تاميل (لغة)

(تم التحويل من Tamil language)

تاميل ( /ˈtæmɪl/؛ தமிழ் Tamiḻ [t̪amiɻ], النطق ) هي لغة دراڤيدية هي اللغة الأم لشعب التاميل في الهند وشمال وشرق سريلانكا وشرقها، ويتكلمها المسلمون الذين يمثلون أقلية أقل من 5% من سكان الجزيرة، Tamil is the official language of the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, as well as two sovereign states, Sri Lanka and Singapore.[10][11] In India, it is also the official language of the Union Territory of Puducherry. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is also spoken by the Tamil diaspora found in many countries, including Malaysia, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia. Tamil is also natively spoken by Sri Lankan Moors.

Tamil
தமிழ் Tamiḻ
Word Tamil.svg
النطق[t̪amiɻ]; pronunciation 
موطنهاIndia
Sri Lanka
العرقTamil people
الناطقون الأصليون
75 million (2011–2015)[1][2]
L2 speakers: 6 million[1]
الصيغ المبكرة
Tamil (Brahmic)
Tamil-Brahmi (historical)
Grantha (historical)
Vatteluttu (historical)
Pallava (historical)
Kolezhuthu (historical)
Arwi (Abjad)
Tamil Braille (Bharati)
Latin script (informal)
Signed Tamil
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
 سريلانكا
 سنغافورة
 الهند:

Organizations
 آسيان[5]


لغة أقلية
معترف بها في
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1ta
ISO 639-2tam
ISO 639-3Either:
tam – Modern Tamil
oty – Old Tamil
oty Old Tamil
Glottologtami1289  Modern Tamil[8]
oldt1248  Old Tamil[9]
Linguasphere49-EBE-a
Idioma tamil.png
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A Tamil speaker, recorded in Malaysia.
A Tamil speaker.

One of 22 scheduled languages in the Constitution of India, Tamil was the first to be classified as a classical language of India and is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.[12][13][14] A. K. Ramanujan described it as "the only language of contemporary India which is recognizably continuous with a classical past."[15] The variety and quality of classical Tamil literature has led to it being described as "one of the great classical traditions and literatures of the world".[16]

A recorded Tamil literature has been documented for over 2000 years.[17] The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca. 300 BC – AD 300.[18][19] It has the oldest extant literature among Dravidian languages.[13] The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and 'hero stones' date from around the 3rd century BC.[20][21] More than 55% of the epigraphical inscriptions (about 55,000) found by the Archaeological Survey of India are in the Tamil language.[22] Tamil language inscriptions written in Brahmi script have been discovered in Sri Lanka and on trade goods in Thailand and Egypt.[23][24] The two earliest manuscripts from India,[25][26] acknowledged and registered by the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 and 2005, were written in Tamil.[27]

In 1578, Portuguese Christian missionaries published a Tamil prayer book in old Tamil script named Thambiran Vanakkam, thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published.[28] The Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, was one of the earliest dictionaries published in the Indian languages.[29] According to a 2001 survey, there were 1,863 newspapers published in Tamil, of which 353 were dailies.[30]

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التصنيف


Spoken and literary variants


Numerals and symbols

Apart from the usual numerals, Tamil has numerals for 10, 100 and 1000. Symbols for day, month, year, debit, credit, as above, rupee, and numeral are present as well. Tamil also uses several historical fractional signs.

zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten hundred thousand
day month year debit credit as above rupee numeral

Phonology

قالب:Tamils


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Vowels

Tamil has five vowel qualities, namely /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/. Each may be long or short. /ɯ/ is an allophone of /u/ at the end of words. There are two diphthongs, /aɪ/ and /aʊ/. Long vowels are about twice as long as short vowels. The diphthongs are usually pronounced about 1.5 times as long as short vowels. Most grammatical texts place them with the long vowels.

Short Long
Front Central Back Front Central Back
Close i u/ɯ
Mid e o
Open a (aɪ̯) (aʊ̯)
ஒள

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Plosives p t ʈ t͡ɕ k
ற்ற
Nasals m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Tap ɾ
Trill r
Central approximants ʋ ɻ j
Lateral approximants l ɭ


See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ أ ب قالب:E22
  2. ^ "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  3. ^ Official languages of Tamil Nadu, Archived from the original on 21 October 2012, https://web.archive.org/web/20121021154022/http://www.tn.gov.in/welcometn.htm, retrieved on 1 May 2007 
  4. ^ Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India: 50th report (delivered to the Lokh Sabha in 2014), National Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India, p. 155, Archived from the original on 8 July 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20160708012438/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/NCLM50thReport.pdf, retrieved on 8 June 2017 
  5. ^ Languages of ASEAN, http://asean.org/asean/asean-member-states, retrieved on 7 August 2017 
  6. ^ School languages, LINGUAMON, Archived from the original on 2 September 2015, https://web.archive.org/web/20150902021816/http://www10.gencat.net/pres_casa_llengues/AppJava/frontend/llengues_detall_print.jsp?id=632&idioma=5, retrieved on 26 March 2016 
  7. ^ Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 – Chapter 1: Founding Provisions, South African Government, http://www.gov.za/documents/constitution/chapter-1-founding-provisions 
  8. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tamil". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  9. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Old Tamil". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  10. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة languagesdept
  11. ^ Republic of Singapore Independence Act, s.7. Republic of Singapore
  12. ^ https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tamil-to-be-a-classical-language/article27670864.ece
  13. ^ أ ب Stein, B. (1977), "Circulation and the Historical Geography of Tamil Country", The Journal of Asian Studies 37 (1): 7–26, doi:10.2307/2053325 
  14. ^ Steever 1998, pp. 6–9
  15. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil (1973), The Smile of Murugan, BRILL, pp. 11–12, ISBN 978-90-04-03591-1, https://books.google.com/books?id=VF2VMUoY_okC&pg=PA11 
  16. ^ Hart, George L. "Statement on the Status of Tamil as a Classical Language", University of California Berkeley Department of South Asian Studies – Tamil
  17. ^ Zvelebil 1992, p. 12: "...the most acceptable periodisation which has so far been suggested for the development of Tamil writing seems to me to be that of A Chidambaranatha Chettiar (1907–1967): 1. Sangam Literature – 200BC to AD 200; 2. Post Sangam literature – AD 200 – AD 600; 3. Early Medieval literature – AD 600 to AD 1200; 4. Later Medieval literature – AD 1200 to AD 1800; 5. Pre-Modern literature – AD 1800 to 1900"
  18. ^ Definitive Editions of Ancient Tamil Works. Classical Tamil, Government of India
  19. ^ Abraham, S. A. (2003), "Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India", Asian Perspectives 42 (2): 207, doi:10.1353/asi.2003.0031, http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/17189/1/AP-v42n2-207-223.pdf 
  20. ^ Maloney, C. (1970), "The Beginnings of Civilization in South India", The Journal of Asian Studies 29 (3): 603–616, doi:10.2307/2943246  at p. 610
  21. ^ Subramaniam, T.S (29 August 2011), "Palani excavation triggers fresh debate", The Hindu (Chennai, India), http://www.thehindu.com/news/states/tamil-nadu/article2408091.ece 
  22. ^ Students get glimpse of heritage, Chennai, India, 22 November 2005, http://www.hindu.com/2005/11/22/stories/2005112215970400.htm 
  23. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Egypt
  24. ^ Mahadevan, Iravatham (24 June 2010), "An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil", The Hindu (Chennai, India), http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/an-epigraphic-perspective-on-the-antiquity-of-tamil/article482654.ece 
  25. ^ The I.A.S. Tamil Medical Manuscript Collection, UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/memory-of-the-world/register/full-list-of-registered-heritage/registered-heritage-page-8/the-ias-tamil-medical-manuscript-collection/#c187096, retrieved on 13 September 2012 
  26. ^ Saiva Manuscript in Pondicherry, UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/memory-of-the-world/register/full-list-of-registered-heritage/registered-heritage-page-8/saiva-manuscript-in-pondicherry/, retrieved on 13 September 2012 
  27. ^ Memory of the World Register: India, UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/memory-of-the-world/register/access-by-region-and-country/in/#c184233, retrieved on 13 September 2012 
  28. ^ Karthik Madhavan (2010-06-20), "Tamil saw its first book in 1578", The Hindu, http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/tamil-saw-its-first-book-in-1578/article476102.ece 
  29. ^ Kolappan, B. (22 June 2014), "Delay, howlers in Tamil Lexicon embarrass scholars", The Hindu (Chennai), http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/delay-howlers-in-tamil-lexicon-embarrass-scholars/article6138747.ece, retrieved on 25 December 2014 
  30. ^ India 2001: A Reference Annual 2001. Compiled and edited by Research, Reference and Training Division, Publications Division, New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.

References

  • Andronov, M.S. (1970), Dravidian Languages, Nauka Publishing House 
  • Annamalai, E.; Steever, S.B. (1998), "Modern Tamil", in Steever, Sanford, The Dravidian Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 100–128, ISBN 978-0-415-10023-6 
  • Caldwell, Robert (1974), A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages, New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp. 
  • Hart, George L. (1975), The poems of ancient Tamil : their milieu and their Sanskrit counterparts, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-02672-8, https://archive.org/details/poemsofancientta00hart 
  • Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003), The Dravidian Languages, Cambridge Language Surveys, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-77111-5 
  • Kesavapany, K.; Mani, A; Ramasamy, Palanisamy (2008), Rising India and Indian Communities in East Asia, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 978-981-230-799-6 
  • Kuiper, F. B. J. (1958), "Two problems of old Tamil phonology I. The old Tamil āytam (with an appendix by K. Zvelebil)", Indo-Iranian Journal 2 (3): 191–224, doi:10.1007/BF00162818 
  • Lehmann, Thomas (1998), "Old Tamil", in Steever, Sanford, The Dravidian Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 75–99, ISBN 978-0-415-10023-6 
  • Mahadevan, Iravatham (2003), Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D, Harvard Oriental Series vol. 62, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-01227-1 
  • Meenakshisundaran, T.P. (1965), A History of Tamil Language, Poona: Deccan College 
  • Murthy, Srinivasa; Rao, Surendra; Veluthat, Kesavan; Bari, S.A. (1990), Essays on Indian History and culture: Felicitation volume in Honour of Professor B. Sheik Ali, New Delhi: Mittal, ISBN 978-81-7099-211-0 
  • Ramstedt, Martin (2004), Hinduism in modern Indonesia, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7007-1533-6 
  • Rajam, VS (1992), A Reference Grammar of Classical Tamil Poetry, Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, ISBN 978-0-87169-199-6 
  • Ramaswamy, Sumathy (1997), "Laboring for language", Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-585-10600-7, http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=ft5199n9v7&chunk.id=ch4 
  • Shapiro, Michael C.; Schiffman, Harold F. (1983), Language and society in South Asia, Dordrecht: Foris, ISBN 978-90-70176-55-6 
  • Schiffman, Harold F. (1999), A Reference Grammar of Spoken Tamil, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-64074-9, http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/plc/tamilweb/book.html 
  • Southworth, Franklin C. (1998), "On the Origin of the word tamiz", International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics 27 (1): 129–132 
  • Southworth, Franklin C. (2005), Linguistic archaeology of South Asia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-33323-8 
  • Steever, Sanford (1998), "Introduction", in Steever, Sanford, The Dravidian Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 1–39, ISBN 978-0-415-10023-6 
  • Steever, Sanford (2005), The Tamil auxiliary verb system, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-34672-6 
  • Tharu, Susie; Lalita, K., eds. (1991), Women Writing in India: 600 B.C. to the present – Vol. 1: 600 B.C. to the early twentieth century, Feminist Press, ISBN 978-1-55861-027-9, https://archive.org/details/womenwritinginin00thar 
  • Talbot, Cynthia (2001), Precolonial India in practice: Society, Region and Identity in Medieval Andhra, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-513661-6 
  • Tieken, Herman (2001), Kavya in South India: Old Tamil Cankam Poetry, Gonda Indological Studies, Volume X, Groningen: Egbert Forsten Publishing, ISBN 978-90-6980-134-6 
  • Varadarajan, Mu. (1988), A History of Tamil Literature, New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi  (Translated from Tamil by E.Sa. Viswanathan)
  • Zvelebil, Kamil (1992), Companion studies to the history of Tamil literature, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-09365-2 


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Further reading

  • Fabricius, Johann Philip (1933 and 1972), Tamil and English Dictionary. based on J.P. Fabricius Malabar-English Dictionary, 3rd and 4th Edition Revised and Enlarged by David Bexell. Evangelical Lutheran Mission Publishing House, Tranquebar; called Tranquebar Dictionary.
  • Freeman, Rich (February 1998), "Rubies and Coral: The Lapidary Crafting of Language in Kerala", The Journal of Asian Studies 57 (1): 38–65, doi:10.2307/2659023 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 

External links

تاميل (لغة) edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

قالب:Tamil language قالب:Tamil Nadu

الكلمات الدالة: