أسرة تشولا

(تم التحويل من أسرة چولا)
Chola dynasty

ع300 ق.م.–1279 م
Map showing the extent of the Chola empire 1030ح. 1030
Map showing the extent of the Chola empire 1030ح. 1030
العاصمةEarly Cholas: Poompuhar, Urayur, Tiruvarur,
Medieval Cholas: Pazhaiyaarai, Thanjavur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram
اللغات الشائعةTamil, Sanskrit[1]
الدين الهندوسية (معظمها Shaivism)
الحكومةملكية
ملك و امبراطور 
• 848–871
Vijayalaya Chola (الأول)
• 1246–1279
Rajendra Chola III (الأخير)
الحقبة التاريخيةالعصور الوسطى
• تأسست
ع300 ق.م.
• بزوغ تشولا العصور الوسطى
848 م
• الامبراطورية في أقصى اتساعها
1030 م
• انحلت
1279 م
Succeeded by
Pandyan dynasty
Today part of الهند
 سريلانكا
 المالديڤ[2]
probably  ماليزيا
 سنغافورة and  إندونيسيا[3]

أسرة تشولا Chola dynasty كانت واحدة من أطول الأسر الحاكمة عمراً في تاريخ جنوب الهند. أقدم إشارات قابلة للتأريخ لهذه الأسرة الحاكمة من التاميل توجد في نقوش من القرن الثالث ق.م. تركها أشوكا من امبراطورية موريا. كأحد الملوك الثلاثة المتوجين على تاميلاكام، فقد استمرت الأسرة في الحكم على مساحة متغيرة من الأرض حتى القرن 13 الميلادي.

The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of two centuries and more.[4] Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.[5] The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the naval raids on cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.[6] The Chola fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian sea power.

During the period 1010–1153, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.[7] Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of which is now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganges and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala. He also successfully invaded cities of Srivijaya of Malaysia and Indonesia.[8] The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan Dynasty, which ultimately caused their downfall.[9][10]

The Cholas left a lasting legacy. Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture.[5] The Chola kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but also as centres of economic activity.[11][12] They pioneered a centralised form of government and established a disciplined bureaucracy. The Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia.[13][14]

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الأصول

The Cholas are also known as the Choda.[15] There is very little information available in regarding their origin. Its antiquity is evident from the mentions in ancient Tamil literature and in inscriptions. Later medieval Cholas also claimed a long and ancient lineage. Mentions in the early Sangam literature (c. 150 CE)[أ] indicate that the earliest kings of the dynasty antedated 100 CE. Cholas were mentioned in Ashokan Edicts of 3rd Century BCE as one of the neighboring countries existing in the South.[بحاجة لمصدر]

A commonly held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity. The annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage (such as the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras) are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi (கிள்ளி), Valavan (வளவன்) and Sembiyan (செம்பியன்). Killi perhaps comes from the Tamil kil (கிள்) meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land. This word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but almost drops out of use in later times. Valavan is most probably connected with "valam" (வளம்) – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is generally taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism.[16] In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country.[17]

There is very little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions. The main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period.[ب] There are also brief notices on the Chola country and its towns, ports and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei), and in the slightly later work of the geographer Ptolemy. Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text written down during the 5th century CE, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and Cholas in the 1st century BCE.[19] Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 BCE–232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him.[ت]


 
جنوب الهند في 300 ق.م.، تبين ممالك تشـِرا و پانديا وتشولا
 
عملة فضية مبكرة لـ Uttama Chola عُثر عليها في سريلانكا تيظهر عليها شعار نمر للتشولا وكتابة بالنگري.[21]


التشولا الامبراطوريون

 
Detail of the statue of Rajaraja Chola at Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur.


 
Gopuram Corner View of Thanjavur Brihadeeswara Temple.
 
Brihadeeswara Temple Entrance Gopurams, Thanjavur
 
Model of a Chola's ship's hull (200—848 CE), built by the ASI, based on a wreck 19 miles off the coast of Poombuhar, displayed in a Museum in Tirunelveli.
 
Airavateswara Temple, Darasuram in Thanjavur District.

The Western Chalukya Empire under Satyashraya and Someshvara I tried to wriggle out of Chola domination from time to time, primarily due to the Chola influence in the Vengi kingdom.[22]


الفتوحات وراء البحار

During the reign of Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Virarajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I the Chola armies invaded Sri Lanka, the Maldives and parts of Southeast Asia like Malaysia, Indonesia and Southern Thailand[23] of the Srivijaya Empire in the 11th century. Rajaraja Chola I launched several naval campaigns that resulted in the capture of Sri Lanka, Maldives and the Malabar Coast.[24] In 1025, Rajendra Chola launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya and against the Burmese kingdom of Pegu.[25] A Chola inscription states that he captured or plundered 14 places, which have been identified with Palembang, Tambralinga and Kedah among others.[26] A second invasion was led by Virarajendra Chola, who conquered Kedah in Malaysia of Srivijaya in the late 11th century.[27]

التشولا اللاحقون (1070–1279)

 
پورتريه Rajaraja Chola and his guru Karuvurar at Brihadeeswarar Temple


       
       
تاريخ جنوب آسيا

(شبه القارة الهندية)

العصر الحجري 70,000–3300 ق.م.
ثقافة مهرگره • 7000–3300 ق.م.
حضارة وادي الإندوس 3300–1700 ق.م.
ثقافة هرپـّان المتأخرة 1700–1300 ق.م.
الفترة الڤيدية 1500–500 ق.م.
العصر الحديدي 1200–300 ق.م.
مهاجناپادا • 700–300 ق.م.
امبراطورية ماگادا • 545 ق.م. - 550
امبراطورية موريا • 321–184 ق.م.
الممالك الوسيطة 250 ق.م.–1279 م
امبراطورية چولا • 250 ق.م.–1070 م
ساتاڤاهانا • 230 ق.م.–220 م
امبراطورية كوشان • 60–240
امبراطورية گوپتا • 280–550
امبراطورية پالا • 750–1174
أسرة چالوكيا • 543–753
راشتراكوتا • 753–982
امبراطورية چالوكيا الغربية • 973–1189
امبراطورية هويسالا 1040–1346
امبراطورية كاكاتيا 1083–1323
السلطنات الإسلامية 1206–1596
سلطنة دلهي • 1206–1526
سلطنات الدكن • 1490–1596
مملكة أهوم 1228–1826
امبراطورية ڤيجايانگرا 1336–1646
سلطنة المغول 1526–1858
امبراطورية ماراثا 1674–1818
سلطنة دراني 1747–1823
اتحاد السيخ 1716–1799
امبراطورية السيخ 1801–1849
شركة الهند الشرقية البريطانية 1757–1858
الراج البريطاني 1858–1947
الدول المعاصرة 1947–الحاضر
تواريخ الأمم
بنگلادشبوتانجمهورية الهند
المالديڤنيپالپاكستانسري لانكا
تواريخ إقليمية
أسامبلوشستانالبنغال
هيماچال پرادشاوريساالمناطق الپاكستانية
شمال الهندجنوب الهندالتبت
تآريخ متخصصة
العملاتالأسراتالاقتصاد
علم الهندياتاللغةالأدبالبحري
العسكريالعلم والتكنولوجياخط زمني
 ع  ن  ت


الادارة والمجتمع

الحكم

 
ماندالامات امبراطورية تشولا، في مطلع القرن 12 م

في عصر التشولا، اتحد كل جنوب الهند لأول مرة تحت حكومة واحدة.[ث]


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التجارة الخارجية

 
This is the Anchor of an Unknown LOLA class Chola ship, excavated by the البحرية الهندية divers off the coast of Poombuhar.


الاسهامات الثقافية

 
Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple

الفن

مقال رئيسي: فن تشولا
 
With heavily ornamented pillars accurate in detail and richly sculpted walls, the Airavateswara temple at Darasuram is a classic example of Chola art and architecture


الأدب

مقال رئيسي: أدب تشولا
 
برونز تشولا من متحف ألستر

The Imperial Chola era was the golden age of Tamil culture, marked by the importance of literature. Chola records cite many works, including the Rajarajesvara Natakam, Viranukkaviyam and Kannivana Puranam.[28]

The revival of Hinduism from its nadir during the Kalabhras spurred the construction of numerous temples and these in turn generated Shaiva and Vaishnava devotional literature.[29] Jain and Buddhist authors flourished as well, although in fewer numbers than in previous centuries.[30] Jivaka-chintamani by Tirutakkatevar and Sulamani by Tolamoli are among notable works by non-Hindu authors.[31][32][33] The grammarian Buddhamitra wrote a text on Tamil grammar called Virasoliyam.[34] Commentaries were written on the great text Tolkāppiyam which deals with grammar but which also mentions ethics of warfare.[35][36][37]


الدين

 
تمثال تشولا برونزي لـ ناتاراجا في متحف متروپوليتان للفن، مدينة نيويورك


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

ملاحظات

  1. ^ The age of Sangam is established through the correlation between the evidence on foreign trade found in the poems and the writings by ancient Greek and Romans such as Periplus. K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of Cyril and Lulu Charles, p 106
  2. ^ The period covered by the Sangam poetry is likely to extend not longer than five or six generations.[18]
  3. ^ The Ashokan inscriptions speak of the Cholas in plural, implying that, in his time, there were more than one Chola.[20]
  4. ^ الوقت الآخر الوحيد حين اتحدت كل شبه القارة الهندية تحت مظلة واحدة قبل استقلال الهند كان عهد امبراطورية ڤيجايانگرا (1336–1614).[بحاجة لمصدر]

الهامش

  1. ^ David Shulman (2016). Tamil. Harvard University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-674-97465-4. One thing, however, is certain: the Cholas were happy to use Tamil as an official state language, along with Sanskrit...
  2. ^ A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century (2008), Upinder Singh, p. 559.
  3. ^ John N. Miksic 2013, p. 79.
  4. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p 157
  5. ^ أ ب Keay, p 215
  6. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p 158
  7. ^ Majumdar (contains no mention of Maldives)
  8. ^ Meyer, p 73
  9. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p 195
  10. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p 196
  11. ^ Vasudevan, pp 20–22
  12. ^ Keay, pp 217–218
  13. ^ Thai Art with Indian Influences by Promsak Jermsawatdi p.57
  14. ^ Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture by John Stewart Bowman p.335
  15. ^ Prasad (1988), p. 120
  16. ^ Sastri (1984), pp. 19-20
  17. ^ Archaeological News A. L. Frothingham, Jr. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 69–125
  18. ^ Sastri (1984), p. 3
  19. ^ Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture by John Bowman p.401
  20. ^ Sastri (1984), p. 20
  21. ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003), p. 31
  22. ^ Sastri (2002), p. 158
  23. ^ Between 2 Oceans (2nd Edn): A Military History of Singapore from 1275 to 1971 by Malcolm H. Murfett, John Miksic, Brian Farell, Chiang Ming Shun p.16
  24. ^ South India by Stuart Butler, Jealous p.38
  25. ^ Asia: A Concise History by Arthur Cotterell p.190
  26. ^ Paine (2014), p. 281
  27. ^ History of Asia by B.V. Rao p.211
  28. ^ Sastri (1984), pp. 663-664
  29. ^ Sastri (2002), p. 333
  30. ^ Sastri (2002), p. 339
  31. ^ Chopra, Ravindran & Subrahmanian (2003), p. 188
  32. ^ Sastri (2002), pp. 339-340
  33. ^ Ismail (1988), p. 1195
  34. ^ Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of southern India by Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar p.127
  35. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics by Roland Greene, Stephen Cushman, Clare Cavanagh, Jahan Ramazani, Paul F. Rouzer, Harris Feinsod, David Marno, Alexandra Slessarev p.1410
  36. ^ Singh (2008), p. 27
  37. ^ Portraits of a Nation: History of Ancient India, by Kamlesh Kapur p.617

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وصلات خارجية

قالب:Chola dynasty topics قالب:Tribes and kingdoms of the Mahabharata