أسرة سونگ

(تم التحويل من Song Dynasty)

أسرة سونگ (صينية تقليدية: 宋朝; پن‌ين: Sòng Cháo؛ ويد-جايلز: Sung Ch'ao؛ بالإنگليزية: Song Dynasty) أسرة حاكمة في الصين بين 960-1279 م. أسس الأسرة Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou، منهياً فترة الأسر الخمس والممالك العشر، The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties in northern China. After decades of armed resistance defending southern China, it was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led أسرة يوان.


A map showing the territory of the Song, Liao, and Western Xia dynasties. The Song occupies the east half of what constitutes the territory of the modern China, except for the northernmost areas (modern Inner Mongolia and above). Western Xia occupies a small strip of land surrounding a river in what is now Inner Mongolia and Ningxia, and the Liao occupy a large section of what is today north-east China.
The Song dynasty at its greatest extent in 1111
اللغات المشتركةMiddle Chinese
Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion, Islam, Chinese Nestorian Christianity
• 960–976
Emperor Taizu (founder of Northern Song)
• 1127–1162
Emperor Gaozong (founder of Southern Song)
• 1278–1279
Zhao Bing (last)
الحقبة التاريخيةPostclassical Era
• Established
4 February 960[1]
• Signing of the Chanyuan Treaty with Liao
• Beginning of Mongol invasion
• Fall of Lin'an
• Battle of Yamen (end of dynasty)
19 March 1279
958 est.[2]800,000 kم2 (310,000 ميل2)
980 est.[2]3,100,000 kم2 (1,200,000 ميل2)
1127 est.[2]2,100,000 kم2 (810,000 ميل2)
1204 est.[2]1,800,000 kم2 (690,000 ميل2)
• 1120s
  • Northern: 80-110,000,000[3]
  • Southern: 65,000,000[4]
ن.م.إ.  (الإسمي)تقدير
• للفرد
26.5 taels[5]
العملةJiaozi, Guanzi, Huizi, Chinese cash, Chinese coin, copper coins, etc.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
ژو اللاحقة
Later Shu
Southern Han
Southern Tang
Northern Han
أسرة يوان
Jurchen Jin
اليوم جزء منChina
أسرة سونگ
Song dynasty (Chinese characters).svg
"Song dynasty" in Chinese characters

انقسم عهد أسرة سونگ إلى قسمين: سونگ الشمالية و سونگ الجنوبية. During the Northern Song (بالصينية: 北宋; 960–1127), the capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China. The Southern Song (بالصينية: 南宋; 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of its northern half to the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars. At that time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze and established its capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou). Although the Song dynasty had lost control of the traditional Chinese heartlands around the Yellow River, the Southern Song Empire contained a large population and productive agricultural land, sustaining a robust economy. In 1234, the Jin dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1259 while besieging the mountain castle Diaoyucheng, Chongqing. His younger brother Kublai Khan was proclaimed the new Great Khan and in 1271 proclaimed himself Emperor of China, establishing the Yuan dynasty.[6] After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279 after defeating the Southern Song in the Battle of Yamen, and reunited China under the Yuan dynasty.[7]

Technology, science, philosophy, mathematics, and engineering flourished during the Song era. The Song dynasty was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty saw the first recorded chemical formula of gunpowder, the invention of gunpowder weapons such as fire arrows, bombs, and the fire lance. It also saw the first discernment of true north using a compass, first recorded description of the pound lock, and improved designs of astronomical clocks. Economically, the Song dynasty was unparalleled with a gross domestic product three times larger than that of Europe during the 12th century.[8][9] China's population doubled in size between the 10th and 11th centuries. This growth was made possible by expanded rice cultivation, use of early-ripening rice from Southeast and South Asia, and production of widespread food surpluses.[10][11] The Northern Song census recorded 20 million households, double of the Han and Tang dynasties. It is estimated that the Northern Song had a population of 90 million people,[12] and 200 million by the time of the Ming dynasty.[13] This dramatic increase of population fomented an economic revolution in pre-modern China.

The expansion of the population, growth of cities, and emergence of a national economy led to the gradual withdrawal of the central government from direct involvement in economic affairs. The lower gentry assumed a larger role in local administration and affairs. Social life during the Song was vibrant. Citizens gathered to view and trade precious artworks, the populace intermingled at public festivals and private clubs, and cities had lively entertainment quarters. The spread of literature and knowledge was enhanced by the rapid expansion of woodblock printing and the 11th-century invention of movable-type printing. Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, and emphasized a new organization of classic texts that established the doctrine of Neo-Confucianism. Although civil service examinations had existed since the Sui dynasty, they became much more prominent in the Song period. Officials gaining power through imperial examination led to a shift from a military-aristocratic elite to a scholar-bureaucratic elite.

وكانت أول حكومة في تاريخ العالم تصدر بنكنوت أو مال ورقي،b[›] وأول قوة سياسية بالصين تنشئ أسطول حربي دائم.c[›]

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كانت أسرة سونگ واحدة من عدة دويلات تنافست على بسط النفوذ في شرقي آسيا، وقد ارتبط بقاء الأسرة بقدرة الحكومة على تأسيس علاقات راسخة مع الجوار. وبعد توحيد الشمال والجنوب تحوّل الامبراطور تاي ـ تسونگ إلى الحدود الشمالية الشرقية (بكين اليوم) وحاول استعادة ست عشرة ولاية يسكنها صينيون أصليون من شعوب الخيتان Khitanas، وهم اتحاد كونفدرالي قبلي، كان قد أسس أسرة لياو Liao منذ عام 907. بيد أن أسرة سونگ منيت بالهزيمة ووقعت اتفاقية سلام مع أسرة لياو وافقت بموجبها على دفع مئة ألف أونصة فضة و200000 ثوب حرير سنوياً للمنتصر. ومع أن تلك الاتفاقية كانت مذلة، إلا أنها وفرت، إلى جانب جيش أسرة سونگ الدفاعي الكبير، سلاماً نسبياً مدة قرن تقريباً.

وعلى الحدود الشمالية الغربية كان هناك اتحاد قبلي آسيوي آخر من شعوب تانگوت Tangut الذين أسسوا أسرة تسي تسيا Xixia، وكانت دولة التانگوت تتلقى جزية سنوية من أسرة سونگ أيضاً بعد اتفاق السلام الذي أبرم عام 1044. أما قبائل التبت فكانت تشغل إقليم تورفان Turfan (إقليم شنغهاي اليوم) على الحدود الغربية، في حين كانت مملكة تا-لي Ta-Li المستقلة تقع على الحدود الجنوبية الغربية في الإقليم الذي يعرف اليوم باسم يونّان Yunnan.

استمرت تلك الأوضاع حتى عشرينيات القرن الثاني عشر حين تحالفت أسرة سونگ مع أسرة تشين Chin عام 1119، في محاولة لاستعادة الولايات الست عشرة من أسرة لياو. استطاعت دولة شين هزم أسرة لياو عام 1125، لكنها قلبت ظهر المجن وفرضت حصاراً على عاصمة سونگ الشمالية، كاي-فنگ.

وفي عام 1126 أسرت أسرة لياو أفراد البلاط الملكي لأسرة سونگ وأرسلتهم إلى الشمال، بيد أن أحد الأمراء تجنب الوقوع في الأسر واستعاد تجميع الأسرة في الجنوب في هانگ-تشو Hang-Chou وحكم باسم الامبراطور كاو تسونگ Kao Tsung.

اختار كاو تسونگ عاصمة لنفسه أطلق عليها «لين ـ آن» Lin - an (هانغ ـ شو اليوم)، وأبرم اتفاقية سلام مع أسرة شين في الشمال عام 1141، على الرغم من معارضة قادته العسكريين والسياسيين الذين طالبوا ببذل ما أمكن لاستعادة الشمال.

كان كاو تسونگ معجباً بطريقة أسرة هان Han في الإدارة المدنية ومقلداً لها، وقد نجحت بيروقراطية أسرة سونگ في عملها مدة طويلة قبل أن يبدأ انهيار السلالة. ولم يكن انهيار أسرة سونگ مفاجئاً، وانتهت كغيرها من السلالات التي سبقت، فقد بدأ المغول بقيادة جنكيزخان تحركهم إلى الصين بهجوم على إحدى دويلات الصين في الشمال عام 1211. وبعد نجاح المغول في الشمال، وبعد عقود من تعايشهم الصعب مع أسرة سونگ، زحفوا بقيادة حفيد جنكيزخان نحو قوات سونگ عام 1250، وصمدت قوات سونگ في وجه المغول إلى أن سقطت عاصمتهم عام 1276.

توفي آخر أباطرة أسرة سونگ بعد ثلاث سنوات (1279) في أثناء هروبه.

كانت حقبة أسرة سونگ نقطة بداية لعلاقة جديدة بين الحكومة والمجتمع، وتمثل أواخر العهد الامبراطوري في الصين، وقد حكمت أسرة سونگ نحو 100 مليون نسمة بالاعتماد على بيروقراطية مركزية قوية يقودها موظفون علماء.

سونگ الشمالية 959-1126

الامبراطور تايزو من سونگ (حكم 960-976) وحد الصين بغزو الأراضي الأخرى في عهده، منهياً انقلاب فترة الأسر الخمس والممالك العشر. في كاي‌فنگ، أسس حكومة مركزية قوية لتدير شؤون الامبراطورية. أمن الاستقرار الاداري بتعزيز نظام اختبار الخدمة المدنية لرفع كفاءة بيروقراطيو الدولة بالمهارات والجدارة (بدلاً من المناصب الأرستقراطية أو العسكرية) وشجع المشروعات التي تضمن كفاءة الاتصالات عبر الامبراطورية. في إحدى هذه المشروعات، رسم رسامو الخرائط خريطة مفصلة لكل مقاطعة ومدينة ثم تم جمعها في أطلس ضخم.[14] شجع الامبراطور تايزو أيضاً العلوم الرائدة والابتكارات التقنية بدعمه مثل هذه النوعية من الأعمال مثل برج الساعة الفلكية الذي صممه وبناه المهندس ژانگ سيشون.[15]

الامبراطور تايزو من سونگ (حكم 960–976)، لوحة پورتريه البلاط.

أقام بلاط سونگ علاقات دبلوماسية مع الهند چولا، الخلافة الفاطمية، سري‌ڤيجايا، خانية قرةخانات في آسيا الوسطى، وبلدان أخرى كانت أيضاً شريكاً تجارياً مع اليابان.[16][17][18][19] ومع عذلك، فكان لدول الجوار القريبة من الصين أعظم الأثر على سياستها الداخلية والخارجية. منذ انشائها في عهد تايزو، أسرة سونگ alternated بين الحرب والدبلوماسية مع عرقية الخيتان من اسرة لياو في شمال شرق البلاد ومع شعوب تانگوت من شيا الغربية تحت سيطرة الخيتان التي تعتبر تاريخياً جزء من الصين الداخلية.[20] ومع ذلك، فقد صُدت قوات سونگ على يد قوات لياو التي شاركت في الحملات العدوانية السنوية على أراضي سونگ الشمالية حتى عام 1005، عندما تم التوقيع على معاهدة شان‌يوان التي أنهت الاشتباكات على الحدود الشمالية. أُجبرت أسرة سونگ على دفع جزية للخيتان، بالرغم من أن دفع هذه الجزية لم تلحق ضرراً كبيراً باقتصاد سونگ الكلي حيث أن الكتيان كانوا يعتمدون بشكل كبير على إستيراد كميات ضخمة من البضائع من أسرة سونگ.[21] والأهم من ذلك، اعترفت دولة سونگ بدولة لياو as its diplomatic equal.[22] سعت أسرة سونگ إلى تحقيق العديد من الانتصارات العسكرية على التانگوت في أوائل القرن 11، وبلغت ذروتها في الحملة التي قادها العالم، الجنرال ورجل الدولة شنو كوو (1031–1095).[23] ومع ذلك، ففي نهاية الأمر باءت هذه الحملة بالفشل بسبب عصيان من قبل الضابط العسكري المنافس لشن للأوامر المباشرة، وفي النهاية فُقدت الأراضي التي تم الاستيلاء عليها من شيا الغربية.[24] دارت كذلك حرب كبرى ضد أسرة لي من ڤيتنام من عام 1075 حتى 1077 بسبب نزاع حدودي وقطعت أسرة سونگ علاقاتها التجارية مع مكلة داي ڤييت.[25] بعدما منيت أسرة لي بأضرار جسيمة في غارة على گوانگ‌شي، وتوغل قائد سونگ، گوو كوي (1022–1088) في ثانگ لونگ (هاوني المعاصرة).[26] إلا أن الخسائر الجسيمة على الجانبيت دفعت قائد لي ثونگ كايت (1019–1105) إلى تقديم مبادرات سلام، مما سمح للجانبين بالإنسحاب من المجهود الحربي؛ وفي عام 1082 تم تبادل الأراضي التي استولت عليها سونگ ولي، وكذلك أسرى الحرب.[27]

Pillow, sandstone with white and brown slip black, incised decoration, Northern Song dynasty, 12th century

During the 11th century, political rivalries thoroughly divided members of the court due to the ministers' differing approaches, opinions, and policies regarding the handling of the Song's complex society and thriving economy. The idealist Chancellor, Fan Zhongyan (989–1052), was the first to receive a heated political backlash when he attempted to make such reforms as improving the recruitment system of officials, increasing the salaries for minor officials, and establishing sponsorship programs to allow a wider range of people to be well educated and eligible for state service.[28]

أبريق شاي من الپورسلين بنمط چينگ‌باي، من جينگ‌دى‌ژن، أسرة سونگ.

After Fan was forced to step down from his office, Wang Anshi (1021–1086) became Chancellor of the imperial court. With the backing of Emperor Shenzong (1067–1085), Wang Anshi severely criticized the educational system and state bureaucracy. Seeking to resolve what he saw as state corruption and negligence, Wang implemented a series of reforms called the New Policies. These involved land value tax reform, the establishment of several government monopolies, the support of local militias, and the creation of higher standards for the Imperial examination to make it more practical for men skilled in statecraft to pass.[29]

The reforms created political factions in the court. Wang Anshi's "New Policies Group" (Xin Fa), also known as the "Reformers", were opposed by the ministers in the "Conservative" faction led by the historian and Chancellor Sima Guang (1019–1086).[30] As one faction supplanted another in the majority position of the court ministers, it would demote rival officials and exile them to govern remote frontier regions of the empire.[29] One of the prominent victims of the political rivalry, the famous poet and statesman Su Shi (1037–1101), was jailed and eventually exiled for criticizing Wang's reforms.[29]

While the central Song court remained politically divided and focused upon its internal affairs, alarming new events to the north in the Liao state finally came to its attention. The Jurchen, a subject tribe of the Liao, rebelled against them and formed their own state, the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).[31] The Song official Tong Guan (1054–1126) advised Emperor Huizong (1100–1125) to form an alliance with the Jurchens, and the joint military campaign under this Alliance Conducted at Sea toppled and completely conquered the Liao dynasty by 1125.

However, the poor performance and military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchens, who immediately broke the alliance, beginning the Jin–Song Wars of 1125 and 1127; during the latter invasion, the Jurchens captured not only the capital, but the retired emperor Huizong, his successor Emperor Qinzong, and most of the Imperial court.[31] This took place in the year of Jingkang (الصينية التقليدية: 靖康) and it is known as the Jingkang Incident (الصينية التقليدية: 靖康之恥).

The remaining Song forces regrouped under the self-proclaimed Emperor Gaozong of Song (1127–1162) and withdrew south of the Yangtze to establish a new capital at Lin'an (modern Hangzhou). The Jurchen conquest of North China and shift of capitals from Kaifeng to Lin'an was the dividing line between the Northern and Southern Song dynasties.

سونگ الجنوبية 1127-1279

A portrait of Emperor Gaozong of Song (r. 1127–1162)
Southern Song in 1142. The western and southern borders remain unchanged from the previous map. However, the north of the Qinling Huaihe Line was under the control of the Jin dynasty. The Xia dynasty's territory generally remained unchanged. In the southwest, the Song dynasty bordered a territory about a sixth its size، أسرة دالي.

Although weakened and pushed south along the Huai River, the Southern Song found new ways to bolster its strong economy and defend its own state against the Jin dynasty. They had able military officers such as Yue Fei and Han Shizhong. The government sponsored massive shipbuilding and harbor improvement projects, and the construction of beacons and seaport warehouses in order to support maritime trade abroad and the major international seaports, such as Quanzhou, Guangzhou, and Xiamen, that were sustaining China's commerce.[32][33][34] To protect and support the multitudes of ships sailing for maritime interests into the waters of the East China Sea and Yellow Sea (to Korea and Japan), Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea, it was a necessity to establish an official standing navy.[35] The Song dynasty therefore established China's first permanent navy in 1132,[34] with a headquarters at Dinghai.[36] With a permanent navy, the Song were prepared to face the naval forces of the Jin on the Yangtze River in 1161, in the Battle of Tangdao and the Battle of Caishi. During these battles the Song navy employed swift paddle wheel driven naval vessels armed with trebuchet catapults aboard the decks that launched gunpowder bombs.[36] Although the Jin forces commanded by Emperor Hailing boasted 70,000 men on 600 warships, and the Song forces only 3,000 men on 120 warships,[37] the Song dynasty forces were victorious in both battles due to the destructive power of the bombs and the rapid assaults by paddle wheel ships.[38] The strength of the navy was heavily emphasized after that. A century after the navy was founded it had grown in size to 52,000 fighting marines.[36] The Song government confiscated portions of land owned by the landed gentry in order to raise revenue for these projects, an act which caused dissension and loss of loyalty amongst leading members of Song society but did not stop the Song's defensive preparations.[39][40][41] Financial matters were made worse by the fact that many wealthy, land-owning families—some which had officials working for the government—used their social connections with those in office in order to obtain tax-exempt status.[42]

Clockwise from upper left: Anonymous painting of Cai Wenji and her Xiongnu husband (Zuoxianwang) dating from the Southern Song. A head sculpture of an arhat, 11th Century. تمثال بوذي‌ساتڤا خشبي جالس، أسرة جين (1115-1234). A wooden Bodhisattva statue from the Song dynasty (960–1279)

Although the Song dynasty was able to hold back the Jin, a new considerable foe came to power over the steppe, deserts, and plains north of the Jin dynasty. The Mongols, led by Genghis Khan (r. 1206–1227), initially invaded the Jin dynasty in 1205 and 1209, engaging in large raids across its borders, and in 1211 an enormous Mongol army was assembled to invade the Jin.[43] The Jin dynasty was forced to submit and pay tribute to the Mongols as vassals; when the Jin suddenly moved their capital city from Beijing to Kaifeng, the Mongols saw this as a revolt.[44] Under the leadership of Ögedei Khan (r.1229–1241), both the Jin dynasty and Western Xia dynasty were conquered by Mongol forces.[44][45] The Mongols also invaded Korea, the Abbasid Caliphate of the Middle East, and Kievan Rus'. The Mongols were at one time allied with the Song, but this alliance was broken when the Song recaptured the former imperial capitals of Kaifeng, Luoyang, and Chang'an at the collapse of the Jin dynasty. The Mongol leader Möngke Khan led a campaign against the Song in 1259 but died on August 11 during the Battle of Diaoyu Fortress in Chongqing.[46] Möngke's death and the ensuing succession crisis prompted Hulagu Khan to pull the bulk of the Mongol forces out of the Middle East where they were poised to fight the Egyptian Mamluks (who defeated the remaining Mongols at Ain Jalut). Although Hulagu was allied with Kublai Khan, his forces were unable to help in the assault against the Song, due to Hulagu's war with the Golden Horde.[47]

Kublai continued the assault against the Song, gaining a temporary foothold on the southern banks of the Yangtze.[48] Kublai made preparations to take Ezhou, but a pending civil war with his brother Ariq Böke—a rival claimant to the Mongol Khaganate—forced Kublai to move with the bulk of his forces back north.[49] In Kublai's absence, the Song forces were ordered by Chancellor Jia Sidao to make an opportune assault, and succeeded in pushing the Mongol forces back to the northern banks of the Yangzi.[50] There were minor border skirmishes until 1265, when Kublai won a significant battle in Sichuan.[51] From 1268 to 1273, Kublai blockaded the Yangzi River with his navy and besieged Xiangyang, the last obstacle in his way to invading the rich Yangzi River basin.[51] Kublai officially declared the creation of the Yuan dynasty in 1271. In 1275, a Song force of 130,000 troops under Chancellor Jia Sidao was defeated by Kublai's newly appointed commander-in-chief, general Bayan.[52] By 1276, most of the Song territory had been captured by Yuan forces.[45] In the Battle of Yamen on the Pearl River Delta in 1279, the Yuan army, led by the general Zhang Hongfan, finally crushed the Song resistance. The last remaining ruler, the 8-year-old emperor Emperor Huaizong of Song committed suicide, along with Prime Minister Lu Xiufu [53] and 800 members of the royal clan. On Kublai's orders, carried out by his commander Bayan, the rest of the former imperial family of Song were unharmed; the deposed Emperor Gong was demoted, being given the title 'Duke of Ying', but was eventually exiled to Tibet where he took up a monastic life. The former emperor would eventually be forced to commit suicide under the orders of Kublai's great-great grandson, Gegeen Khan, out of fear that Emperor Gong would stage a coup to restore his reign.[54]

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المجتمع والثقافة

A city gate of Shaoxing, Zhejiang province, built in 1223 في عهد أسرة سونگ
The White Jasmine Branch, 12th century painting. Small paintings in the style of round-albums that captured realistic scenes of nature were widely popular في فترة سونگ الجنوبية.
Calligraphy of Huang Tingjian (1045-1105), a renowned calligrapher and associate of سو شي.

وكان أبرز ما شهده عهد أسرة سونگ ظهور الكونفوشيوسية الحديثة Neo - Confucianism فلسفةً أخلاقيةً سادت بلاد الصين حتى القرن العشرين. وكانت إنجازات عصر سونگ في الشعر ورسم المناظر الطبيعية والخزف إنجازات فائقة، واتسمت الكتب بروعة طباعتها، وكان لطباعة الأعمال الكونفوشيوسية الحديثة أثر واضح في نشر الأدب والتعليم بين الناس.

اختبارات الخدمة المدنية والطبقة العليا

Clockwise from upper left: A Literary Garden, by Zhou Wenju, 10th century; Zhou Wenju, Go players, Palace Museum, Beijing; "Four Generals of Zhongxing" by Southern Song dynasty artist Liu Songnian (1174–1224); the renowned general Yue Fei (1103–1142) is the second person from the left in the latter painting.

كما كان لازدهار الأكاديميات الخاصة والمدارس الحكومية فضل في تخريج أعداد متزايدة من المتنافسين في امتحانات الخدمة المدنية (كانت تجري امتحانات الخدمة المدنية لانتقاء الأفضل في تولي وظائف الدولة). وطورت إدارة الدولة سياسة الخدمة الاجتماعية الشاملة التي جعلت تلك المرحلة واحدة من أفضل المراحل الإنسانية في تاريخ الصين.

During this period greater emphasis was laid upon the civil service system of recruiting officials; this was based upon degrees acquired through competitive examinations, in an effort to select the most capable individuals for governance. Selecting men for office through proven merit was an ancient idea in China. The civil service system became institutionalized on a small scale during the Sui and Tang dynasties, but by the Song period, it became virtually the only means for drafting officials into the government.[55] The advent of widespread printing helped to widely circulate Confucian teachings and to educate more and more eligible candidates for the exams.[56] This can be seen in the number of exam takers for the low-level prefectural exams rising from 30,000 annual candidates in the early 11th century to 400,000 candidates by the late 13th century.[56] The civil service and examination system allowed for greater meritocracy, social mobility, and equality in competition for those wishing to attain an official seat in government.[57] Using statistics gathered by the Song state, Edward A. Kracke, Sudō Yoshiyuki, and Ho Ping-ti supported the hypothesis that simply having a father, grandfather, or great-grandfather who had served as an official of state did not guarantee one would obtain the same level of authority.[57][58][59] Robert Hartwell and Robert P. Hymes criticized this model, stating that it places too much emphasis on the role of the nuclear family and considers only three paternal ascendants of exam candidates while ignoring the demographic reality of Song China, the significant proportion of males in each generation that had no surviving sons, and the role of the extended family.[58][59] Many felt disenfranchised by what they saw as a bureaucratic system that favored the land-holding class able to afford the best education.[57] One of the greatest literary critics of this was the official and famous poet Su Shi. Yet Su was a product of his times, as the identity, habits, and attitudes of the scholar-official had become less aristocratic and more bureaucratic with the transition of the periods from Tang to Song.[60] At the beginning of the dynasty, government posts were disproportionately held by two elite social groups: a founding elite who had ties with the founding emperor and a semi-hereditary professional elite who used long-held clan status, family connections, and marriage alliances to secure appointments.[61] By the late 11th century, the founding elite became obsolete, while political partisanship and factionalism at court undermined the marriage strategies of the professional elite, which dissolved as a distinguishable social group and was replaced by a multitude of gentry families.[62]

Donglin Academy, an educational institution equivalent to modern-day college. It was originally built in 1111 during the Northern Song dynasty.
Scholar in a Meadow, Chinese painting of the 11th century.

Due to Song's enormous population growth and the body of its appointed scholar-officials being accepted in limited numbers (about 20,000 active officials during the Song period), the larger scholarly gentry class would now take over grassroots affairs on the vast local level.[63] Excluding the scholar-officials in office, this elite social class consisted of exam candidates, examination degree-holders not yet assigned to an official post, local tutors, and retired officials.[64] These learned men, degree-holders, and local elites supervised local affairs and sponsored necessary facilities of local communities; any local magistrate appointed to his office by the government relied upon the cooperation of the few or many local gentry in the area.[63] For example, the Song government—excluding the educational-reformist government under Emperor Huizong—spared little amount of state revenue to maintain prefectural and county schools; instead, the bulk of the funds for schools was drawn from private financing.[65] This limited role of government officials was a departure from the earlier Tang dynasty (618–907), when the government strictly regulated commercial markets and local affairs; now the government withdrew heavily from regulating commerce and relied upon a mass of local gentry to perform necessary duties in their communities.[63]

The gentry distinguished themselves in society through their intellectual and antiquarian pursuits,[66][67][68] while the homes of prominent landholders attracted a variety of courtiers, including artisans, artists, educational tutors, and entertainers.[69] Despite the disdain for trade, commerce, and the merchant class exhibited by the highly cultured and elite exam-drafted scholar-officials, commercialism played a prominent role in Song culture and society.[70] A scholar-official would be frowned upon by his peers if he pursued means of profiteering outside of his official salary; however, this did not stop many scholar-officials from managing business relations through the use of intermediary agents.[71]

القانون والعدالة والطب الشرعي

The Broken Balustrade, 12th century painting.

العسكر وطرق القتال

A Song Dynasty naval ship with a traction trebuchet catapult, from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044.

الفنون والآداب والفلسفة

A wooden Bodhisattva statue from the Song Dynasty (960-1279)
Portrait of the Zen Buddhist monk Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المأكل والملبس

A painting of Emperor Renzong of Song, showing the long robes and the official black-colored silken headgear worn by the emperor.


City views of Song dynasty from paintings. Clockwise from upper left: A Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127) era Chinese painting of a water-powered mill for grain, with surrounding river transport. The bridge scene from Zhang Zeduan's (1085–1145) painting Along the River During Qingming Festival. Ships depicted in Along the River During Qingming Festival. Leifeng Pagoda in the Southern Song Dynasty by Li Song.

شهدت الحضارة الصينية في عهد أسرة سونگ تطوراً مذهلاً، فقد كان للثورة الزراعية والصناعية المعتمدة على التطورات التقنية أثر مهم في النمو الاقتصادي، وتطورت التجارة تطوراً واسعاً، فشهدت البلاد تنظيماً جيداً لنقابات التجار والصناع، واتسع استخدام العملة الورقية، وازدهرت عدة مدن على طول الأنهار الرئيسة والساحل الجنوبي الشرقي، كما أن تقنيات بناء السفن الجديدة واستخدام البوصلة ساعدت على تنشيط التجارة الخارجية.

The Song dynasty had one of the most prosperous and advanced economies in the medieval world. Song Chinese invested their funds in joint stock companies and in multiple sailing vessels at a time when monetary gain was assured from the vigorous overseas trade and domestic trade along the Grand Canal and Yangtze River.[72] Prominent merchant families and private businesses were allowed to occupy industries that were not already government-operated monopolies.[73][74] Both private and government-controlled industries met the needs of a growing Chinese population in the Song.[73][74] Artisans and merchants formed guilds that the state had to deal with when assessing taxes, requisitioning goods, and setting standard workers' wages and prices on goods.[72][75]

The iron industry was pursued by both private entrepreneurs who owned their own smelters as well as government-supervised smelting facilities.[76] The Song economy was stable enough to produce over a hundred million kilograms (over two hundred million pounds) of iron product a year.[77] Large-scale Deforestation in China would have continued if not for the 11th-century innovation of the use of coal instead of charcoal in blast furnaces for smelting cast iron.[77] Much of this iron was reserved for military use in crafting weapons and armouring troops, but some was used to fashion the many iron products needed to fill the demands of the growing domestic market. The iron trade within China was advanced by the construction of new canals, facilitating the flow of iron products from production centres to the large market in the capital city.[78]

Junks from the 13th century featured hulls with watertight compartments.
A painting shows a pair of cargo ships with stern-mounted rudders accompanied by a smaller craft.

The annual output of minted copper currency in 1085 reached roughly six billion coins.[10] The most notable advancement in the Song economy was the establishment of the world's first government issued paper-printed money, known as Jiaozi (see also Huizi).[10] For the printing of paper money, the Song court established several government-run factories in the cities of Huizhou, Chengdu, Hangzhou, and Anqi.[79] The size of the workforce employed in paper money factories was large; it was recorded in 1175 that the factory at Hangzhou employed more than a thousand workers a day.[79]

The economic power of Song China heavily influenced foreign economies abroad. The Moroccan geographer al-Idrisi wrote in 1154 of the prowess of Chinese merchant ships in the Indian Ocean and of their annual voyages that brought iron, swords, silk, velvet, porcelain, and various textiles to places such as Aden (Yemen), the Indus River, and the Euphrates in modern-day Iraq.[80] Foreigners, in turn, affected the Chinese economy. For example, many West Asian and Central Asian Muslims went to China to trade, becoming a preeminent force in the import and export industry, while some were even appointed as officers supervising economic affairs.[81][82] Sea trade with the South-west Pacific, the Hindu world, the Islamic world, and East Africa brought merchants great fortune and spurred an enormous growth in the shipbuilding industry of Song-era Fujian province.[83] However, there was risk involved in such long overseas ventures. In order to reduce the risk of losing money on maritime trade missions abroad, wrote historians Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais:

Jiaozi, a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China. Numismatists regard it as the first paper money in history.
The printing plate of Jiaozi from the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1279).

[Song era] investors usually divided their investment among many ships, and each ship had many investors behind it. One observer thought eagerness to invest in overseas trade was leading to an outflow of copper cash. He wrote, "People along the coast are on intimate terms with the merchants who engage in overseas trade, either because they are fellow-countrymen or personal acquaintances. ... [They give the merchants] money to take with them on their ships for purchase and return conveyance of foreign goods. They invest from ten to a hundred strings of cash, and regularly make profits of several hundred percent".[60]

التكنولوجيا والعلم والهندسة

Gunpowder warfare

Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD.

Advancements in weapons technology enhanced by gunpowder, including the evolution of the early flamethrower, explosive grenade, firearm, cannon, and land mine, enabled the Song Chinese to ward off their militant enemies until the Song's ultimate collapse in the late 13th century.[84][85][86][87][88] The Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044 was the first book in history to provide formulas for gunpowder and their specified use in different types of bombs.[89] While engaged in a war with the Mongols, in 1259 the official Li Zengbo wrote in his Kezhai Zagao, Xugaohou that the city of Qingzhou was manufacturing one to two thousand strong iron-cased bombshells a month, dispatching to Xiangyang and Yingzhou about ten to twenty thousand such bombs at a time.[90] In turn, the invading Mongols employed northern Chinese soldiers and used these same types of gunpowder weapons against the Song.[91] By the 14th century the firearm and cannon could also be found in Europe, India, and the Middle East, during the early age of gunpowder warfare.

Measuring distance and mechanical navigation

As early as the Han dynasty, when the state needed to accurately measure distances traveled throughout the empire, the Chinese relied on a mechanical odometer.[92] The Chinese odometer was a wheeled carriage, its gearwork being driven by the rotation of the carriage's wheels; specific units of distance—the Chinese li—were marked by the mechanical striking of a drum or bell as an auditory signal.[93] The specifications for the 11th-century odometer were written by Chief Chamberlain Lu Daolong, who is quoted extensively in the historical text of the Song Shi (compiled by 1345).[94] In the Song period, the odometer vehicle was also combined with another old complex mechanical device known as the south-pointing chariot.[95] This device, originally crafted by Ma Jun in the 3rd century, incorporated a differential gear that allowed a figure mounted on the vehicle to always point in the southern direction, no matter how the vehicle's wheels turned about.[96] The concept of the differential gear that was used in this navigational vehicle is now found in modern automobiles in order to apply an equal amount of torque to a car's wheels even when they are rotating at different speeds.

النوابغ والاختراعات والفلك

Star map of the south polar projection for Su's celestial globe, Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao, 1092
One of the star charts from Su Song's Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao published in 1092, featuring cylindrical projection similar to Mercator projection and the corrected position of the pole star thanks to Shen Kuo's astronomical observations.[97][98] Su Song's celestial atlas of five star maps is actually the oldest in printed form.[99]

Polymath figures such as the scientists and statesmen Shen Kuo (1031–1095) and Su Song (1020–1101) embodied advancements in all fields of study, including botany, zoology, geology, mineralogy, metallurgy, mechanics, magnetics, meteorology, horology, astronomy, pharmaceutical medicine, archeology, mathematics, cartography, optics, art criticism, hydraulics, and many other fields.[67][100][101]

Shen Kuo was the first to discern magnetic declination of true north while experimenting with a compass.[102][103] Shen theorized that geographical climates gradually shifted over time.[104][105] He created a theory of land formation involving concepts accepted in modern geomorphology.[106] He performed optical experiments with camera obscura just decades after Ibn al-Haytham was the first to do so.[107] He also improved the designs of astronomical instruments such as the widened astronomical sighting tube, which allowed Shen Kuo to fix the position of the pole star (which had shifted over centuries of time).[108] Shen Kuo was also known for hydraulic clockworks, as he invented a new overflow-tank clepsydra which had more efficient higher-order interpolation instead of linear interpolation in calibrating the measure of time.[108]

An interior diagram of the astronomical clocktower of Kaifeng featured in Su Song's book, written by 1092 and published in printed form by the year 1094.
A depiction of the 13th century "long serpent" rocket launcher. The holes in the frame are designed to keep the rockets separate, from the 1510 edition of Wujing Zongyao.
The oldest known illustration of an endless power-transmitting chain drive. It was used for coupling the main driving shaft of his clock tower to the armillary sphere gear box.

Su Song was best known for his horology treatise written in 1092, which described and illustrated in great detail his hydraulic-powered, 12 م (39 قدم) tall astronomical clock tower built in Kaifeng. The clock tower featured large astronomical instruments of the armillary sphere and celestial globe, both driven by an early intermittently working escapement mechanism (similarly to the western verge escapement of true mechanical clocks appeared in medieval clockworks, derived from ancient clockworks of classical times).[109][110] Su's tower featured a rotating gear wheel with 133 clock jack mannequins who were timed to rotate past shuttered windows while ringing gongs and bells, banging drums, and presenting announcement plaques.[111] In his printed book, Su published a celestial atlas of five star charts. These star charts feature a cylindrical projection similar to Mercator projection, the latter being a cartographic innovation of Gerardus Mercator in 1569.[97][98]

The Song Chinese observed supernovae, including SN 1054, the remnants of which would form the Crab Nebula. Moreover, the Soochow Astronomical Chart on Chinese planispheres was prepared in 1193 for instructing the crown prince on astronomical findings. The planispheres were engraved in stone several decades later.[112][113]

الرياضيات وعلم الخرائط

Facsimile of Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of Four Unknowns
The Yu Ji Tu, or "Map of the Tracks of Yu", carved into stone in 1137, located in the Stele Forest of Xi'an. This 3 قدم (0.91 م) squared map features a graduated scale of 100 li for each rectangular grid. China's coastline and river systems are clearly defined and precisely pinpointed on the map. Yu refers to the Chinese deity described in the geographical chapter of the Book of Documents, dated 5th–3rd centuries BCE.

There were many notable improvements to Chinese mathematics during the Song era. Mathematician Yang Hui's 1261 book provided the earliest Chinese illustration of Pascal's triangle, although it had earlier been described by Jia Xian in around 1100.[114] Yang Hui also provided rules for constructing combinatorial arrangements in magic squares, provided theoretical proof for Euclid's forty-third proposition about parallelograms, and was the first to use negative coefficients of 'x' in quadratic equations.[115] Yang's contemporary Qin Jiushao (c. 1202–1261) was the first to introduce the zero symbol into Chinese mathematics;[116] before this blank spaces were used instead of zeroes in the system of counting rods.[117] He is also known for working with the Chinese remainder theorem, Heron's formula, and astronomical data used in determining the winter solstice. Qin's major work was the Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections published in 1247.

Geometry was essential to surveying and cartography. The earliest extant Chinese maps date to the 4th century BCE,[118] yet it was not until the time of Pei Xiu (224–271) that topographical elevation, a formal rectangular grid system, and use of a standard graduated scale of distances was applied to terrain maps.[119][120] Following a long tradition, Shen Kuo created a raised-relief map, while his other maps featured a uniform graduated scale of 1:900,000.[121][122] A 3 قدم (0.91 م) squared map of 1137—carved into a stone block—followed a uniform grid scale of 100 li for each gridded square, and accurately mapped the outline of the coasts and river systems of China, extending all the way to India.[123] Furthermore, the world's oldest known terrain map in printed form comes from the edited encyclopedia of Yang Jia in 1155, which displayed western China without the formal grid system that was characteristic of more professionally made Chinese maps.[124] Although gazetteers had existed since 52 CE during the Han dynasty and gazetteers accompanied by illustrative maps (Chinese: tujing) since the Sui dynasty, the illustrated gazetteer became much more common in the Song dynasty, when the foremost concern was for illustrative gazetteers to serve political, administrative, and military purposes.[125]

الطباعة بحروف متحركة

أحد خرائط النجوم من كتاب سو سونگ المعنوَن Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao المنشور في 1092، ويعرض اسقاط مركاتور والموقع المصحح لـ pole star thanks to Shen Kuo's astronomical observations.[126] Su Song's celestial atlas of 5 star maps is actually the oldest in printed form.[127]

The innovation of movable type printing was made by the artisan Bi Sheng (990–1051), first described by the scientist and statesman Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088.[128][129] The collection of Bi Sheng's original clay-fired typeface was passed on to one of Shen Kuo's nephews, and was carefully preserved.[129][130] Movable type enhanced the already widespread use of woodblock methods of printing thousands of documents and volumes of written literature, consumed eagerly by an increasingly literate public. The advancement of printing deeply affected education and the scholar-official class, since more books could be made faster while mass-produced, printed books were cheaper in comparison to laborious handwritten copies.[56][60] The enhancement of widespread printing and print culture in the Song period was thus a direct catalyst in the rise of social mobility and expansion of the educated class of scholar elites, the latter which expanded dramatically in size from the 11th to 13th centuries.[56][131]

The movable type invented by Bi Sheng was ultimately trumped by the use of woodblock printing due to the limitations of the enormous Chinese character writing system, yet movable type printing continued to be used and was improved in later periods. The Yuan dynasty scholar-official Wang Zhen (fl. 1290–1333) implemented a faster typesetting process, improved Bi's baked-clay movable type character set with a wooden one, and experimented with tin-metal movable type.[132] The wealthy printing patron Hua Sui (1439–1513) of the Ming dynasty established China's first metal movable type (using bronze) in 1490.[133] In 1638, the Peking Gazette switched their printing process from woodblock to movable type printing.[134] Yet it was during the Qing dynasty that massive printing projects began to employ movable type printing. This includes the printing of sixty-six copies of a 5,020 volume long encyclopedia in 1725, the Gujin Tushu Jicheng (Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times), which necessitated the crafting of 250,000 movable type characters cast in bronze.[135] By the 19th century the European style printing press replaced the old Chinese methods of movable type, while traditional woodblock printing in modern East Asia is used sparsely and for aesthetic reasons.

الهندسة الهيدروليكية والملاحية

A plan and side view of a canal pound lock, a concept pioneered in 984 by the Assistant Commissioner of Transport for Huainan, the engineer Qiao Weiyo.[136]

The most important nautical innovation of the Song period seems to have been the introduction of the magnetic mariner's compass, which permitted accurate navigation on the open sea regardless of the weather.[121] The magnetized compass needle  – known in Chinese as the "south-pointing needle"  – was first described by Shen Kuo in his 1088 Dream Pool Essays and first mentioned in active use by sailors in Zhu Yu's 1119 Pingzhou Table Talks.

There were other considerable advancements in hydraulic engineering and nautical technology during the Song dynasty. The 10th-century invention of the pound lock for canal systems allowed different water levels to be raised and lowered for separated segments of a canal, which significantly aided the safety of canal traffic and allowed for larger barges.[137] There was the Song-era innovation of watertight bulkhead compartments that allowed damage to hulls without sinking the ships.[60][138] If ships were damaged, the Chinese of the 11th century employed drydocks to repair them while suspended out of the water.[139] The Song used crossbeams to brace the ribs of ships in order to strengthen them in a skeletal-like structure.[140] Stern-mounted rudders had been mounted on Chinese ships since the 1st century, as evidenced with a preserved Han tomb model of a ship. In the Song period, the Chinese devised a way to mechanically raise and lower rudders in order for ships to travel in a wider range of water depths.[140] The Song arranged the protruding teeth of anchors in a circular pattern instead of in one direction.[140] David Graff and Robin Higham state that this arrangement "[made] them more reliable" for anchoring ships.[140]

الهندسة الإنشائية والعمارة

The Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, built in 1049
The Xiude Temple Pagoda in Quyang, Hebei

Architecture during the Song period reached new heights of sophistication. Authors such as Yu Hao and Shen Kuo wrote books outlining the field of architectural layouts, craftsmanship, and structural engineering in the 10th and 11th centuries, respectively. Shen Kuo preserved the written dialogues of Yu Hao when describing technical issues such as slanting struts built into pagoda towers for diagonal wind bracing.[141] Shen Kuo also preserved Yu's specified dimensions and units of measurement for various building types.[142] The architect Li Jie (1065–1110), who published the Yingzao Fashi ('Treatise on Architectural Methods') in 1103, greatly expanded upon the works of Yu Hao and compiled the standard building codes used by the central government agencies and by craftsmen throughout the empire.[143] He addressed the standard methods of construction, design, and applications of moats and fortifications, stonework, greater woodwork, lesser woodwork, wood-carving, turning and drilling, sawing, bamboo work, tiling, wall building, painting and decoration, brickwork, glazed tile making, and provided proportions for mortar formulas in masonry.[144][145] In his book, Li provided detailed and vivid illustrations of architectural components and cross-sections of buildings. These illustrations displayed various applications of corbel brackets, cantilever arms, mortise and tenon work of tie beams and cross beams, and diagrams showing the various building types of halls in graded sizes.[146] He also outlined the standard units of measurement and standard dimensional measurements of all building components described and illustrated in his book.[147]

The 42-متر (138 قدم) tall, brick and wood Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei, built in 1045.
Close-up view of the Lingxiao Pagoda

Grandiose building projects were supported by the government, including the erection of towering Buddhist Chinese pagodas and the construction of enormous bridges (wood or stone, trestle or segmental arch bridge). Many of the pagoda towers built during the Song period were erected at heights that exceeded ten stories. Some of the most famous are the Iron Pagoda built in 1049 during the Northern Song and the Liuhe Pagoda built in 1165 during the Southern Song, although there were many others. The tallest is the Liaodi Pagoda of Hebei built in 1055, towering 84 م (276 قدم) in total height. Some of the bridges reached lengths of 1,220 م (4,000 قدم), with many being wide enough to allow two lanes of cart traffic simultaneously over a waterway or ravine.[148] The government also oversaw construction of their own administrative offices, palace apartments, city fortifications, ancestral temples, and Buddhist temples.[149]

The professions of the architect, craftsman, carpenter, and structural engineer were not seen as professionally equal to that of a Confucian scholar-official. Architectural knowledge had been passed down orally for thousands of years in China, in many cases from a father craftsman to his son. Structural engineering and architecture schools were known to have existed during the Song period; one prestigious engineering school was headed by the renowned bridge-builder Cai Xiang (1012–1067) in medieval Fujian province.[150]

Temple of the Saintly Mother, Jin Temple, Taiyuan, built in 1032
Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, from Li Jie's building manual Yingzao Fashi, printed in 1103.

Besides existing buildings and technical literature of building manuals, Song dynasty artwork portraying cityscapes and other buildings aid modern-day scholars in their attempts to reconstruct and realize the nuances of Song architecture. Song dynasty artists such as Li Cheng, Fan Kuan, Guo Xi, Zhang Zeduan, Emperor Huizong of Song, and Ma Lin painted close-up depictions of buildings as well as large expanses of cityscapes featuring arched bridges, halls and pavilions, pagoda towers, and distinct Chinese city walls. The scientist and statesman Shen Kuo was known for his criticism of artwork relating to architecture, saying that it was more important for an artist to capture a holistic view of a landscape than it was to focus on the angles and corners of buildings.[151] For example, Shen criticized the work of the painter Li Cheng for failing to observe the principle of "seeing the small from the viewpoint of the large" in portraying buildings.[151]

There were also pyramidal tomb structures in the Song era, such as the Song imperial tombs located in Gongxian, Henan province.[152] About 100 kم (62 ميل) from Gongxian is another Song dynasty tomb at Baisha, which features "elaborate facsimiles in brick of Chinese timber frame construction, from door lintels to pillars and pedestals to bracket sets, that adorn interior walls."[152] The two large chambers of the Baisha tomb also feature conical-shaped roofs.[153] Flanking the avenues leading to these tombs are lines of Song dynasty stone statues of officials, tomb guardians, animals, and legendary creatures.


Scholars of the Song dynasty claim to have collected ancient relics dating back as far as the Shang dynasty, such as this bronze ding vessel.

In addition to the Song gentry's antiquarian pursuits of art collecting, scholar-officials during the Song became highly interested in retrieving ancient relics from archaeological sites, in order to revive the use of ancient vessels in ceremonies of state ritual.[154] Scholar-officials of the Song period claimed to have discovered ancient bronze vessels that were created as far back as the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BCE), which bore the written characters of the Shang era.[155] Some attempted to recreate these bronze vessels by using imagination alone, not by observing tangible evidence of relics; this practice was criticized by Shen Kuo in his work of 1088.[154] Yet Shen Kuo had much more to criticize than this practice alone. Shen objected to the idea of his peers that ancient relics were products created by famous "sages" in lore or the ancient aristocratic class; Shen rightfully attributed the discovered handicrafts and vessels from ancient times as the work of artisans and commoners from previous eras.[154] He also disapproved of his peers' pursuit of archaeology simply to enhance state ritual, since Shen not only took an interdisciplinary approach with the study of archaeology, but he also emphasized the study of functionality and investigating what was the ancient relics' original processes of manufacture.[154] Shen used ancient texts and existing models of armillary spheres to create one based on ancient standards; Shen described ancient weaponry such as the use of a scaled sighting device on crossbows; while experimenting with ancient musical measures, Shen suggested hanging an ancient bell by using a hollow handle.[154]

Despite the gentry's overriding interest in archaeology simply for reviving ancient state rituals, some of Shen's peers took a similar approach to the study of archaeology. His contemporary Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072) compiled an analytical catalogue of ancient rubbings on stone and bronze which pioneered ideas in early epigraphy and archaeology.[67] During the 11th century, Song scholars discovered the ancient shrine of Wu Liang (78–151 CE), a scholar of the Han dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE); they produced rubbings of the carvings and bas-reliefs decorating the walls of his tomb so that they could be analyzed elsewhere.[156] On the unreliability of historical works written after the fact, the epigrapher and poet Zhao Mingcheng (1081–1129) stated "... the inscriptions on stone and bronze are made at the time the events took place and can be trusted without reservation, and thus discrepancies may be discovered."[157] Historian R.C. Rudolph states that Zhao's emphasis on consulting contemporary sources for accurate dating is parallel with the concern of the German historian Leopold von Ranke (1795–1886),[157] and was in fact emphasized by many Song scholars.[158] The Song scholar Hong Mai (1123–1202) heavily criticized what he called the court's "ridiculous" archaeological catalogue Bogutu compiled during the Huizong reign periods of Zheng He and Xuan He (1111–1125).[159] Hong Mai obtained old vessels from the Han dynasty and compared them with the descriptions offered in the catalogue, which he found so inaccurate he stated he had to "hold my sides with laughter."[160] Hong Mai pointed out that the erroneous material was the fault of Chancellor Cai Jing, who prohibited scholars from reading and consulting written histories.[160]

انظر أيضاً


^ a: During the reign of the Song Dynasty the world population grew from about 250 million to approximately 330 million, a difference of 80 million. Please also see Medieval demography.
^ b: For the history of paper-printed money, please see banknote.
^ c: Despite the establishment of permanent standing navy in Song Dynasty, China already had a long naval history prior to the Song, see Naval history of China.
^ d: As opposed to the previous Han and Tang Dynasty, each of which boasted roughly 50 million inhabitants
^ e: See the technology section for more information.

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بدون دعم الإظهار المناسب, فقد ترى علامات استفهام ومربعات أو رموز أخرى بدلاً من الحروف الصينية.
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وصلات خارجية

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Dynasties in Chinese history
أسرة يوان

قالب:Song Dynasty navbox

الكلمات الدالة: