buqing,[24] conducted by Wenzhounese science fiction writer Ye Yonglie, many unknown details of the local Wenzhou mathematics culture were revealed. Ye Yonglie was told by Su Buqing that "many of the chairs of math departments of major universities in China were local Wenzhounese and in the conferences of International Mathematical Union, the local language of Wenzhounese is the unofficial and second language of the union besides official language English." Moreover, when Ye Yonglie asked Su Buqing whether "the commonly shared Wenzhounese cuisine culture of consuming Large yellow croaker was one of the major reasons of the vast formation of local mathematicians", Su Buqing answered "No, no, no. It's rather because of the fact that the entire area of Wenzhou is too poor to do science, and it only takes the cost of a pencil to do math, therefore, most of the Wenzhounese people just started to do math, and then, generations of local mathematicians just kept coming out of the city."[25]

تأسيس التعليم العالي وصناعة التكنولوجيا المتقدمة في تايوان

Wenzhounese mathematician Shu Shien-Siu is today considered as the father of high-tech industry in Taiwan while the high-tech industry today is considered to be the biggest contributor to Taiwan's economy. When Siu was the Minister of Science and Technology from 1973 to 1980, he proposed to establish the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park in Hsinchu in 1976.

After Siu's evolutionary proposal, rounds of debate about the location of Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park unfolded. Chiang Ching-kuo argued that the park should be built in Longtan District in Taoyuan considering the potential benefits that could be drawn from National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology and future relationship between the military field and the park. However, Shu Shien-Siu argued that the park should be built in Hsinchu because what Taiwan and the park needed was creativity and private economy power that would stem from the people instead of the government and the military. Therefore, Siu said that it was not a wise decision to draw too much relation between the military and the science and industrial park. Also, Longtan District was a relatively remote place as compared to Hsinchu and thus, the potential of park would be greatly diminished if it were to be built in Longtan District.

More importantly, Siu's decision made in 1976 is commonly praised today as he foresaw the right model of the park. Siu wanted the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park to be like Silicon Valley which is adjacent to Stanford University and University of California, Berkeley. Thinking differently from Chiang Ching-kuo, Siu saw the potential advantages and tremendous resources the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park could benefit from the National Tsing Hua University and National Chiao Tung University. Therefore, Siu determined to manage to build the park in Hsinchu, where both universities are located at.

Today, Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park is commonly considered as the Silicon Valley of the Orient and the high-tech industry stands as the biggest contributor to Taiwan's economy.

تعليم الرياضيات في تايوان

In 1961, Shu Shien-Siu founded the Department of Mathematics at National Tsing Hua University, arguably the most prestigious university of Taiwan. A year later in 1962, Siu founded the Summer Mathematics Conference, the first-ever mathematical conference in the history of Taiwan.[26]

When Siu became the president of National Tsing Hua University in 1970, there were only 3 academic departments and no college on campus and the university only held a population of over 660 people including faculty members. In order to expand the size of the university and contribute to the growth of Taiwan, Siu organised to establish the College of Engineering that consists of 5 Departments and expanded the Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science by transforming it into the College of Nuclear Science which consists of 2 Departments and 1 Institute. During 1971 to 1973, Siu managed to employee a total of 165 professors with Doctoral Degree. Also, during his presidency, Siu carried out the 15-year strategic plan for the university and placed heavy emphasis on construction of buildings on campus such as the Department of Chemistry, the auditorium, the gymnasium and dormitories for students and housing buildings for academic staff as Siu sought to increase the bond between the academic staff and the students.[26][27][28]

By the time he left National Tsing Hua University in 1975, the university had a total of 9 Departments, 3 Colleges, and 13 Institutes with a student population of over 2200(including graduate students) and academic staff population of over 160. In 1975, after Siu's 5 years of presidency, National Tsing Hua University placed 1st in all 3 fields of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry in Taiwan.[28]

As Siu was deeply influenced by the Yongjia School of Thought when he grew up in Wenzhou, during his presidential career at the university, Siu placed heavy emphasis on the idea of practicality instead of the traditional Chinese belief of the importance of theory, and also made it clear that as students, the interaction with the society will always be more important than that within the campus. One of the most influential quotes of Siu is "What we need the most are the practitioners, who directly involve, but not the theorists" (我们最需要的是实行家,直接的参与,而非理论家). That main idea held by Siu to build the university in its early stage of development is almost identical as one of the central philosophies of Yongjia School of Thought, the cultural gene of the city of Wenzhou. Such a unique form of philosophy of Siu would later be proven to have a tremendous impact on school and Taiwan's history as today, National Tsing Hua University is known for its emphasis on practicality in Taiwan.[26][27][28]

الثقافة والديموغرافيا

اللغات

مقال رئيسي: ون‌ژوية



الديانات

 
معبد گوانون‌ژوي (يسار) and Huang ancestral shrine (يمين) في مديرية لوچنگ.



"قدس الصين"

السياحة

 
لوحة مطوية من عهد أسرة تشينگ تصور سلسلة جبال يان‌دانگ.


 
جسر مغطى.



الفن والأدب

ثقافة الأعمال

التعليم

التعليم الابتدائي والمتوسط

التعليم العالي

المواقع الرسمية لجامعات وكليات ون‌ژو

مشاهير ون‌ژو

انظر أيضاً

المصادر

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المراجع

  • Economic profile for Wenzhou at HKTDC
  • Nanlai Cao, Constructing China's Jerusalem: Christians, Power and Place in the City of Wenzhou, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2010, 232 pp.

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