هوك‌ين

(تم التحويل من Hokkien)
هوك‌ين
Hokkien
Quanzhang
福建话/閩南語(泉漳片)
Hō-ló-oē/Hô-ló-uē
農場相褒歌.jpg
Koa-a books, Hokkien written in Chinese characters
موطنهاالصين وتايوان وهونگ كونگ ومدغشقر والفلپين وكمبوديا وماليزيا وإندونيسيا وسنغافورة وبروناي وتايلند والولايات المتحدة ومناطق الاستيطان الأخرى لشعب هوكلو
المنطقةجنوب مقاطعة فوجيان and other south-eastern coastal areas of بر الصين الرئيسي وتايوان وجنوب شرق آسيا
العرقهوكلو (مجموعة فرعية من صينيي الهان
الناطقون الأصليون
جزء كبير من 28 مليون ناطق بلغة من نان في بر الصين الرئيسي (2018)، 13.5 مليون في تايوان (2017)، 2 مليون في ماليزيا (2000)، 1.5 مليون في سنغافورة (2017)،[1] 1 مليون في الفلپين (2010)[2]
اللهجات
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
 تايوان[3][4][5] (also a statutory language for public transport announcements in Taiwan)[6]
ينظمهاThe Republic of China Ministry of Education and some NGOs are influential in Taiwan
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-3None (mis)
Glottologhokk1242[7]
fuki1235[8]
Banlamgu.svg
Distribution of Southern Min languages. Hokkien is dark green.
Hokkien Map.svg
Distribution of Hokkien dialects within Fujian Province and Taiwan.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Hokkien
الصينية التقليدية福建話
الصينية المبسطة福建话
Hoklo
الصينية التقليدية福佬話
الصينية المبسطة福佬话

هوك‌ين ( /hɒˈkiɛn/؛ من الصينية التقليدية: 福建話پخ-اوه-جي: Hok-kiàn-oē)[أ]؛ بالإنگليزية: Hokkien) هي فئة من لهجات من الجنوبية (Min Nan) الصينية المحكية في أرجاء جنوب شرق الصين، تايوان وجنوب شرق آسيا، كما يستخدمها صينيون آخرون وراء البحار. Hokkien originated in southern Fujian, the Minnan region. It is closely related to Teochew, though there is limited mutual intelligibility, and is somewhat more distantly related to Hainanese. Besides Hokkien, there are also other Min and Hakka dialects in Fujian province, most of which are not mutually intelligible with Hokkien.

Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region (including in Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Penang and other parts of peninsular Malaysia, and most of Indochina.[9]

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الأسماء

The term Hokkien ([hɔk˥kiɛn˨˩]) is etymologically derived from the Southern Min pronunciation for Fujian (福建), the province from which the language hails. In Southeast Asia and the English press, "Hokkien" is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, and does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches also present in Fujian such as Eastern Min or Hakka. In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang Division (بالصينية: 泉漳片; پن‌ين: Quánzhāng piàn) of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. The variety is also known by other terms such as the more general Min Nan (صينية تقليدية: 閩南語 / 閩南話; پخ-اوه-جي: Bân-lâm-gí / Bân-lâm-oē) or "Southern Min", "Holo" and "Hoklo" (الصينية التقليدية: 福佬پخ-اوه-جي: Hō-ló-oē). "Fujianese" and "Fukienese" are also used, although they are somewhat imprecise.

The term "Hokkien" is not usually used in Mainland China or Taiwan. Conversely "Hokkien" is the referred name in Southeast Asia in both English, Chinese or other languages.

Speakers of Hokkien, particularily those in Southeast Asia, typically refer to Hokkien as a dialect, rather than a language. People in Taiwan most often refer to Hokkien as the "Taiwanese language", with Minnan and Holo also being used and "福建話" (fújiàn huà) is not as common.[بحاجة لمصدر]


التوزيع الجغرافي

Hokkien originated in the southern region of Fujian province, an important centre for trade and migration, and has since become one of the most common Chinese varieties overseas. The major pole of Hokkien varieties outside of Fujian is Taiwan, where, during the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule, thousands of immigrants from Fujian arrived yearly. The Taiwanese variants mostly have origins with the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou dialects.

التبويب

مواقع تنويعات الهوك‌ين في فوجيان

جنوب فوجيان وجزء من غربها هما موطن أربع لهجات هوك‌ين رئيسية: تشين‌تشـِوْ و آموي وتشيانگ‌تشـِوْ، و لونگ‌يان ينبعون من مدن تشوان‌ژو و شيامن و ژانگ‌ژو و لونگ‌يان (بالترتيب).

جنوب شرق آسيا

The varieties of Hokkien in Southeast Asia originate from these dialects. Douglas (1873/1899) notes that "Singapore and the various Straits Settlements [such as Penang and Malacca], Batavia [Jakarta] and other parts of the Dutch possessions [Indonesia], are crowded with emigrants, especially from the Chang-chew [Zhangzhou] prefecture; Manila and other parts of the Philippines have great numbers from Chin-chew [Quanzhou], and emigrants are largely scattered in like manner in Siam [Thailand], Burmah [Myanmar], the Malay Peninsula [Peninsular Malaysia], Cochin China [Southern Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos], Saigon [Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam], &c. In many of these places there is also a great mixture of emigrants from Swatow [Shantou]."[10]

In modern times though, a mixed dialect descended from the Quanzhou, Amoy, and Zhangzhou dialects, leaning a little closer to the Quanzhou dialect, possibly due to being from the Tung'an dialect, is spoken by Chinese Singaporeans, Southern Malaysian Chinese, and Chinese Indonesians in Indonesia's Riau province and Riau Islands. Variants include Southern Peninsular Malaysian Hokkien and Singaporean Hokkien in Singapore.

Among Malaysian Chinese of Penang, and other states in Northern Peninsular Malaysia and ethnic Chinese Indonesians in Medan, with other areas in North Sumatra, Indonesia, a distinct descendant dialect form of Zhangzhou Hokkien has developed. In Penang, it is called Penang Hokkien while across the Malacca Strait in Medan, an almost identical variant is known as Medan Hokkien.

As for Chinese Filipinos in the Philippines, a variant known as Philippine Hokkien, which is also mostly derived from Quanzhou Hokkien, particularly the Jinjiang and Nan'an dialects with a bit of influence from the Amoy (Xiamen) dialect, is still spoken amongst families as most also profess ancestors from the aforementioned areas.

There are also Hokkien speakers scattered throughout other parts of Indonesia (such as Jakarta and around the island of Java), Thailand (especially Southern Thailand on the border with Malaysia), Myanmar, other parts of Malaysia (such as Eastern (Insular) Malaysia), Brunei, Cambodia, and Southern Vietnam (such as in Saigon / Ho Chi Minh City), though there are notably more of Teochew/Swatow background among descendants of Chinese migrants in regions such as parts of Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Southern Vietnam.

التاريخ

Variants of Hokkien dialects can be traced to three sources of origin: Tong'an, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. Both Amoy and most Taiwanese are heavily based on the Tong'an dialect, and to a lesser extent, on Quanzhou and Zhangzhou dialects, while the rest of the Hokkien dialects spoken in South East Asia are derived their respective homelands in southern Fujian.

الصوتيات

Hokkien has one of the most diverse phoneme inventories among Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Standard Mandarin and Cantonese. Vowels are more-or-less similar to that of Mandarin. Hokkien varieties retain many pronunciations that are no longer found in other Chinese varieties. These include the retention of the /t/ initial, which is now /tʂ/ (Pinyin 'zh') in Mandarin (e.g. 'bamboo' 竹 is tik, but zhú in Mandarin), having disappeared before the 6th century in other Chinese varieties.[11] Along with other Min languages, which are not directly descended from Middle Chinese, Hokkien is of considerable interest to historical linguists for reconstructing Old Chinese.

النهايات

Unlike Mandarin, Hokkien retains all the final consonants corresponding to those of Middle Chinese. While Mandarin only preserves the n and ŋ finals, Southern Min also preserves the m, p, t and k finals and developed the ʔ (glottal stop).

The vowels of Hokkien are listed below:[12]

Vowels/Combinations of Hokkien
Oral Nasal Stops
Medial e i o u m n ŋ i u p t k ʔ
Nucleus Vowel a a ai au ã ãm ãn ãŋ ãĩ ãũ ap at ak
i i io iu ĩ ĩm ĩn ĩŋ ĩũ ip it ik
e e eŋ* ek*
ə ə əm* ən* ə̃ŋ* əp* ət* ək* əʔ*
o o oŋ* ot* ok*
ɔ ɔ ɔ̃ ɔm* ɔn* ɔ̃ŋ ɔp* ɔt* ɔk ɔʔ
u u ue ui ũn ũĩ ut
ɯ ɯ* ɯŋ
Diphthongs ia ia iau ĩã ĩãm ĩãn ĩãŋ ĩãũ iap iat iak iaʔ
ĩɔ̃* ĩɔ̃ŋ iɔk
iəm* iən* iəŋ* iəp* iət*
ua ua uai ũã ũãn ũãŋ* ũãĩ uat uaʔ
Others ŋ̍

(*)Only certain dialects

  • Oral vowel sounds are realized as nasal sounds when preceding a nasal consonant.
  • [õ] only occurs within triphthongs as [õãĩ].

The following table illustrates some of the more commonly seen vowel shifts. Characters with the same vowel are shown in parentheses.

English Chinese character Accent Pe̍h-ōe-jī IPA Teochew Peng'Im
two Quanzhou, Taipei li˧ jĭ (zi˧˥)[13]
Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Tainan ʑi˧
sick (生) Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taipei pīⁿ pĩ˧ pēⁿ (pẽ˩)
Zhangzhou, Tainan pēⁿ pẽ˧
egg (遠) Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taiwan nn̄g nŋ˧ nn̆g (nŋ˧˥)
Zhangzhou, Yilan[14] nūi nui˧
chopsticks (豬) Quanzhou tīr tɯ˧ tēu (tɤ˩)
Xiamen, Taipei tu˧
Zhangzhou, Tainan ti˧
shoes (街)
Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taipei ue˧˥ ôi
Zhangzhou, Tainan ê e˧˥
leather (未) Quanzhou phêr pʰə˨˩ phuê (pʰue˩)
Xiamen, Taipei phê pʰe˨˩
Zhangzhou, Tainan phôe pʰue˧
chicken (細) Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taipei koe kue˥ koi
Zhangzhou, Tainan ke ke˥
hair (兩) Quanzhou, Taiwan, Xiamen mn̂g mo
Zhangzhou, Taiwan mo͘ mɔ̃
return Quanzhou hoan huaⁿ huêng
Xiamen hâiⁿ hãɪ˨˦
Zhangzhou, Taiwan hêng hîŋ
Speech (花) Quanzhou, Taiwan oe ue
Zhangzhou oa ua


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Initials

Southern Min has aspirated, unaspirated as well as voiced consonant initials. For example, the word khui (; "open") and kuiⁿ (; "close") have the same vowel but differ only by aspiration of the initial and nasality of the vowel. In addition, Southern Min has labial initial consonants such as m in m̄-sī (毋是; "is not").

Another example is ta-po͘-kiáⁿ (查埔囝; "boy") and cha-bó͘-kiáⁿ (查某囝; "girl"), which differ in the second syllable in consonant voicing and in tone.

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
voiceless Stop plain p t k ʔ
aspirated
voiced stop oral or lateral b
(m)
d[15]~l
(n)
ɡ
(ŋ)
(nasalized)
Affricate plain ts
aspirated tsʰ
voiced dz[16]~l~ɡ
Fricative s h
Semi-vowels w j
  • All consonants but ʔ may be nasalized; voiced oral stops may be nasalized into voiced nasal stops.
  • Nasal stops mostly occur word-initially.[17]
  • Quanzhou and nearby may pronounce ⟨j⟩/⟨dz⟩ as ⟨l⟩ or ⟨g⟩.[بحاجة لمصدر]
  • ⟨l⟩ is often interchanged with ⟨n⟩ and ⟨j⟩/⟨dz⟩ throughout different dialects.[18]
  • ⟨j⟩, sometimes into ⟨dz⟩, is often pronounced very thick so as to change to ⟨l⟩, or very nearly so.[10]
  • Some dialects may pronounce ⟨l⟩ as ⟨d⟩, or a sound very like it.[15]
  • Approximant sounds [w] [j], only occur word-medially, and are also realized as laryngealized [] [], within a few medial and terminal environments.[19]

Tones

According to the traditional Chinese system, Hokkien dialects have 7 or 8 distinct tones, including two entering tones which end in plosive consonants. The entering tones can be analysed as allophones, giving 5 or 6 phonemic tones. In addition, many dialects have an additional phonemic tone ("tone 9" according to the traditional reckoning), used only in special or foreign loan words.[20] This means that Hokkien dialects have between 5 and 7 phonemic tones.

Tone sandhi is extensive.[21] There are minor variations between the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou tone systems. Taiwanese tones follow the patterns of Amoy or Quanzhou, depending on the area of Taiwan.

Tones level rising departing entering
dark level light level dark rising light rising dark departing light departing dark entering light entering
Tone Number 1 5 2 6 3 7 4 8
Tone contour Xiamen, Fujian ˦˦ ˨˦ ˥˧ ˨˩ ˨˨ ˧˨ ˦
東 taŋ1 銅 taŋ5 董 taŋ2 凍 taŋ3 動 taŋ7 觸 tak4 逐 tak8
Taipei, Taiwan ˦˦ ˨˦ ˥˧ ˩˩ ˧˧ ˧˨ ˦
Tainan, Taiwan ˦˦ ˨˧ ˦˩ ˨˩ ˧˧ ˧˨ ˦˦
Zhangzhou, Fujian ˧˦ ˩˧ ˥˧ ˨˩ ˨˨ ˧˨ ˩˨˩
Quanzhou, Fujian ˧˧ ˨˦ ˥˥ ˨˨ ˦˩ ˥ ˨˦
Penang, Malaysia[22] ˧˧ ˨˧ ˦˦˥ ˨˩ ˧ ˦

اللهجات

المعجم

Literary and colloquial readings

قالب:HokkienLiteraryColloquial

This feature extends to Chinese numerals, which have both literary and colloquial readings.[23] Literary readings are typically used when the numerals are read out loud (e.g. phone numbers, years), while colloquial readings are used for counting items.

Numeral Reading Numeral Reading
Literary Colloquial Literary Colloquial
1 it chi̍t 6 lio̍k la̍k
2 jī, lī nn̄g 7 chhit
3 sam saⁿ 8 pat peh, poeh
4 sù, sìr 9 kiú káu
5 ngó͘ gō͘ 10 si̍p cha̍p

Semantic differences between Hokkien and Mandarin

Quite a few words from the variety of Old Chinese spoken in the state of Wu, where the ancestral language of Min and Wu dialect families originated, and later words from Middle Chinese as well, have retained the original meanings in Hokkien, while many of their counterparts in Mandarin Chinese have either fallen out of daily use, have been substituted with other words (some of which are borrowed from other languages while others are new developments), or have developed newer meanings. The same may be said of Hokkien as well, since some lexical meaning evolved in step with Mandarin while others are wholly innovative developments.

This table shows some Hokkien dialect words from Classical Chinese, as contrasted to the written Mandarin:

Meaning Hokkien Mandarin
Hanji POJ Hanzi Pinyin
eye 目睭/目珠 ba̍k-chiu 眼睛 yǎnjīng
chopstick tī, tīr, tū 筷子 kuàizi
to chase jiok, lip zhuī
wet [24] tâm shī
black hēi
book chheh shū

For other words, the classical Chinese meanings of certain words, which are retained in Hokkien dialects, have evolved or deviated significantly in other Chinese dialects. The following table shows some words that are both used in both Hokkien dialects and Mandarin Chinese, while the meanings in Mandarin Chinese have been modified:

Word Hokkien Mandarin
POJ Meaning
(and Classical Chinese)
Pinyin Meaning
cháu to flee zǒu to walk
sè, sòe tiny, small, young thin, slender
tiáⁿ pot dǐng tripod
chia̍h to eat shí to eat – it's the same
kôan, koâiⁿ, kûiⁿ tall, high xuán to hang, to suspend
chhùi mouth huì beak


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كلمات من Minyue

Some commonly used words, shared by all[بحاجة لمصدر][محل شك] Min Chinese languages, came from the ancient Minyue languages. Jerry Norman suggested that these languages were Austroasiatic. Some terms are thought be cognates with words in Tai Kadai and Austronesian languages. They include the following examples, compared to the Fuzhou dialect, a Min Dong language:

Word Hokkien POJ Foochow Romanized Meaning
kha [kʰa˥] [kʰa˥] foot and leg
kiáⁿ [kjã˥˩] giāng [kjaŋ˧] son, child, whelp, a small amount
khùn [kʰun˨˩] káung [kʰɑwŋ˨˩˧] to sleep
骿 phiaⁿ [pʰjã˥] piăng [pʰjaŋ˥] back, dorsum
chhù [tsʰu˨˩] chuó, chió [tsʰwɔ˥˧] home, house
thâi [tʰaj˨˦] tài [tʰaj˥˧] to kill, to slaughter
() bah [baʔ˧˨] meat
suí [sui˥˧] beautiful
soāiⁿ [suãi˨˨] suông [suɔŋ˨˦˨] mango (Austroasiatic) [25][26]

الكلمات المستعارة

Loanwords are not unusual among Hokkien dialects, as speakers readily adopted indigenous terms of the languages they came in contact with. As a result, there is a plethora of loanwords that are not mutually comprehensible among Hokkien dialects.

Taiwanese Hokkien, as a result of linguistic contact with Japanese[27] and Formosan languages, contains many loanwords from these languages. Many words have also been formed as calques from Mandarin, and speakers will often directly use Mandarin vocabulary through codeswitching. Among these include the following examples:

Singaporean Hokkien, Penang Hokkien and other Malaysian Hokkien dialects tend to draw loanwords from Malay, English as well as other Chinese dialects, primarily Teochew. Examples include:

  • 'but' – ta-pi, from Malay
    Other Hokkien variants: 但是 (tān-sī)
  • 'doctor' – 老君 ló-kun, from Malay dukun
    Other Hokkien variants: 醫生(i-seng)
  • 'stone/rock' – bà-tû, from Malay batu
    Other Hokkien variants: 石头(chio̍h-thâu)
  • 'market' – 巴剎 pa-sat, from Malay pasar from Persian bazaar (بازار)[28]
    Other Hokkien variants: 市場 (chhī-tiûⁿ), 菜市 (chhài-chhī)
  • 'they' – 伊儂 i-lâng from Teochew (i1 nang5)
    Other Hokkien variants: 𪜶 (in)
  • 'together' – 做瓠 chò-bú from Teochew 做瓠 (jo3 bu5)
    Other Hokkien variants: 做夥 (chò-hóe), 同齊 (tâng-chê) or 鬥陣 (tàu-tīn)
  • 'soap' – 雪文 sap-bûn from Malay sabun from Arabic ṣābūn (صابون).[28][29][30]

Philippine Hokkien, as a result of centuries-old contact with both Philippine languages and Spanish also incorporate words from these languages. Speakers today will also often directly use English and Filipino (Tagalog), or other Philippine languages like Bisaya, vocabulary through codeswitching. Examples include:

  • 'cup' – ba-sù, from either Filipino (Tagalog) baso or Spanish vaso
    Other Hokkien variants: 杯仔 (poe-á), 杯 (poe)
  • 'office' – o-pi-sín, from either Filipino (Tagalog) opisina or Spanish oficina
    Other Hokkien variants: 辦公室 (pān-kong-sek/pān-kong-siak)
  • 'soap' – sap-bûn, from either Filipino (Tagalog) sabon or Early Modern Spanish xabon
    Other Hokkien variants:
  • 'to pay' – pá-lâ, from Spanish paga
    Other Hokkien variants: 予錢 (hō͘-chîⁿ), 還錢 (hêng-chîⁿ)
  • 'coffee' – ka-pé, from either Filipino (Tagalog) kape or Spanish café
    Other Hokkien variants: 咖啡 (ko-pi), 咖啡 (ka-pi)

مقارنة مع نطق المندارين و Sino-Xenic

English Chinese characters Mandarin Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien[31] Korean Vietnamese Japanese
Book Chheh Chaek 책 Tập/Sách Saku/Satsu/Shaku
Bridge Qiáo Kiô Kyo Cầu/Kiều Kyō
Dangerous 危險 Wēixiǎn Guî-hiám Wiheom 위협 Nguy hiểm Kiken
Flag Ki Cờ/Kỳ Ki
Insurance 保險 Bǎoxiǎn Pó-hiám Boheom Bảo hiểm Hoken
News 新聞 Xīnwén Sin-bûn Shinmun 신문 Tân Văn Shinbun
Student 學生 Xuéshēng Ha̍k-seng Haksaeng Học sinh Gakusei
University 大學 Dàxué Tāi-ha̍k (Tōa-o̍h) Daehak Đại học Daigaku

انظر أيضاً

الملاحظات

  1. ^ also Quanzhang (Quanzhou-Zhangzhou / Chinchew–Changchew؛ BP: Zuánziū–Ziāngziū)

المراجع

  1. ^ Ethnologue. "Languages of Singapore - Ethnologue 2017" (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2017-07-14.
  2. ^ قالب:Ethnologue23
  3. ^ "Draft National Language Development Act Clears Legislative Floor". Focus Taiwan. CNA. 25 December 2018.
  4. ^ "Lì yuàn sān dú "guójiā yǔyán fāzhǎn fǎ" gōng guǎng jítuán kě shè Táiyǔ diànshìtái" 立院三讀《國家語言發展法》 公廣集團可設台語電視台. Píngguo Rìbao (in الصينية). 25 December 2018. Retrieved 2021-09-20.
  5. ^ Zhou, Siyu 周思宇 (25 December 2018). ""Guójiā yǔyán fāzhǎn fǎ" lì yuàn sān dú! zhèngfǔ dé shè Táiyǔ zhuānshǔ píndào" 《國家語言發展法》立院三讀!政府得設台語專屬頻道 [Third Reading of the National Language Development Law! The Government Must Set Up a Taiwanese-Only Channel]. ltn.com.tw (in الصينية). Yahoo!.
  6. ^ "Dàzhòng yùnshū gōngjù bòyīn yǔyán píngděng bǎozhàng fǎ" 大眾運輸工具播音語言平等保障法 [Public Transport Broadcast Language Equality Guarantee Law]. zh.wikisource.org (in الصينية).
  7. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hokkien". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  8. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Fukienese". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  9. ^ West (2010), pp. 289-90.
  10. ^ أ ب Douglas, Carstairs (1899). "Extent of the Amoy Vernacular, and its Sub-division into Dialects.". Chinese–English Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy (in English & Amoy Hokkien). London: Presbyterian Church of England. p. 610.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  11. ^ Kane, Daniel (2006). The Chinese Language: Its History and Current Usage. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 100–102. ISBN 978-0-8048-3853-5.
  12. ^ Fang, Meili (2010). Spoken Hokkien. London: SOAS. pp. 9–11.
  13. ^ for Teochew Peng'Im on the word 'two', ri6 can also be written as dzi6.
  14. ^ "Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ chángyòng cí cídiǎn" 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 [Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan] (in الصينية). Ministry of Education, R.O.C. 2011.
  15. ^ أ ب Douglas, Carstairs (1899). "D.". Chinese-English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy (in English & Amoy Hokkien). London: Presbyterian Church of England. p. 99.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  16. ^ Douglas, Carstairs (1899). "dz". Chinese-English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy (in English & Amoy Hokkien). London: Presbyterian Church of England. p. 99.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  17. ^ Fang, Meili (2010). Spoken Hokkien. London: SOAS. p. 13.
  18. ^ Douglas, Carstairs (1899). "L.". Chinese-English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy (in English & Amoy Hokkien). London: Presbyterian Church of England. p. 288.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  19. ^ Tay, Mary W. J. (1970). "Hokkien Phonological Structure". Journal of Linguistics. 6 (1): 81–88. doi:10.1017/S0022226700002371. JSTOR 4175053. S2CID 145243105.
  20. ^ Zhou, Changji 周長楫 (2006). Mǐnnán fāngyán dà cídiǎn 闽南方言大词典 (in الصينية). Fujian renmin chuban she. pp. 17, 28. ISBN 7-211-03896-9.
  21. ^ "Shēngdiào xìtǒng" 聲調系統 (in الصينية). 1 August 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2010 – via ntcu.edu.tw.
  22. ^ Chang, Yueh-chin; Hsieh, Feng-fan (2013), Complete and Not-So-Complete Tonal Neutralization in Penang Hokkien, https://www.academia.edu/5132554 
  23. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة MoE
  24. ^ https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E6%BF%95 "濕"
  25. ^ https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E6%AA%A8#Etymology قالب:User-generated source
  26. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Teochew, another Minnan language - Oung-Heng HENG | PG 2019". YouTube.
  27. ^ "Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ wàilái cí" 臺灣閩南語外來詞 [Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan] (in الصينية). Taiwan: Ministry of Education, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  28. ^ أ ب Sidong Feidong 似懂非懂 (2006). Pēi nán mì 卑南覓 (in الصينية). Hyweb Technology Co. pp. 1873–. GGKEY:TPZ824QU3UG.
  29. ^ http://banlam.tawa.asia/2012/10/soap-feizhao-hokkien-sabun.html قالب:Bare URL inline
  30. ^ Thomas Watters (1889). Essays on the Chinese Language. Presbyterian Mission Press. pp. 346–.
  31. ^ Iûⁿ, Ún-giân. "Tâi-bûn/Hôa-bûn Sòaⁿ-téng Sû-tián" 台文/華文線頂辭典 [Taiwanese/Chinese Online Dictionary]. Retrieved 1 October 2014.

للاستزادة

  • Branner, David Prager (2000). Problems in Comparative Chinese Dialectology — the Classification of Miin and Hakka. Trends in Linguistics series, no. 123. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015831-0.
  • Chung, R.-f (196). The segmental phonology of Southern Min in Taiwan. Taipei: Crane Pub. Co. ISBN 957-9463-46-8.
  • DeBernardi, Jean (1991). "Linguistic nationalism: the case of Southern Min". Sino-Platonic Papers. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. 25. OCLC 24810816.
  • Ding, Picus Sizhi (2016). Southern Min (Hokkien) as a Migrating Language. Springer. ISBN 978-981-287-593-8.
  • Klöter, Henning (2011). The Language of the Sangleys: A Chinese Vernacular in Missionary Sources of the Seventeenth Century. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-18493-0. An analysis and facsimile of the Arte de la Lengua Chio-chiu (1620), the oldest extant grammar of Hokkien.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Sino-Tibetan languages قالب:Southern Min Languages قالب:Min Chinese

قالب:Languages of Singapore

الكلمات الدالة: