شي‌آن

(تم التحويل من Xi'an)
Xi'an

西安
西安市
From top: City wall of Xi'an, Xingqinggong Park, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Great Mosque of Xi'an, Southeast city corner, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Nan'erhuan Road
From top: City wall of Xi'an, Xingqinggong Park, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Great Mosque of Xi'an, Southeast city corner, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Nan'erhuan Road
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Xi'an is located in الصين
Xi'an
Xi'an
الموقع في شمال غرب الصين
الإحداثيات: 34°16′N 108°54′E / 34.267°N 108.900°E / 34.267; 108.900Coordinates: 34°16′N 108°54′E / 34.267°N 108.900°E / 34.267; 108.900
البلدالصين
المقاطعةShaanxi
الحكومة
 • CPC Xi'anWei Minzhou (魏民洲)
 • MayorDong Jun (董军)
المساحة
 • Sub-provincial city9٬983 كم² (3٬854 ميل²)
 • الحضر
826 كم² (319 ميل²)
 • العمران
3٬830 كم² (1٬480 ميل²)
 • Yangling94 كم² (36 ميل²)
المنسوب
405 m (1٬329 ft)
التعداد
 (2010 census)
 • Sub-provincial city8٬467٬837
 • الكثافة850/km2 (2٬200/sq mi)
 • Urban
6٬501٬200
 • الكثافة الحضرية7٬900/km2 (20٬000/sq mi)
 • العمرانية
7٬168٬005
منطقة التوقيتUTC+8 (CST)
Postal code
710000 - 710090
مفتاح الهاتف+86/29
GDP(2010)
- Total¥ 324.1 billion
- Per capita¥26,259
License plate prefixesA
City flowerزهرة الرمان
City treePagoda tree
الموقع الإلكترونيhttp://www.xa.gov.cn/
شي‌آن
Chinese西安
PostalSian
Literal meaningwestern peace
Chang'an
Traditional Chinese長安
Simplified Chinese长安
Literal meaningperpetual peace

شي‌آن ( Xi'an ؛ UK /ʃˈæn/ shee-AN, الأمريكي /ʃˈɑːn/ shee-AHN;[1][2][3][4] صينية: 西安؛ پن‌ين: Xī'ān; Chinese: [ɕí.án] ( استمع)), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital of Shaanxi Province. A sub-provincial city on the Guanzhong Plain in Northwest China,[5] it is one of the oldest cities in China, the oldest prefecture capital and one of the Chinese Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history,[6] including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, Northern Zhou and Tang.[6] The city is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the UNESCO World Heritage set Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.[7]

Since the 1980s, as part of the economic growth of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, Xi'an has re-emerged as a cultural, industrial, political and educational centre of the entire central-northwest region, with many facilities for research and development, national security and space exploration. Xi'an currently holds sub-provincial status, administering 11 districts and 2 counties.[8] The city is the third most populous city in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Chengdu, as well as the most populous city in Northwestern China.[9] In 2020, Xi'an was ranked as beta-city from the Globalization and World Cities Research Network biannual city rankings,[10] and, according to the country's own ranking, ranked 17th.[11]

Its total population was 12,952,907 as of the 2020 census and its built-up (or metro) area was home to 12,283,922 inhabitants including 10 Xi'an urban districts (all but Huyi and Yanliang not conurbated yet) and 3 Xianyang parts (Qindu and Weicheng districts and Xingping city) largely being conurbated.[12]

Xi'an is ranked in the top 40 cities in the world by scientific research output as tracked by the Nature Index,[13] and home to multiple China's prestige universities, including Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xidian University, Northwest University, Shaanxi Normal University, Chang'an University, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology and Shaanxi University of Science and Technology.[14][15] Notably, Xi'an Jiaotong University is one of the elite C9 League universities and the hub of the University Alliance of the Silk Road.[16]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الإسم

"Xi'an" is the atonal pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of its name 西安, which means "Western Peace" in Chinese. (The apostrophe – known in Chinese as a 隔音符號, géyīn fúhào – should be included to distinguish its pronunciation from the single syllable xian.) The name was adopted in 1369 under the early Ming dynasty. Jesuit missionaries recorded its name as "Si-ngan" or "Si-ngan-fou"[17] from its status as the seat of a prefecture (, ). This form still appears in the Latin name of the Catholic diocese of Xi'an, archidioecesis Singanensis. The name was later romanized as "Hsi-an" by Wade & Giles and as "Sianfu"[18] or "Sian"[7] by the Qing imperial post office, both of which were common until the general adoption of pinyin.

The area of present-day Xi'an has been the site of several important former Chinese cities. The capital of the Western Zhou were the twin cities of Feng and Hao, known collectively as Fenghao, located on opposite banks of the Feng River at its confluence with the southern bank of the Wei in the western suburbs of present-day Xi'an.[19] The Qin capital Xianyang was erected north of the Wei during the Warring States period and was succeeded by the Western Han capital of Chang'an (長安), meaning "Perpetual Peace", which was located south of the Wei and covered the central area of present-day Xi'an. During the Eastern Han, Chang'an was also known as Xijing (西) or the "Western Capital", relative to its position to the main capital at Luoyang. Under the Sui, its name became Daxing (, "Greatly Prosperous") in AD 581. Under the Tang, the name reverted to Chang'an in 618.[7] Under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty (13th & 14th centuries), it held a succession of names: Fengyuan (), Anxi (安西, "Peaceful West") and Jingzhao (). The Ming name "Xi'an" was changed back to Xijing ("Western Capital", as above) between 1930 and 1943.


التاريخ

قبل التاريخ

Xi'an has a rich and culturally significant history. The Lantian Man was discovered in 1963 in Lantian County, 50 kم (160,000 قدم) southeast of Xi'an, and dates back to at least 500,000 years before the present time. A 6,500-year-old Neolithic village, Banpo, was discovered in 1953 on the eastern outskirts of the city proper, which contains the remains of several well organized Neolithic settlements carbon dated to 5,600–6,700 years ago.[20][21][22][23] The site is now home to the Xi'an Banpo Museum, built in 1957 to preserve the archaeological collection.[24]

العصر القديم

 
Remains of carriages and horses in Fenghao during the Western Zhou (11th–8th cent. BC)

Xi'an became a cultural and political centre of China in the 11th century BC with the founding of the Zhou dynasty. The capital of Zhou was established in the twin settlements of Fengjing (丰京) and Haojing, together known as Fenghao, located southwest of contemporary Xi'an. The settlement was also known as Zhōngzhōu to indicate its role as the capital of the vassal states.[25] In 770 BC, the capital was moved to Luoyang due to political unrest.[26]

العصر الامبراطوري

خريطة أسوار مدينة المستوطنات في شي‌آن من أسرة ژو إلى إسرة تشينگ.
Terracotta Army inside the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, 3rd century BC.
Map of Chang'an under the Tang (7th–10th cent.)

Following the Warring States period, China was unified under the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) for the first time, with the capital located at Xianyang, just northwest of modern Xi'an.[27] The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum just to the east of Xi'an almost immediately after his ascension to the throne.[28]

In 202 BC, the founding emperor Liu Bang of the Han dynasty established his capital in Chang'an County; his first palace, Changle Palace (長樂宮, "Perpetual Happiness") was built across the river from the ruin of the Qin capital. This is traditionally regarded as the founding date of Chang'an. Two years later, Liu Bang built Weiyang Palace (未央宮, "Future Central Palace") north of modern Xi'an. Weiyang Palace was the largest palace ever built on Earth, covering 4.8 kiloمتر مربعs (1,200 أكرs), which is 6.7 times the size of the current Forbidden City and 11 times the size of the Vatican City.[29] The original Xi'an city wall was started in 194 BC and took 4 years to finish. Upon completion, the wall measured 25.7 kم (84,317.59 قدم) in length and 12 to 16 م (39.37–52.49 قدم) in thickness at the base, enclosing an area of 36 kم2 (387,500,775.00 قدم2). In the year 190, amidst uprisings and rebellions just prior to the Three Kingdoms Period, a powerful warlord named Dong Zhuo moved the court from Luoyang to Chang'an in a bid to avoid a coalition of other powerful warlords against him.

Site of Hanyuan Hall of Daming Palace, Tang Dynasty
Statues in the Imperial Tomb of Tang Emperor Gaozong

بُنيت شيآن في القرن الثاني عشر قبل الميلاد، واتخذتها 21 أسرة ملكية وسلطة عاصمة لها بالتتابع. وكانت العاصمة لأسر تشو وتشن وهان وتانگ التي اُعتبرت العهود الأكثر ازدهارا في تاريخ الصين القديمة. وتُلقّب شيآن بأنها متحف تاريخي. حيث يوجد فيها التماثيل الصلصالية للجنود والخيول التي اُعتبرت المعجزة الثامنة بالعالم، إضافة إلى السور القديم الذي يعتبر أكمل طلل حفظا للسور القديم وأكبره حجما بالعالم حتى الآن.

كانت شيآن مدينة مهمة على طريق الحرير القديم، حيث لعبت دورا مهما في التبادل الثقافي بين الشرق والغرب. وهي مدينة كبيرة في شمال غربي الصين في الوقت الحاضر، وإن الاستفادة من غيرها والتواجد مع غيرها يظل مفهوما لتطور شيان وهدفا لإقامة معرض شيان العالمي للبستنة لعام 2011..[30]

 
الجيش الجصي داخل ضريح چين شي هوانگ، القرن الثالث ق.م.

سلالة هان وطريق الحرير

أسرة فريدة من نوعها

أسرة تانگ

 
The site of the Hanyuan Hall in Daming Palace

أسرة مينگ

The Nestorian Stele, also known as the Nestorian Stone, Nestorian Monument,[31] or Nestorian Tablet, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents 150 years of early Christianity in China.[32] It is a 279 cm tall limestone block with text in both Chinese and Syriac describing the existence of Christian communities in several cities in northern China. It reveals that the initial Nestorian Christian church had met recognition by the Tang Emperor Taizong, due to efforts of the Christian missionary Alopen in 635.[33]

Chang'an was devastated at the end of the Tang dynasty in 904. Residents were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied thereafter. During the Ming dynasty, a new wall was constructed in 1370 and remains intact to this day. The wall measures 11.9 kم (39,000 قدم) in circumference, 12 م (39.37 قدم) in height, and 15 to 18 م (49.21–59.06 قدم) in thickness at the base; a moat was also built outside the walls. The new wall and moat would protect a much smaller city of 12 kم2 (130,000,000 قدم2).

العصر الحديث

In October 1911, during the revolution in which the Qing dynasty was overthrown, revolutionary forces massacred 20,000 Manchus in the process in the northeastern zone within Xi'an's city walls, wiping out the entire Manchu population in the city.[34][35]

In 1936, the Xi'an Incident took place inside the city during the Chinese Civil War. The incident brought the Kuomintang (KMT) and Communist Party of China to a truce in order to concentrate on fighting against the Japanese Invasion.[36] On May 20, 1949, the Communist-controlled People's Liberation Army captured the city of Xi'an from the Kuomintang force.[37]

Xi'an made headlines for being one of the many cities where the 2012 China anti-Japanese demonstrations occurred.[38][39][40]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الجغرافيا والمناخ

 
Map including Xi'an (labeled as HSI-AN (SIAN) (walled)) (AMS, 1955)
 
Map including Xi'an (DMA)

Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in the south-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams. The urban area of Xi'an is located at 34°16′N 108°56′E / 34.267°N 108.933°E / 34.267; 108.933.

The city borders the northern foot of the Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 kم (330,000 قدم) away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau.

At the beginning of Han dynasty, Prime Minister Zhang Liang advised the emperor Liu Bang to choose Guanzhong as the capital of the Han dynasty: "Guanzhong Plain, which is located behind Xiao Pass and Hangu Pass, connects Long (Gansu) and Shu (Sichuan). Lands of thousand miles rich in harvest be found here, as if this place belongs to the nation of heaven." (关中左崤函,右陇蜀,沃野千里,此所谓金城千里,天府之国也) Since then, Guanzhong is also known as the 'Nation of the Heaven'.[41]

المناخ

شي‌آن
جدول طقس (التفسير)
يفمأمييأسأند
 
 
6.9
 
5
−4
 
 
9.6
 
8
−1
 
 
29
 
14
4
 
 
43
 
21
10
 
 
60
 
26
14
 
 
54
 
31
19
 
 
99
 
32
22
 
 
71
 
31
21
 
 
92
 
25
16
 
 
60
 
20
10
 
 
24
 
12
3
 
 
5.8
 
6
−3
متوسطات درجات الحرارة القصوى والدنيا - °س
إجمالي الهطل - مم
المصدر: China Meteorological Administration

Xi'an has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, classified under the Köppen climate classification as situated on the borderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from around the freezing mark in January to 27.0 °م (80.6 °ف) in July, with an annual mean of 14.08 °م (57.3 °ف). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 31 percent in December to 47 percent in August, the city receives 1,536 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −20.6 °م (−5 °ف) on January 11, 1955 to 41.8 °م (107 °ف) on June 21, 1998. A highest record of 42.9 °م (109 °ف) was registered in another station on June 17, 2006.[42][43]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الديمغرافيا

 
Muslim Quarter in Xi'an

اعتبارا من 2015 Xi'an has a population of 8.7 million.[45] Compared to the census data from 2000, the population has increased by 656,700 persons from 7.41 million.[46] The population is 51.66 percent male and 48.34 percent female.[46] Among its districts, Yanta has the largest population, with 1.08 million inhabitants.[46]

The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1 percent of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 people belonging to ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Hui people.[بحاجة لمصدر]

During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan Province. Because Xi'an was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.

Breakdown of Xi'an population by district and county
Division Permanent residents[47] Hukou residents[48]
Total Percentage Population density (persons/km2)
Xi'an City 8,467,837 100 838.66 7,827,260
Xincheng District 589,739 6.96 19,574.51 503,641
Beilin District 614,710 7.26 26,298.54 732,494
Lianhu District 698,513 8.25 18,226.61 640,911
Baqiao District 595,124 7.03 1,833.97 508,535
Weiyang District 806,811 9.53 3,051.39 516,968
Yanta District 1,178,529 13.92 7,782.38 793,103
Yanliang District 278,604 3.29 1,139.26 252,449
Lintong District 655,874 7.75 716.04 697,586
Chang'an District 1,083,285 12.79 681.94 980,803
Gaoling District 333,477 3.94 1,169.98 294,507
Huyi District 556,377 6.57 434.87 597,071
Lantian County 514,026 6.07 256.25 643,605
Zhouzhi County 562,768 6.65 191.08 665,587


التقسيمات الادارية

The sub-provincial city of Xi'an has direct jurisdiction over 11 districts and 2 counties:

Map
Division code[49] English Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[50] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[51]
Subdistricts Towns Residential communities Villages
610100 Xi'an 西安市 Xī'ān Shì 10,096.81 Weiyang District 710000 113 55 766 2984
610102 Xincheng District 新城区 Xīnchéng Qū 30.13 Xiyi Road Subdistrict
(西一路街道)
710000 9 105
610103 Beilin District 碑林区 Bēilín Qū 23.37 Zhangjiacun Subdistrict
(张家村街道)
710000 8 100
610104 Lianhu District 莲湖区 Liánhú Qū 38.32 Beiyuanmen Subdistrict
(北院门街道)
710000 9 127 5
610111 Baqiao District 灞桥区 Bàqiáo Qū 324.50 Fangzhicheng Subdistrict
(纺织城街道)
710000 9 40 223
610112 Weiyang District 未央区 Wèiyāng Qū 264.41 Zhangjiabao Subdistrict
(张家堡街道)
710000 12 114 147
610113 Yanta District 雁塔区 Yàntǎ Qū 151.44 Xiaozhai Road Subdistrict
(小寨路街道)
710000 8 123 84
610114 Yanliang District 阎良区 Yánliáng Qū 244.55 Fenghuang Road Subdistrict
(凤凰路街道)
710089 5 2 23 80
610115 Lintong District 临潼区 Líntóng Qū 915.97 Lishan Subdistrict
(骊山街道)
710600 23 36 284
610116 Chang'an District 长安区 Cháng'ān Qū 1,588.53 Weiqu Subdistrict
(韦曲街道)
710100 25 47 659
610117 Gaoling District 高陵区 Gāolíng Qū 285.03 Luyuan Subdistrict
(鹿苑街道)
710200 3 3 8 88
610118 Huyi District 鄠邑区 Hùyì Qū 1,279.42 Ganting Subdistrict
(甘亭街道)
710300 1 13 21 518
610122 Lantian County 蓝田县 Lántián Xiàn 2,005.95 Languan Subdistrict
(蓝关街道)
710500 1 18 8 520
610124 Zhouzhi County 周至县 Zhōuzhì Xiàn 2,945.20 Erqu Subdistrict
(二曲街道)
710400 1 19 14 376

النقل والبنية التحتية

 
Underpass around the Bell Tower

المترو

القطارات

 
The Xi-Bao Express Train, CRH2


الطرق السريعة

 
ZhongNan Tunnel
 
Xi-Han Expressway


المطارات

 
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport.

الثقافة

A typical Chinese pavilion located in Xi'an
Traditional Chinese musical performances at Xi'an
Yangrou Paomo, a well-known Xi'an dish
 
Keji Road at night/new centre

فن العمارة


الديانات

البوذية

البوذية التبتية

الإسلام

Xi'an was the first city in China to be introduced to Islam. Emperor Gaozong of the Tang dynasty officially allowed the practice of Islam in AD 651. Xi'an has a large Muslim community, the significant majority are from the Hui group, there are an estimated 50,000 Hui Muslims in Xi’an.[52] There are seven mosques in Xi'an, the best known being the Great Mosque.[53]


الاقتصاد

 
Maison Mode
 
Keji Road

As part of the China Western Development policy, Xi’an became a major target for accelerated attention. From 1997 to 2006, the industrial output value of Xi’an’s service industry increased at an annual average rate of 13.74 percent, compared to traditional service industries of 0.74 percent, representing a growth from US$8.113 billion to US$25.85 billion.[54] Xi'an is the largest economy of the Shaanxi province, with a GDP of 324.1 billion Yuan in 2010. On average this value increases by 14.5 percent annually, and accounts for approximately 41.8 percent of Shaanxi's total GDP.[54][55] At least fifty-eight countries have established over 2,560 enterprises in Xian, including nineteen of the Fortune 500 enterprises. These include ABB Group, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Coca-Cola, and Boeing.[56]


السياحة

وسائل الإعلام

الرياضة

 
Polo was once popular in China
 
Dragon Boat Festival, Ba River, Xi'an


معرض الصور


المدن الشقيقة

Xi'an's sister cities are:

الهامش

  1. ^ قالب:Cite American Heritage Dictionary
  2. ^ "Xi'an". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  3. ^ "Xian" Archived April 14, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. (US) and قالب:Cite Oxford Dictionaries
  4. ^ قالب:Cite Merriam-Webster
  5. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  6. ^ أ ب "Xi'an". Encarta. 1993–2008. September 3, 2008. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  7. ^ أ ب ت "Xi'an". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  8. ^ 中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号. 豆丁网. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  9. ^ 最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查). www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
  10. ^ "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2020". www.lboro.ac.uk. Retrieved 2021-06-25.
  11. ^ 上海证券报 (2021-05-21). "中国百强城市榜单发布,你的城市上榜了吗?". finance.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 2021-06-25.
  12. ^ "China: Shaanxi (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  13. ^ "Nature Index 2020 Science Cities | Supplements | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  14. ^ "US News Best Global Universities Rankings in Xi'an". U.S. News & World Report. 2021-10-26. Retrieved 2021-10-26.
  15. ^ "Nature Index 2018 Science Cities | Nature Index Supplements | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  16. ^ "University collaboration takes the Silk Road route". University World News. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 2021-10-30.
  17. ^ Du Halde (1736), pp. 220–1; Du Halde (1741), pp. 227–8
  18. ^ Stanford (1917), p. 13 & Index, p. 11
  19. ^ , Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe, 2005, p. 1540 
  20. ^ Yang, Xiaoping (2010). "Climate Change and Desertification with Special Reference to the Cases in China". Changing Climates, Earth Systems and Society. pp. 177–187. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8716-4_8. ISBN 978-90-481-8715-7.
  21. ^ Stark, Miriam T (2008-04-15). "East Asian plant domestication". Archaeology of Asia. pp. 77–95. ISBN 9781405153034.
  22. ^ Fuller, Dorian Q; Qin, Ling; Harvey, Emma (2008). "A Critical Assessment of Early Agriculture in East Asia, with emphasis on Lower Yangzte Rice Domestication" (PDF). Pragdhara: 17–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  23. ^ Meng, Y; Zhang, HQ; Pan, F; He, ZD; Shao, JL; Ding, Y (2011). "Prevalence of dental caries and tooth wear in a Neolithic population (6700-5600 years BP) from northern China". Archives of Oral Biology. 56 (11): 1424–35. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.04.003. PMID 21592462.
  24. ^ "Banpo Museum in Xi'an". chinamuseums.com. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
  25. ^ Third scroll of the Chang'an Annals (长安志) interpreted by Huangfu Mi in his Age of Kings (book) (帝王世紀)
  26. ^ "China's six major historical capitals - Xi'an's cultural history". Archived from the original on 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  27. ^ 中国古今地名大词典 (in الصينية). Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. 2005. p. 2134.
  28. ^ O. Louis Mazzatenta. "Emperor Qin's Terracotta Army". National Geographic.
  29. ^ "Weiyang Palace: the Largest Palace Ever Built on Earth". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2014. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  30. ^ "شيآن". شيآن - إذاعة الصين الدولية.
  31. ^ Saeki, Yoshiro (1928) [1916]. The Nestorian monument in China. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
  32. ^ Hill, Henry, ed (1988). Light from the East: A Symposium on the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Churches. Toronto, Canada. pp. 108–109
  33. ^ Jenkins, Peter (2008). The Lost History of Christianity: the Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia - and How It Died. New York: Harper Collins. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-06-147280-0.
  34. ^ Ernest Frank Borst-Smith, Caught in the Chinese Revolution: a record of risks and rescue. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912.
  35. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2000). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. University of Washington. p. 190.
  36. ^ Guo Rugui,中国抗日战争正面战场作战记 ,第二部分:从“九一八”事变到西安事变 绥远抗战的巨大影响和军事上的经验
  37. ^ "Public Government Policy" (in Chinese). City of Xi'an. Archived from the original on 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-22.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  38. ^ 打砸抢烧不是爱国是害民. 北京青年报 (in Chinese). 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2012-09-16.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  39. ^ "Xi'an Protesters Overturn Cars". Retrieved 2012-09-17.[dead link]
  40. ^ "Anti-Japan Protests In China Swell, Turn Violent". Huffington Post. 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  41. ^ 《史记·留侯世家》[استشهاد ناقص]
  42. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2013-02-18. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  43. ^ أ ب "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  44. ^ 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Archived from the original on 2009-07-16. Retrieved 2009-03-17. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  45. ^ 西安市2015年国民经济和社会发展统计公报. www.xatj.gov.cn/. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-12.
  46. ^ أ ب ت 西安人口 [Xi'an population] (in الصينية). City of Xi'an. Archived from the original on 2007-03-22. Retrieved 2007-05-16. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  47. ^ "西安市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报" (in الصينية). Xi'an Evening News (الصينية المبسطة: 西安晚报). May 25, 2011. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
  48. ^ People's Republic of China County-level Division Population Statistics (الصينية المبسطة: 《中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料2010》).
  49. ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码 Archived April 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ 《贵阳统计年鉴2011》
  51. ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2011》
  52. ^ 中国七大中心城市人口资源大调查 "Population survey of the seven central cities of China", Zhang Zhizhong, National Family Planning Commission
  53. ^ Mosques in Xian from www.muslim2china.com
  54. ^ أ ب Walcott, Susan (April 17, 2010). "Xi'an's Maturing Economy". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  55. ^ "Xi'an ( Shaanxi ) City Information". August 29, 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  56. ^ "City Report: Xi'an". January 17, 2007. Retrieved 2013-06-02.

وصلات خارجية

سبقه
يين
عاصمة الصين (بإسم هاو)
1046 ق.م.-771 ق.م.
تبعه
Luoyang
سبقه
Xianyang
عاصمة الصين (بإسم Chang'an)
206 ق.م.-25
تبعه
Luoyang
سبقه
Luoyang
عاصمة الصين (بإسم Chang'an)
190-196
تبعه
Xuchang
سبقه
Jiankang
عاصمة الصين (بإسم Daxing)
581-618
تبعه
نفسها، بإسم Chang'an
سبقه
itself, as Daxing
عاصمة الصين (بإسم Chang'an)
618-907
تبعه
Kaifeng