ژى‌جيانگ

مقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ

浙江省

Chekiang
الترجمة اللفظية بالـ الاسم
 • بالصينية浙江省 (Zhèjiāng Shěng)
 • AbbreviationZJ / (پن‌ين: Zhè)
 • ووTsehkaon San
منظر من جبال يان‌دانگ
Map showing the location of Zhejiang Province
خريطة تبين موقع مقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ
الإحداثيات: 29°12′N 120°30′E / 29.2°N 120.5°E / 29.2; 120.5Coordinates: 29°12′N 120°30′E / 29.2°N 120.5°E / 29.2; 120.5
البلدالصين
الضم إلى أسرة چين222 ق.م.
دائرة جيانگ‌نان‌دونگ626
دائرة ليانگ‌ژى997
تشكـُّل مقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ1368
الفترة الجمهورية1912-01-01
انقسام الإقليم1949-12-07
فتح يي‌جيانگ‌شان1955-01-20
السمِيْالاسم القديم لـنهر چيان‌تانگ
العاصمة
(وأكبر مدينة)
هانگ‌ژو
التقسيمات11 محافظة، 90 ناحية، 1570 بلدية
الحكومة
 • النوعمقاطعة
 • الكيانمؤتمر الشعب لمقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ
 • أمين الحزبيوان جياجون
 • رئيس المؤتمريوان جياجون
 • الحاكمZheng Shanjie
 • رئيس المؤتمر الاستشاريGe Huijun
المساحة
 • الإجمالي101٬800 كم² (39٬300 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة26
أعلى منسوب1٬929 m (6٬329 ft)
التعداد
 (2020)[1]
 • الإجمالي64٬567٬588
 • الترتيب8
 • الكثافة630/km2 (1٬600/sq mi)
 • ترتيب الكثافة8
الديمغرافيا
 • التركيبة العرقيةهان: 99.2%
شى: 0.4%
 • اللغات واللهجاتوو و Huizhou, مندرين جيانگ‌هواي, مين نان (في تسانگ‌نان و ناحية پينگ‌يانگ)
ISO 3166 codeCN-ZJ
ن.م.ا. (2018[2])5.62 تريليون يوان صيني¥
849.23 بليون دولار (4)
 • للفرد98,643 يوان صيني¥
14,907 دولار (5)
HDI (2018) 0.810[3]
high · 6
الموقع الإلكترونيzj.gov.cn
ژى‌جيانگ
Zhejiang (Chinese characters).svg
"ژى‌جيانگ" بحروف صينية
الصينية浙江
WuTseh-kaon
أص‌د: ['t͡səʔ'kɑ̃]
البريدChekiang
المعنى الحرفي"نهر ژى"

ژى‌جيانگ } (كانت تُكتب في السابق "Chekiang تشى‌كيانگ" هي مقاطعة شرقية ساحلية في جمهورية الصين الشعبية. الكلمة ژى‌جيانگ (النهر المتعرج) كانت الاسم القديم لنهر چيان‌تانگ،[4] الذي يمر عبر هانگ‌ژو، العاصمة الإقليمية. اسم المقاطعة عادة ما يـُختصر إلى "ژى Zhe" (浙).

تجاور ژى‌جيانگ كلاً من جيانگ‌سو وشانغهاي في الشمال، وآن‌هوي في شمال الغرب، وجيانگ‌شي في الغرب، وفوجيان في الجنوب. يقع بحر شرق الصين شرق المحافظة، والذي تقع وراءه جزر ريوكيو في اليابان. يبلغ تعداد ژى‌جيانگ 64.6 مليون نسمة، مما يجعلها ثامن أكبر مقاطعة في الصين. المدن الأخرى الجديرة بالذكر تضم ننگ‌بو و ون‌ژو. وكانت تـُكنـَّى 'العمود الفقري للصين' لكونها قوة دافعة رئيسية في الاقتصاد الصيني ولكونها مسقط رأس العديد من الأشخاص البارزين، ومنهم الزعيم الصيني الوطني چيانگ كاي-شك والمبادر جاك ما. تتألف ژى‌جيانگ من 90 ناحية (منهم مدن بمستوى ناحية ومديريات).[5]

منطقة ژى‌جيانگ كانت تسيطر عليها مملكة يوى أثناء فترة الربيع والخريف. وضمتها لاحقاً امبراطورية چين في 222 ق.م. وتحت أسرة مينگ المتأخرة و أسرة تشينگ التي تلتها، أصبحت موانئ ژى‌جيانگ مراكز هامة للتجارة الدولية. وقد احتلتها امبراطورية اليابان أثناء الحرب الصينية اليابانية الثانية ووُضِعت تحت سيطرة دولة عميلة لليابانيين تُدعى حكومة الصين الوطنية المعاد تنظيمها. وبعد هزيمة اليابان، أصبح اقتصاد ژى‌جيانگ راكداً في ظل سياسات ماو زى‌دونگ.[6]

ومع ذلك، فبعد الإصلاح الاقتصادي الصيني، نمت مقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ لتصبح واحدة من أغنى مقاطعات الصين، حيث احتلت المرتبة الرابعة من حيث الناتج المحلي الإجمالي على المستوى الوطني و الخامسة من حيث ن.م.ا. للفرد، بقيمة الناتج المحلي الإجمالي الاسمي 5.62 تريليون يوان صيني¥ (849 بليون دولار) في 2018. يقوم اقتصاد ژى‌جيانگ على الصناعات الكهروميكانيكية و النسيج، والصناعات الكيماوية والمواد الغذائية ومواد البناء.

تتكون ژى‌جيانگ في الغالب من تلال، تمثل حوالي 70% من إجمالي مساحتها، بمناسيب أعلى باتجاه الجنوب والغرب. ولـژى‌جيانگ أطول خط حالي في الصين. نهر چيان‌تانگ الذي ينساب عبر المقاطعة، والذي منه اِشتـُقَّ اسمها. وضمن المقاطعة توجد ثلاثة آلاف جزيرة، وهو أكبر عدد في الصين. العاصمة هانگ‌ژو تميز نهاية القناة الكبرى وتطل على خليج هانگ‌ژو في شمال ژى‌جيانگ، الذي يفصل شانغهاي عن ننگ‌بو. يضم الخليج العديد من الجزر الصغيرة التي تُسمى جمعاً جزر ژوشان.

هانگ‌ژو هي مدينة مهمة تاريخياً في الصين وتعتبر مدينة عالمية بتصنيف "Beta+" حسب GaWC.[7] وتضم البحيرة الغربية البارزة. العديد من تنويعات الصينية يتكلم بها سكان ژى‌جيانگ، إلا أن أبرزهم هي صينية وو.

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أصل الاسم

اسم القاطعة مشتق من نهر ژى (الصينية المبسطة: 浙江پن‌ين: Zhè Jiāng)، الاسم السابق لنهر چيان‌تانگ الذي يجري أمام هانگ‌ژو ويشكل مصبه خليج هانگ‌ژو. وعادةً ما يُفهَم بالمعنى "النهر الملوي" أو "المنثني"، من معنى الكلمة الصينية ؛[8] ولكنه أكثر احتمالاً أن يكون مركب صوتي-دلالي تشكل من اضافة (جذر "ماء" المستخدم لأسماء الأنهار) إلى الصوت (پن‌ين zhé ولكن الصينية القديمة المعاد بناؤها *tet),[9] محافظاً على اسم من وو الأولية مملكة يوى المحلية، مماثل لكل من يوهانگ و كواي‌جي و جيانگ.[بحاجة لمصدر]


التاريخ

قبل التاريخ

ثقافة كواهوچياو كانت ثقافة من العصر الحجري المبكر ازدهرت في منطقة هانگ‌ژو في الفترة 6,000-5,000 ق.م.[10][11]

وكانت ژى‌جيانگ موقعاً لثقافات العصر الحجري الحديث هى‌مودو (التي بدأت في 5500 ق.م.) و ليانگ‌ژو (التي بدأت في 3400 ق.م.).[12]

التاريخ القديم

منطقة ژى‌جيانگ الحالية كانت خارج دائرة النفوذ الرئيسية لحضارة شانگ في الألفية الثانية ق.م. بدلاً من ذلك، كان يسكنها شعوب عـُرِفت جَمعاً بإسم دونگ‌يوى.

بدأت مملكة يوى في الظهور في اليوميات والسجلات المكتوبة أثناء فترة الربيع والخريف. ووفقاً للتأريخات، فإن مملكة يوى كانت في شمال ژى‌جيانگ. ويزعم شي‌جي أن قادتها كانوا ينحدرون من مؤسس شيا يو الأكبر. "أغنية مراكبي يوى" (بالصينية: 越人歌پن‌ين: Yuèrén Gē; حرفياً "Song of the man of Yue") نـُسِخـَت حرفيا إلى الصينية وسجلها المؤلفون في شمال الصين أو الداخل الصيني في خى‌بـِيْ وهـِنان حوالي 528 ق.م. تـُظهـِر الأغنية أن شعب يوى تكلم لغةً غير مفهومة للهجات شمال وجنوب الصين، كما أنه لم يفهم لهجاتهم ولا لهجات الداخل الصيني. سيف گوجيان يحمل كتابة أختام الطيور والديدان. يوى‌نو (بالصينية: 越女; پن‌ين: Yuènǚ; ويد-جايلز: Yüeh-nü; حرفياً "the Lady of Yue") كانت سيـّافة من دولة يوى. وللحد من توسع مملكة وو اتبعت تشو سياسة تقوية يوى.

تحت حكم الملك گوجيان، تعافت يوى من نكساتها المبكرة وضمت بالكامل أراضي غريمتها في 473 ق.م. ثم نقل ملوك يوى عاصمتهم من مقرها الأصلي حول جبل كواي‌جي في شاوشينگ الحالية إلى عاصمة وو السابقة في ما هو اليوم سوژو. وفي غياب قوة جنوبية تنقلب ضد يوى، عارضتها تشو مباشرةً، وفي 333 ق.م.، نجحت في تدميرها. أراضي يوى السابقة ضمتها امبراطورية چين في 222 ق.م. وانتظمت في قيادة مسماة على اسم كواي‌جي في ژى‌جيانگ ولكن في البداية كان مقرها في وو في جيانگ‌سو.

هان والممالك الثلاث

قيادة كواي‌جي كانت مركز القوة المبدئي لتمرد شيانگ ليانگ و شيانگ يو على امبراطورية چين التي نجحت في البداية في استعادة مملكة تشو ولكنها سقطت في آخر الأمر أمام هان. وتحت هان اللاحقة، عادت السيطرة على المنطقة إلى الاستقرار تحت جبل كواي‌جي ولكن السلطة على ريف مين‌يوى كانت اسمية في أفضل الأحوال وسكانها اليُوى احتفظوا بهياكلهم السياسية والاجتماعية.

في بداية عهد الممالك الثلاث (220–280 م)، كانت ژى‌جيانگ مقراً لأميري الحرب يان باي‌هو و وانگ لانگ قبل هزيمتهما أمام سون تسى و سون چوان، اللذين أسسا لاحقاً مملكة وو. وبالرغم من نقل بلاطهم من كواي‌جي إلى جيان‌يى (نان‌جينگ الحالية) واستمروا في تطوير المنطقة واستفادوا من تدفق اللاجئين الفارين من الاضطراب في شمال الصين. بُنِيَت القمائن الصناعية وامتدت التجارة حتى منشوريا و فونان (ڤيتنام الجنوبية).

كانت ژى‌جيانگ جزءاً من وو أثناء الممالك الثلاث. وو (229–280)، التي يعرفها العامة بإسم وو الشرقية أو سون وو، كانت الدولة الأكثر تطوراً من حيث الاقتصاد بين الممالك الثلاث (220–280 م). تسجل الرواية التاريخية غراميات الممالك الثلاث أن ژى‌جيانگ كان لديها بحرية قوية هي الأفضل عتاداً. تصوّر القصة كيف أن دولتي وِيْ () و شو ()، افتقدا الموارد الطبيعية، فتحاشتا المواجهة المباشرة مع الـوو. ففي النزاعات المسلحة مع وو، اعتمدت الدولتان بشكل كثيف على تكتيكات التخفي والخداع لسرقة عتاد وو، بما في ذلك الأسهم والأقواس.

الأسرات الست

Despite the continuing prominence of Nanjing (then known as Jiankang), the settlement of چيان‌تانگ، الاسم السابق لـ Hangzhou, remained one of the three major metropolitan centers in the south to provide major tax revenue to the imperial centers in the north China. The other two centers in the south were Jiankang and Chengdu. في 589، رُقـِّيَت چيان‌تانگ في المكانة وتغير اسمها إلى هانگ‌ژو.

Following the fall of Wu and the turmoil of the Wu Hu uprising against the Jin dynasty (266–420), most of elite Chinese families had collaborated with the non-Chinese rulers and military conquerors in the north. Some may have lost social privilege and took refuge in areas south of the Yangtze River. Some of the Chinese refugees from North China might have resided in areas بالقرب من هانگ‌ژو. For example, the clan of Zhuge Liang (181–234), a chancellor of the state of Shu Han from Central Plain in north China during the Three Kingdoms period, gathered together في ضاحية هانگ‌ژو، مشكـِّلة القرية الحصرية المغلقة قرية ژوگى (Zhege Cun), consisting of villagers all with family name "Zhuge." The village has intentionally isolated itself from the surrounding communities for centuries to this day and only recently came to be known in public. It suggests that a small number of powerful, elite Chinese refugees from the Central Plain might have taken refuge south of the Yangtze River. However, considering the mountainous geography and relative lack of agrarian lands in Zhejiang, most of these refugees might have resided in some areas in South China beyond Zhejiang, where fertile agrarian lands and metropolitan resources were available, mainly Southern Jiangsu, Eastern Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Anhui and provinces where less cohesive, organized regional governments had been in place. Metropolitan areas of Sichuan was another hub for refugees, given that the state of Shu had long been founded and ruled by political and military elites from the Central Plain and North China. Some refugees from North China might have found residence in South China depending on their social status and military power in the north. The rump Jin state or the Southern dynasties vied against some elite Chinese from the Central Plain and south of the Yangtze River.

عهدا سوي وتانگ

Zhejiang, as the heartland of the Jiangnan (Yangtze River Delta), remained the wealthiest area during the Six Dynasties (220 or 222–589), Sui and Tang. After being incorporated into the Sui dynasty, its economic richness was used for the Sui dynasty's ambitions to expand north and south, particularly into Korea and Vietnam. The plan led the Sui dynasty to restore and expand the network which became the Grand Canal of China. The Canal regularly transported grains and resources from Zhejiang, through its metropolitan center Hangzhou (and its hinterland along both the Zhe River and the shores of Hangzhou Bay) and from Suzhou and thence to the North China Plain. The débâcle of the Korean war led to Sui's overthrow by the Tang, who then presided over a centuries-long golden age for the country. Zhejiang was an important economic center of the empire's Jiangnan East Circuit and was considered particularly prosperous. Throughout the Tang dynasty, The Grand Canal had remained effective, transporting grains and material resources to North China plain and metropolitan centers of the empire. As the Tang dynasty disintegrated, Zhejiang constituted most of the territory of the regional kingdom of Wuyue.

عهد وويوى

 
Portrait of Qian Liu، ملك وويوى.

After the collapse of the Tang dynasty in 907, the entire area of what is now Zhejiang fell under the control of the kingdom Wuyue established by King Qian Liu, who selected Hangzhou (a city in the modern day area of Zhejiang) as his kingdom's capital. Despite being under Wuyue rule for a relatively short period of time, Zhejiang underwent a long period of financial and cultural prosperity which continued even after the kingdom fell.

After Wuyue was conquered during the reunification of China, many shrines were erected across the former territories of Wuyue, mainly in Zhejiang, where the kings of Wuyue were memorialised, and sometimes, worshipped as being able to dictate weather and agriculture. Many of these shrines, known as "Shrine of the Qian King" or "Temple to the Qian King," still remain today, with the most popularly visited example being that near West Lake in Hangzhou.

China's province of Zhejiang during the 940s was also the place of origin of the family (Hồ in Vietnamese) from which the founder of the Hồ Dynasty who ruled Vietnam, Emperor Hồ Quý Ly, came from.[13][14]

عهد سونگ

 
Song dynasty era (1223) city gate in Shaoxing.

The Song dynasty re-established unity around 960. Under the Song, the prosperity of South China began to overtake that of North China. After the north was lost to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1127 following the Jingkang Incident, Hangzhou became the capital of the Song dynasty under the name Lin'an, which was renowned for its prosperity and beauty, it was suspected to have been the largest city in the world at the time.[15]

From then on, northern Zhejiang and neighboring southern Jiangsu have been synonymous with luxury and opulence in Chinese culture. The Mongol conquest and the establishment of the Yuan dynasty in 1279 ended Hangzhou's political clout, but its economy continued to prosper. The famous traveler Marco Polo visited the city, which he called "Kinsay" (after the Chinese Jingshi, meaning "Capital City") claiming it was "the finest and noblest city in the world."[16]

Greenware ceramics made from celadon had been made in the area since the 3rd-century Jin dynasty, but it returned to prominence—particularly in Longquan—during the Southern Song and Yuan. Longquan greenware is characterized by a thick unctuous glaze of a particular bluish-green tint over an otherwise undecorated light-grey porcellaneous body that is delicately potted. Yuan Longquan celadons feature a thinner, greener glaze on larger vessels with decoration and shapes derived from Middle Eastern ceramic and metalwares. These were produced in large quantities for the Chinese export trade to Southeast Asia, the Middle East and (during the Ming) Europe. By the Ming, however, production was notably deficient in quality. It is in this period that the Longquan kilns declined, to be eventually replaced in popularity and ceramic production by the kilns of Jingdezhen in Jiangxi.[17]


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فترتا يوان ومينگ

 
هذه المزهرية ثلاثية الأرجل من أسرة مينگ عـُثر عليها في مقاطعة ژجيانگ. وهي الآن في متحف سميثسونيان في واشنطن العاصمة.

Zhejiang was finally conquered by the Mongols in the late 13th century who later established the short lived Yuan dynasty. Zhejiang became part of the much larger Jiangzhe Province.

The Ming dynasty, which drove out the Mongols in 1368, finally established the present day province of Zhejiang with its borders having little changes since this establishment.

As in other coastal provinces, number of fortresses were constructed along the Zhejiang coast during the early Ming to defend the land against pirate incursions. Some of them have been preserved or restored, such as Pucheng in the south of the province (Cangnan County).

عهد تشينگ

Under the late Ming dynasty and the Qing dynasty that followed it, Zhejiang's ports were important centers of international trade.

 
A restored Qing era (1891) bridge on a coastal road

"In 1727 the to-min or 'idle people' of Cheh Kiang province (a Ningpo name still existing), the yoh-hu or 'music people' of Shanxi province, the si-min or 'small people' of Kiang Su (Jiangsu) province and the Tanka people or 'egg-people' of Canton (to this day the boat population there), were all freed from their social disabilities and allowed to count as free men."[18] "Cheh Kiang" is another romanization for Zhejiang. The Duomin (صينية مبسطة: 惰民; پن‌ين: duò mín; ويد-جايلز: to-min) are a caste of outcasts in this province.

During the First Opium War, the British navy defeated Eight Banners forces at Ningbo and Dinghai. Under the terms of the Treaty of Nanking, signed in 1843, Ningbo became one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened to virtually unrestricted foreign trade. Much of Zhejiang came under the control of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion, which resulted in a considerable loss of life in the north-western and central parts of the province, sparing the rest of Zhejiang from the disastrous depopulation that occurred. In 1876, Wenzhou became Zhejiang's second treaty port. Jianghuai Mandarin speakers later came to settle in these depopulated regions of northern Zhejiang.

الفترة الجمهورية

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, which led into World War II, much of Zhejiang was occupied by Japan and placed under the control of the Japanese puppet state known as the Reorganized National Government of China. Following the Doolittle Raid, most of the B-25 American crews that came down in China eventually made it to safety with the help of Chinese civilians and soldiers. The Chinese people who helped them, however, paid dearly for sheltering the Americans. The Imperial Japanese Army began the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign to intimidate the Chinese out of helping downed American airmen. The Japanese killed an estimated 250,000 civilians from the area of Hangzhou to Nanchang and also Zhuzhou while searching for Doolittle's men.[19]

فترة الجمهورية الشعبية

After the People's Republic of China took control of Mainland China in 1949, the Republic of China government based in Taiwan continued to control the Dachen Islands off the coast of Zhejiang until 1955, even establishing a rival Zhejiang provincial government there, creating a situation similar to Fujian province today. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), Zhejiang was in chaos and disunity and its economy was stagnant, especially during the high tide (1966–69) of the revolution. The agricultural policy favoring grain production at the expense of industrial and cash crops intensified economic hardships in the province. Mao's self-reliance policy and the reduction in maritime trade cut off the lifelines of the port cities of Ningbo and Wenzhou. While Mao invested heavily in railroads in interior China, no major railroads were built in South Zhejiang, where transportation remained poor.[6]

Zhejiang benefited less from central government investment than some other provinces due to its lack of natural resources, a location vulnerable to potential flooding from the sea and an economic base at the national average. Zhejiang, however, has been an epicenter of capitalist development in China and has led the nation in the development of a market economy and private enterprises.[6] Northeast Zhejiang, as part of the Yangtze Delta, is flat, more developed and industrial.[6]

الجغرافيا

 
منظر البحيرة الغربية هانگ‌ژو من الجبال إلى الشمال الغربي.
 
Zhejiang in 1936
 
West Lake at night

مساحتها أكبر من 100000 كيلومتر مربع (38600 ميل مربع) وعدد سكانها 46 مليون نسمة. ژجيانگ هي موطن العديد من الأقليات العرقية من بينها هان، وهواي، ومانتشو، ومياو. ژجيانگ هي أكثر محافظات الصين جزراً، لوجود أكثر من 200 جزيرة على طول ساحلها. وهي تقع على ساحل بحر الشرق.

أشهر المدن

 
أفق هانگ‌ژو، كما يـُرى من البحيرة الغربية المقابلة.

السياحة

 
The Hall of Five Hundred Arhats at Guoqing Temple


التقسيمات الادارية

تنقسم ژجيانگ إلى أحد عشر تقسيماً بمستوى محافظة: كل prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):

التقسيمات الادارية في ژى‌جيانگ
كود التقسيم[20] التقسيم المساحة (كم²)[21] تعداد 2020[22] المقر التقسيمات[23]
المديريات النواحي ن. ذاتية مدن بمستوى ن.
330000 مقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ 101800.00 64,567,588 مدينة هانگ‌ژو 37 32 1 20
330100 مدينة هانگ‌ژو 16840.75 11,936,010 Jianggan District 10 2 1
330200 مدينة ننگ‌بو 9816.23 9,404,283 Yinzhou District 6 2 2
330300 مدينة ون‌ژو 12255.77 9,572,903 Lucheng District 4 5 3
330400 مدينة جياشينگ 4008.75 5,400,868 Nanhu District 2 2 3
330500 مدينة هوژو 5818.44 3,367,579 Wuxing District 2 3
330600 مدينة شاوشينگ 8279.08 5,270,977 Yuecheng District 3 1 2
330700 مدينة جين‌هوا 10926.16 7,050,683 مديرية ووتشنگ 2 3 4
330800 مدينة چوژو 8841.12 2,276,184 Kecheng District 2 3 1
330900 مدينة ژوشان 1378.00 1,157,817 Dinghai District 2 2
331000 مدينة تاي‌ژو 10,083.39 6,622,888 Jiaojiang District 3 3 3
331100 مدينة لي‌شوي 17298.00 2,507,396 Liandu District 1 6 1 1
██ Sub-provincial cities

The eleven prefecture-level divisions of Zhejiang are subdivided into 90 county-level divisions (36 districts, 20 county-level cities, 33 counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1,570 township-level divisions (761 towns, 505 townships, 14 ethnic townships, and 290 subdistricts). Hengdian belongs to Jinhua, which is the largest base of shooting films and TV dramas in China. Hengdian World Studios is called "China's Hollywood." At the year end of 2017, the total population is 56.57 million.[24]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المناطق الحضرية

التعداد حسب المناطق الحضرية للمحافظات ومدن النواحي
# المدينة المساحة الحضرية[25] مساحة المديرية[25] City proper[25] تاريخ التعداد
1 هانگ‌ژو[أ] 5,162,093 6,241,971 8,700,373 2010-11-01
(1) Hangzhou (new districts)[أ] 838,452 1,284,359 انظر هانگ‌ژو 2010-11-01
2 ون‌ژو[ب] 2,686,825 3,039,439 9,122,102 2010-11-01
(2) Wenzhou (new district)[ب] 39,193 87,683 انظر ون‌ژو 2010-11-01
3 ننگ‌بو[ت] 2,583,073 3,491,597 7,605,689 2010-11-01
(3) Ningbo (new district)[ت] 239,992 491,697 انظر ننگ‌بو 2010-11-01
4 تاي‌ژو 1,189,276 1,902,510 5,968,838 2010-11-01
5 Cixi 1,059,942 1,462,383 see Ningbo 2010-11-01
6 Rui'an 927,383 1,424,667 انظر ون‌ژو 2010-11-01
7 يي‌وو 878,903 1,234,015 see جين‌هوا 2010-11-01
8 جياشينگ 762,643 1,201,882 4,501,657 2010-11-01
9 Wenling 749,013 1,366,794 see Taizhou 2010-11-01
10 هوژو 748,471 1,293,219 2893542 2010-11-01
11 Yueqing 725,972 1,389,332 see Wenzhou 2010-11-01
12 جين‌هوا 710,597 1,077,245 5,361,572 2010-11-01
13 يوياو 672,909 1,010,659 see Ningbo 2010-11-01
14 شاوشينگ[ث] 643,199 883,836 4,912,239 2010-11-01
(14) Shaoxing (new districts)[ث] 1,297,652 2,188,785 see Shaoxing 2010-11-01
15 ژوجي 606,683 1,157,938 see Shaoxing 2010-11-01
16 ژوشان 542,190 842,989 1,121,261 2010-11-01
17 Linhai 503,377 1,028,813 see Taizhou 2010-11-01
18 Dongyang 455,912 804,398 see Jinhua 2010-11-01
19 چوژو 422,688 805,963 2,122,661 2010-11-01
20 Tongxiang 400,417 815,848 see Jiaxing 2010-11-01
21 Haining 397,690 806,966 see Jiaxing 2010-11-01
22 Yongkang 376,246 723,490 see Jinhua 2010-11-01
(23) يوهوان[ج] 362,135 616,346 see Taizhou 2010-11-01
24 Pinghu 346,892 671,834 see Jiaxing 2010-11-01
25 Shengzhou 345,674 679,762 see Shaoxing 2010-11-01
26 لي‌شوي 293,968 451,418 2,116,957 2010-11-01
27 لان‌شي 208,272 560,514 see Jinhua 2010-11-01
28 Jiangshan 200,341 467,862 see Quzhou 2010-11-01
29 Jiande 183,518 430,750 see Hangzhou 2010-11-01
30 Longquan 117,239 234,626 see Lishui 2010-11-01
  1. ^ أ ب New districts established after census: Fuyang (Fuyang CLC), Lin'an (Lin'an CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ أ ب New district established after census: Dongtou (Dongtou County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. ^ أ ب New district established after census: Fenghua (Fenghua CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. ^ أ ب New districts established after census: Keqiao (Shaoxing County), Shangyu (Shangyu CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ Yuhuan County is currently known as Yuhuan CLC after census.

الاقتصاد

 
Yuao, a fishing village on Dayu Bay in South Zhejiang (Cangnan County)

Zhejiang is one of the richest and most developed provinces in China. As of 2018, its nominal GDP was 849 بليون دولار (5.62 تريليون يوان صيني¥), about 6.24% of the country's GDP and ranked 4th among province-level administrative units; the province's primary, secondary and tertiary industries were worth CN¥196.70 billion (US$29.72 billion), CN¥2.3506 trillion (US$355.22 billion) and CN¥3.0724 trillion (US$464.29 billion) respectively. Its nominal GDP per capita was US$14,907 (CN¥98,643) and ranked the 5th in the country. The private sector in the province has been playing an increasingly important role in boosting the regional economy since Economic Reform in 1978.[26]

Zhejiang's main manufacturing sectors are electromechanical industries, textiles, chemical industries, food and construction materials. In recent years Zhejiang has followed its own development model, dubbed the "Zhejiang model," which is based on prioritizing and encouraging entrepreneurship, an emphasis on small businesses responsive to the whims of the market, large public investments into infrastructure, and the production of low-cost goods in bulk for both domestic consumption and export. As a result, Zhejiang has made itself one of the richest provinces and the "Zhejiang spirit" has become something of a legend within China. However, some economists now worry that this model is not sustainable, in that it is inefficient and places unreasonable demands on raw materials and public utilities, and also a dead end, in that the myriad small businesses in Zhejiang producing cheap goods in bulk are unable to move to more sophisticated or technologically more advanced industries.[27] The economic heart of Zhejiang is moving from North Zhejiang, centered on Hangzhou, southeastward to the region centered on Wenzhou and Taizhou.[6] The per capita disposable income of urbanites in Zhejiang reached 55,574 yuan (US$8,398) in 2018, an annual real growth of 8.4%. The per capita disposable income of rural residents stood at 27,302 yuan (US$4,126), a real growth of 9.4%.[28]

ن.م.ا. التاريخي لمقاطعة ژى‌جيانگ، 1978 –الحاضر (SNA2008)[26]
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l. dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017[29])
year GDP GDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
Reference index
GDP in millions real
growth
(%)
GDPpc exchange rate
1 foreign currency
to CNY
يوان صيني¥ دولار PPP
(Int'l$.)
CNY USD PPP
(Int'l$.)
USD 1 Int'l$. 1
(PPP)
2018 5,619,715 849,233 1,597,709 7.1 98,643 14,907 28,046 6.6174 3.5888
2017 5,176,826 766,732 1,442,495 7.8 92,057 13,634 25,651 6.7518 3.5888
2016 4,725,136 711,370 1,349,692 7.6 84,916 12,784 24,255 6.6423 3.5009
2015 4,288,649 688,564 1,208,240 8.0 77,644 12,466 21,875 6.2284 3.5495
2014 4,017,303 653,986 1,131,507 7.6 73,002 11,884 20,562 6.1428 3.5504
2013 3,775,658 609,646 1,055,567 8.2 68,805 11,110 19,236 6.1932 3.5769
2012 3,473,913 550,323 978,347 8.0 63,508 10,061 17,886 6.3125 3.5508
2011 3,236,338 501,074 923,217 9.0 59,331 9,186 16,925 6.4588 3.5055
2010 2,774,765 409,892 838,146 11.9 51,758 7,646 15,634 6.7695 3.3106
2005 1,341,768 163,796 469,314 12.8 27,062 3,304 9,466 8.1917 2.8590
2000 614,103 74,181 225,831 11.0 13,415 1,620 4,933 8.2784 2.7193
1995 355,755 42,600 130,342 16.8 8,149 976 2,986 8.3510 2.7294
1990 90,469 18,914 53,136 3.9 2,138 447 1,256 4.7832 1.7026
1985 42,916 14,614 30,617 21.7 1,067 363 761 2.9366 1.4017
1980 17,992 12,007 12,031 16.4 471 314 315 1.4984 1.4955
1978 12,372 7,349 21.9 331 197 1.6836

الديمغرافيا

 
ناحية وبلديات وبلدات عرق شى، في ژى‌جيانگ
تاريخ التعداد
السنةتعداد±%
1912[30] 21٬440٬000—    
1928[31] 20٬643٬000−3.7%
1936-37[32]21٬231٬000+2.8%
1947[33] 19٬959٬000−6.0%
1954[34]22٬865٬747+14.6%
السنةتعداد±%
1964[35]28٬318٬573+23.8%
1982[36]38٬884٬603+37.3%
1990[37]41٬445٬930+6.6%
2000[38]45٬930٬651+10.8%
2010[39]54٬426٬891+18.5%

الدين

Islam arrived 1,400 years ago in Zhejiang. Today Islam is practiced by a small number of people including virtually all the Hui Chinese living in Zhejiang.[41] Another religion present in the province is She shamanism (practiced by She ethnic minority).

ملاحظات

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[40] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. ^ قد تضم أيضاً عدداً ضئيلاً من المسلمين.

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وصلات خارجية