افتح القائمة الرئيسية

هندي (لغة)

(تم التحويل من لغة هندية)

اللغة الهندية (हिन्दी) هي لغة هندوأوروبية من فرع اللغات الهندوإيرانية، وهي اللغة الرسمية في الهند وفي جزر فيجي (الهندوستانية)، كما تستخدم في عدة دول أخرى. يوجد أكثر من 180 مليون مستخدماً لهذه اللغة كلغة أم، وحوالي 300 مليون آخرين كلغة ثانية في الهند. وفي خارج الهند يتحدثها 8000000 شخص في النيبال، و 890292 في جنوب أفريقيا، و 685170 في موريشيوس، و 232760 في اليمن، و 147000 في أوغندا، و 100000 في الولايات المتحدة، و 30000 في ألمانيا، و 20000 في نيوزيلندا، و 5000 في سنغافورة. وتستخدم اللغة الأردية (أردو) في باكستان في عدة دول أخرى بواسطة 41 مليوناً، وهي مشابهة بشكل أساسي للغة الهندية، حيث الفرق الأبرز بين اللغتين هو أن الأردية تستخدم الحروف العربية.

Hindi
Modern Standard Hindi
हिंदी Hindī
Hindi.svg
The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script
النطق[ˈɦɪndiː]
موطنهاIndia
المنطقةNorthern, Eastern, Western and Central India (Hindi Belt)
الناطقون الأصليون
L1 speakers: 322 million speakers of Hindi and various related languages reported their language as 'Hindi' (2011 census)[1]
L2 speakers: 270 million (2016)[2]
الصيغ المبكرة
اللهجات
Signed Hindi
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
 الهند
ينظمهاCentral Hindi Directorate[4]
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1hi
ISO 639-2hin
ISO 639-3hin
hin-hin
Glottologhind1269[5]
Linguasphere59-AAF-qf
Language region maps of India.svg
A speaker of Hindi, recorded for Wikitongues

في الهند تستخدم اللغة بشكل أساسي في المناطق الشمالية والوسطى. تستخدم اللغة الحروف الدنفاناغارية، وهي خامس أكثر لغات العالم من حيث عدد الناطقين بها بفصاحة، حيث بلغ عددهم 182 مليوناً في عام 1998. في عام 1997، تبين من استفتاء أن ثلثي سكان الهند يجيدون اللغة الهندية. من بين أشهر اللهجات الهندية: أفادي، وبريج، وبهوجبوري، وبوندلي، وباغلي، ومارواي. تطورت اللغة الهندية مباشرة من لغة الهند القديمة وهي السنسكريتية.

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فهرست

الوضع الرسمي

الهند

Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English:

(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.[6]
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorise the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union.[7]

Article 351 of the Indian constitution states

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.

It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351),[8] with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India (such as the those in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.[9]

Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English language by the union government. In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government.

At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.[10] It is one of the additional official languages of West Bengal.[11][12][13] Each may also designate a "co-official language"; in Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on the political formation in power, this language is generally Urdu. Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories: National Capital Territory, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

National language status for Hindi is a long-debated theme.[14] In 2010, the Gujarat High Court clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such.[15][16][17]

نـِپال

Hindi is spoken as a first language by about 77,569 people in Nepal according to the 2011 Nepal census, and further by 1,225,950 people as a second language.[18]

فيجي

Outside Asia, the Awadhi language (an Eastern Hindi dialect) with influence from Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Fijian and English is spoken in Fiji.[19][20] It is an official language in Fiji as per the 1997 Constitution of Fiji,[21] where it referred to it as "Hindustani", however in the 2013 Constitution of Fiji, it is simply called "Fiji Hindi".[22] It is spoken by 380,000 people in Fiji.[19]

التوزيع الجغرافي

 
Distribution of L1 speakers of Hindi and its dialects (as defined by the Government of India) in India. ██ 0%██ 100%

Hindi is the lingua franca of northern India (which contains the Hindi Belt), as well as an official language of the Government of India, along with English.[7]

In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for the people living in Haflong, Assam who speak other languages natively.[23] In Arunachal Pradesh, Hindi emerged as a lingua franca among locals who speak over 50 dialects natively.[24]

Hindi is quite easy to understand for many Pakistanis, who speak Urdu, which, like Hindi, is a standard register of the Hindustani language; additionally, the Indian media is widely viewed in Pakistan.[25]

A sizeable population in Afghanistan, especially in Kabul, can also speak and understand Hindi-Urdu due to the popularity and influence of Bollywood films, songs and actors in the region.[26][27]

Hindi is also spoken by a large population of Madheshis (people having roots in north-India but have migrated to Nepal over hundreds of years) of Nepal. Apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the large Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the "Hindi Belt" of India. A substantially large North Indian diaspora lives in countries like the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji and Mauritius, where it is natively spoken at home and among their own Hindustani-speaking communities. Outside India, Hindi speakers are 8 million in Nepal; 863,077 in United States of America;[28][29] 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000 in Fiji;[19] 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname;[30] 100,000 in Uganda; 45,800 in United Kingdom;[31] 20,000 in New Zealand; 20,000 in Germany; 26,000 in Trinidad and Tobago;[30] 3,000 in Singapore.


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مقارنة مع الأردو الفصحى الحديثة

Linguistically, Hindi and Urdu are two registers of the same language and are mutually intelligible.[32] Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and contains more Sanskrit-derived words than Urdu, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian loanwords than does Hindi. However, both share a core vocabulary of native Prakrit and Sanskrit-derived words,[33][34][35] with large numbers of Arabic and Persian loanwords.[36] Because of this, as well as the fact that the two registers share an identical grammar,[37][33][34] a consensus of linguists consider them to be two standardised forms of the same language, Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu.[32][37][33][38] Hindi is the most commonly used official language in India. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan and is one of 22 official languages of India, also having official status in Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Delhi.

The comparison of Hindi and Urdu as separate languages is largely motivated by politics, namely the Indo-Pakistani rivalry.[39]

الكتابة

Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to right. Unlike for Sanskrit, Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Standard Hindi.[40]

الرومنة

The Government of India uses Hunterian transliteration as its official system of writing Hindi in the Latin script. Various other systems also exist, such as IAST, ITRANS and ISO 15919.

المعجم

Traditionally, Hindi words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology:

پراكريت

Hindi has naturally inherited a large portion of its vocabulary from Śaurasenī Prākṛt, in the form of tadbhava words. This process usually involves compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.g. Sanskrit tīkṣṇa > Prakrit tikkha > Hindi tīkhā.


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السنسكريتية

Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields. The formal Hindi standard, from which much of the Persian, Arabic and English vocabulary has been replaced by neologisms compounding tatsam words, is called Śuddh Hindi (pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi.


الفارسية

Hindi also features significant Persian influence, standardised from spoken Hindustani.[36][41][صفحة مطلوبة] Early borrowings, beginning in the mid-12th century, were specific to Islam (e.g. Muhammad, islām) and so Persian was simply an intermediary for Arabic. Later, under the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, Persian became the primary administrative language in the Hindi heartland. Persian borrowings reached a heyday in the 17th century, pervading all aspects of life. Even grammatical constructs, namely the izafat, were assimilated into Hindi.[42]

Post-Partition the Indian government advocated for a policy of Sanskritization leading to a marginalisation of the Persian element in Hindi. However, many Persian words (e.g. muśkil "difficult", bas "enough", havā "air", x(a)yāl "thought") have remained entrenched in Modern Standard Hindi, and a larger amount are still used in Urdu poetry written in the Devanagari script.

العربية

Arabic also shows influence in Hindi, often via Persian but sometimes directly.[43]

الإعلام

الأدب

Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional – Kabir, Raskhan); Śṛṇgār (beauty – Keshav, Bihari); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik (modern).

Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily written in other varieties of Hindi, particularly Avadhi and Braj Bhasha, but to a degree also in Delhavi, the basis for Modern Standard Hindi. During the British Raj, Hindustani became the prestige dialect.

Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi.[44] The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or Sāhityik, Hindi was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people.[بحاجة لمصدر]

The Dvivedī Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing Modern Standard Hindi in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love.

In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chāyāvādī. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chāyāvādī poets.

Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist period of Hindi literature, marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī movement, and by a return to simple language and natural themes.

الإنترنت

Hindi literature, music, and film have all been disseminated via the internet. In 2015, Google reported a 94% increase in Hindi-content consumption year-on-year, adding that 21% of users in India prefer content in Hindi.[45] Many Hindi newspapers also offer digital editions.

نص عينة

The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

بالهندي
अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।
Transliteration (IAST)
Anucched 1 (ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke viṣay mẽ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ bhāīcāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie.
Transcription (IPA)
[ənʊtʃʰːeːd eːk | səbʱiː mənʊʃjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ ɔːr ədʱɪkaːɾõ keː maːmleː mẽː dʒənmədʒaːt sʋətəntɾətaː ɔːr səmaːntaː pɾaːpt hɛː ‖ ʊnʱẽ bʊdʱːɪ ɔːɾ əntəɾaːtmaː kiː deːn pɾaːpt hɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽː bʱaːiːtʃaːɾeː keː bʱaːʋ seː bəɾtaːʋ kəɾnə tʃaːhɪeː ‖]
Gloss (word-to-word)
Article 1 (one) All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should.
Translation (grammatical)
Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

انظر أيضاً

References

الهامش

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ببليوگرافيا

القواميس

للاستزادة

  • Bhatia, Tej K A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition. Leiden, Netherlands & New York, NY: E.J. Brill, 1987. ISBN 90-04-07924-6

وصلات خارجية

هندي (لغة) edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

قالب:Central Indo-Aryan languages خطأ لوا في وحدة:Subject_bar على السطر 1: Please use mw.html instead of Module:HtmlBuilder.