خى‌بـِيْ

Hebei /həˈb/[5] (بالصينية: 河北 ; حرفياً "River North"; alternately Hopeh) هي مقاطعات الصين. تقع مقاطعة خبي في شمال الصين، تطل شرقا على ساحل بحر الصين. تواجه خبي عبر امتداد سواحلها البحرية كل من اليابان وجمهورية كوريا الجنوبية. وتحوط المقاطعة جغرافيا مدينتي بكين وتيانجين، نتيجة لذلك ارتبطت بهما بعلاقات متينة، وبات التأثير الاقتصادي متبادل بين هذه المناطق.

Hebei Province

河北省
الترجمة اللفظية بالـ Name
 • Chinese河北省 (Héběi Shěng)
 • AbbreviationHE / HEB / (پن‌ين: Jì)
20090529 Great Wall Jinshanling 0903 8233.jpg
Beidaihe, Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China - panoramio (61).jpg
Chengde Mountain Resort 3.jpg
Fuqing Temple, Cangyan Mountain, Hebei.jpg
Puning Temple, Place in front of hall of Mahayana.jpg
Map showing the location of Hebei Province
Map showing the location of Hebei Province
الإحداثيات: 39°18′N 116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E / 39.3; 116.7Coordinates: 39°18′N 116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E / 39.3; 116.7
CountryChina
السمِيْ —"(Yellow) River"
běi—"north"
"north of the Yellow River"
Capital
(and largest city)
Divisions11 prefectures، 121 counties، 2207 townships
الحكومة
 • النوعProvince
 • الكيانHebei Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryWang Dongfeng
 • Congress chairmanWang Dongfeng
 • GovernorWang Zhengpu
 • CPPCC chairmanYe Dongsong
المساحة
 • الإجمالي188٬800 كم² (72٬900 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة12th
أعلى منسوب2٬882 m (9٬455 ft)
التعداد
 (2020)[2]
 • الإجمالي74٬610٬235
 • الترتيب6th
 • الكثافة400/km2 (1٬000/sq mi)
 • ترتيب الكثافة11th
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan: 96%
Manchu: 3%
Hui: 0.8%
Mongol: 0.3%
 • Languages and dialectsJilu Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE
GDP (2020)CNY 3.620 trillion
USD 524 billion (12th)[3]
 - per capitaCNY 48,528
USD 7,033 (25th)
 • growth 3.9%
HDI (2019) 0.738[4]
high · 20th
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.hebei.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
english.hebei.gov.cn (English)
خى‌بـِيْ
Hebei (Chinese characters).svg
"Hebei" in Chinese characters
الصينية河北
البريدHopeh
المعنى الحرفي"North of the (Yellow) River"
Abbreviation
الصينية
المعنى الحرفي[an ancient province in modern southern Hebei]
Zhili Province
الصينية التقليدية直隸
الصينية المبسطة直隶省
المعنى الحرفي"Directly ruled"

Hebei borders the provinces of Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Shandong to the southeast and Liaoning to the northeast, as well as the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north. Hebei's economy is based around agriculture and manufacturing. The province is China's premier steel producer, though unfortunately, the steel industry has created serious air pollution.[6][7][8]

Five UNESCO World Heritage Sites can be found in the province, the: Great Wall of China, Chengde Mountain Resort, Grand Canal, Eastern Qing tombs and Western Qing tombs. It is also home to five National Famous Historical and Cultural Cities: Handan, Baoding, Chengde, Zhengding and Shanhaiguan.

Historically, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, the region that is now Hebei was ruled by the ancient Chinese Yan and Zhao states. During the Yuan dynasty, the general region of Hebei was called the Zhongshu Province; during the Ming dynasty it was North Zhili; and during the Qing dynasty it was called the Zhili Province. The modern-day province of Hebei was created in 1928.

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أصل الاسم

Hebei Province is named so because it is located in the North China Plain, entirely north of the Yellow River.[9][10] Its name Hebei literally means "north of the river",[11] referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.[12] Since the province is recorded in Yu Gong as Ji Province, or Jizhou, it is abbreviated as Ji (الصينية المبسطة: ).

A nickname of the province is "Yanzhao" (الصينية المبسطة: ), which is the collective name of the Yan and Zhao states that once controlled the region during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period.[13] In 1421, when the Yongle Emperor moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, the province started to be called as "North Zhili" (الصينية المبسطة: ) or just "Zhili" (الصينية المبسطة: ), which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)".[14][15] When the aforementioned province was abolished in 1928 to reflect Nanjing being made the capital of the Republic of China, the province was given its present name, Hebei.[16]


التاريخ

التاريخ المبكر

Plains in Hebei were the home of Peking man, a group of Homo erectus that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date back to 7000 and 8000 BC.[17]

Many early legends in Chinese mythology took place in the province: Fuxi, one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, is said to have lived in present-day Xingtai.[18] The mythical Battle of Zhuolu, won by the Yellow Emperor, Yan Emperor and their Yanhuang tribes against the Chiyou-led Jiuli tribes in present-day Zhangjiakou, initialized the Huaxia civilization.

عهد ما قبل الأسرات

During the Spring and Autumn period (722 BC – 476 BC), Hebei was under the rule of the states of Yan in the north and Jin in the south. Also during this period, a nomadic people known as invaded the plains of northern China and established Zhongshan in central Hebei. During the Warring States period (403 BC–221 BC), Jin was partitioned, and much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao.

أسرتا چين وهان

The Qin dynasty unified China in 221 BC. The Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220) ruled the area under two provinces (zhou), You Prefecture in the north and Ji Province in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei came under the control of warlords Gongsun Zan in the north and Yuan Shao further south; Yuan Shao emerged victorious of the two, but he was soon defeated by rival Cao Cao (based further south, in modern-day Henan) in the Battle of Guandu in 200. Hebei then came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei (one of the Three Kingdoms), established by the descendants of Cao Cao.

 
أسد تسانگ‌ژو الحديدي المصنوع من 1500 سنة

جين والأسر الشمالية والجنوبية والممالك الثلاث

After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the أسرة جين الغربية, the chaos of the الممالك الستة عشر و الأسر الشمالية والجنوبية ensued. Hebei, firmly in North China and right at the northern frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the ژاو اللاحقة، يان السابقة، چين السابقة و يان اللاحقة. وِيْ الشمالية reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half (first the وِيْ الشرقية؛ ثم چي الشمالية), which had its capital at Ye (), near modern Linzhang، خى‌بـِيْ. The أسرة سوي again unified China in 589.

 
قدح ثلاثي الألوان على شكل بطة، أسرة تانگ، اكتشفته حفريات في ناحية آن‌شين

تانگ والأسر الخمس

During the Tang dynasty (618–907), the area was formally designated "Hebei" (north of the Yellow River) for the first time. During the earlier part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was eventually unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang (923–936). The next dynasty, the Later Jin under Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin, ceded much of modern-day northern Hebei to the Khitan Liao dynasty in the north; this territory, called the Sixteen Prefectures of Yanyun, became a major weakness in the Chinese defense against the Khitans for the next century, since it lay within the Great Wall.

أسر سونگ ولياو وجين ويوان

During the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao dynasty. The Southern Song dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident in 1127 of the Jin–Song wars. Hebei was also heavily affected by the flooding of the Yellow River. Between 1048 and 1128, the river ran directly through the province rather than to its south.[19]

 
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei, built in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

The Mongol Yuan dynasty divided China into provinces but did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat (中書省) at capital Dadu.

أسرتا مينگ وتشينگ

The Ming dynasty ruled Hebei as "Beizhili" (الصينية المبسطة: 北直隶الصينية التقليدية: 北直隸پن‌ين: Běizhílì), meaning "Northern Directly Ruled", because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital, Beijing; the "Northern" designation was used because there was a southern counterpart covering present-day Jiangsu and Anhui. When the Manchu Qing dynasty came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, and Hebei became known as "Zhili", or simply "Directly Ruled". During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now Inner Mongolia, and overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia.

جمهورية الصين

 
خى‌بـِيْ في 1936

The Qing dynasty collapsed in 1912 and was replaced by the Republic of China. Within a few years, China descended into civil war, with regional warlords vying for power. Since Zhili was so close to Peking (Beijing), the capital, it was the site of frequent wars, including the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition, a successful campaign by the Kuomintang to end the rule of the warlords, the capital was moved from Peking (Beijing) to Nanking (Nanjing). As a result, the name of Zhili was changed to Hebei to reflect the fact that it had a standard provincial administration, and that the capital had been relocated elsewhere.

During the Second World War, Hebei was under the control of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, a puppet state of Imperial Japan.


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جمهورية الصين الشعبية

The founding of the People's Republic of China saw several changes: the region around Chengde, previously part of Rehe Province (historically part of Manchuria), and the region around Zhangjiakou, previously part of Chahar Province (historically part of Inner Mongolia), were merged into Hebei, extending its borders northwards beyond the Great Wall. Meanwhile, the city of Puyang was carved away, causing Hebei to lose access to the Yellow River. The city first became part of the short-lived Pingyuan Province, before eventually annexed into Henan.[20] The capital was also moved from Baoding to the upstart city of Shijiazhuang, and, for a short period, to Tianjin.

On July 28, 1976, Tangshan was struck by a powerful earthquake, the Tangshan earthquake, the deadliest of the 20th century with over 240,000 killed. A series of smaller earthquakes struck the city in the following decade.

Today, Hebei, along with Beijing and Tianjin municipalities which it enclaves, make up the Jing-Jin-Ji megalopolis region. With a population of 130 million, it is about six times the size as the New York metropolitan area and is one of the largest megalopolis cluster in China.[21] Beijing had also unloaded some of its non-capital functions to the province with the establishment of the Xiong'an New Area, which will further facilitate the integration of the three regions.[22]

الجغرافيا

 
Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County

The geography of Hebei is quite diverse. It is the only province in China to contain plateaus, mountains, hills, shorelines, plains, and lakes.[23]

Most of central and southern Hebei lies within the North China Plain. The western part of Hebei rises into the Taihang Mountains (Taihang Shan), while the Yan Mountains (Yan Shan) run through northern Hebei, beyond which lie the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. The Great Wall of China cuts through northern Hebei from east to west as well, briefly entering the border of Beijing Municipality, and terminates at the seacoast of Shanhaiguan in northeastern Hebei. The highest peak is Mount Xiaowutai (小五台山) in Yu County in the northwest of the province, with an altitude of 2,882 م (9,455 قدم).[1]

Hebei borders the Bohai Sea on the east. The Hai River watershed covers most of the province's central and southern parts, and the Luan River watershed covers the northeast. Not counting the numerous reservoirs to be found in Hebei's hills and mountains, the largest lake in Hebei is Baiyangdian, located mostly in Anxin County, Baoding.

Major cities in Hebei include:

المناخ

 
Bashang Meadows in Fengning County

Hebei has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate, with cold, dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Temperatures average −16 to −3 °م (3 to 27 °ف) in January and 20 to 27 °م (68 to 81 °ف) in July; the annual precipitation ranges from 400 to 800 mم (16 to 31 بوصة), concentrated heavily in summer.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Hebei Province, China[24][25][26][27]
المدينة July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Baoding 31.7/22.6 89.1/72.7 2.5/–7.7 36.5/18.1
Qinhuangdao 28.1/21.7 82.6/71.1 0.1/–8.8 32.2/16.2
Tangshan 30.2/21.7 86.4/71.1 0.9/–10.2 33.6/13.6
Zhangjiakou 29.4/18.7 84.9/65.7 2.2/–12.9 36.0/8.8

المدن

من أهم المدن الرئيسية في مقاطعة خبي: شيجياتشوانگ عاصمة المقاطعة، تشتهر بالمصانع الغزل والنسيج القطني وكذا صناعة الأدوية؛ تانگشان وهي عاصمة صناعة الخزف في شمال الصين؛ تشينهوانگداو المشهورة بالسياحة الساحلية، وهي إحدى المدن الساحلية المنفتحة الرئيسية، وبها ميناء هام لتصدير الفحم والبترول.

يوجد في خبي الكثير من الآثار والأطلال القديمة كما لازالت مدنها تحتفظ بالعديد من المباني التاريخية القديمة. يقع فيها مصيف تشنگده ومنطقة بيدايخه ويعتبران من أهم المناطق السياحية في المقاطعة.



التقسيمات الإدارية

Hebei is made up of eleven prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Hebei
Division code[28] Division Area in km2[29] Population 2010[30] Seat Divisions[31]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
130000 Hebei Province 187700.00 71,854,202 Shijiazhuang city 49 91 6 21
130100 Shijiazhuang city 15848 9,547,869 Chang'an District 8 11 3
130200 Tangshan city 14334.59 7,577,284 Lunan District 7 4 3
130300 Qinhuangdao city 7791.57 2,987,605 Haigang District 4 2 1
130400 Handan city 12066.00 9,174,679 Congtai District 6 11 1
130500 Xingtai city 12433.00 7,104,114 Xindu District 4 12 2
130600 Baoding city 22185.00 10,029,197 Jingxiu District 5 15 4
130700 Zhangjiakou city 36861.55 4,345,491 Qiaoxi District 6 10
130800 Chengde city 39512.98 3,473,197 Shuangqiao District 3 4 3 1
130900 Cangzhou city 14305.28 7,134,053 Yunhe District 2 9 1 4
131000 Langfang city 6417.29 4,358,839 Anci District 2 5 1 2
131100 Hengshui city 8836.90 4,340,773 Taocheng District 2 8 1

These eleven prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 168 county-level divisions (47 districts, 21 county-level cities, 94 counties and 6 autonomous counties). Those are, in turn, divided into 2207 township-level divisions (1 district public office, 937 towns, 979 townships, 55 ethnic townships, and 235 subdistricts). At the end of 2017, the total population of Hebei is 75.2 million.[1]


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Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[32] District area[32] City proper[32] Census date
1 Shijiazhuang[أ] 2,770,344 2,834,942 10,163,788 2010-11-01
(1) Shijiazhuang (new districts)[أ] 461,738 1,208,046 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
2 Tangshan[ب] 2,128,191 3,187,171 7,577,289 2010-11-01
(2) Tangshan (new district)[ب] 109,126 184,931 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
3 Handan[ت] 1,316,674 1,445,338 9,174,683 2010-11-01
(3) Handan (new districts)[ت] 627,869 1,757,637 see Handan 2010-11-01
4 Baoding[ث] 1,038,195 1,138,521 11,194,382 2010-11-01
(4) Baoding (new districts)[ث] 459,153 1,377,399 see Baoding 2010-11-01
(4) Baoding Xiong'an[ج] 405,661 1,055,063 see Baoding 2010-11-01
5 Qinhuangdao[ح] 967,877 1,029,670 2,987,605 2010-11-01
(5) Qinhuangdao (new district)[ح] 120,710 517,073 see Qinhuangdao 2010-11-01
6 Zhangjiakou[خ] 924,628 1,060,605 4,345,485 2010-11-01
(6) Zhangjiakou (new districts)[خ] 209,414 591,334 see Zhangjiakou 2010-11-01
7 Xingtai 668,765 670,154 7,104,103 2010-11-01
8 Chengde 540,390 634,229 3,473,201 2010-11-01
9 Langfang 530,840 868,066 4,358,839 2010-11-01
10 Cangzhou 499,411 536,795 7,134,062 2010-11-01
11 Dingzhou 482,121 1,165,182 see Baoding 2010-11-01
12 Renqiu 430,896 822,455 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
13 Hengshui[د] 389,447 522,147 4,340,773 2010-11-01
(13) Hengshui (new district)[د] 165,363 362,013 see Hengshui 2010-11-01
14 Sanhe 386,902 652,042 see Langfang 2010-11-01
15 Qian'an 308,849 728,160 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
16 Zunhua 299,759 737,011 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
17 Huanghua 296,978 548,507 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
18 Wu'an 293,151 819,000 see Handan 2010-11-01
19 Bazhou 291,710 622,975 see Langfang 2010-11-01
20 Gaobeidian 274,853 323,671 see Baoding 2010-11-01
21 Zhuozhou 260,493 303,125 see Baoding 2010-11-01
22 Botou 258,203 584,308 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
23 Hejian 243,458 810,306 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
24 Xinji 236,658 615,919 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
25 Shahe 218,958 498,416 see Xingtai 2010-11-01
(26) Luanzhou[ذ] 208,212 554,315 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
27 Shenzhou 207,945 566,087 see Hengshui 2010-11-01
28 Xinle 194,480 487,652 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
29 Nangong 188,260 469,030 see Xingtai 2010-11-01
30 Jinzhou 160,284 537,679 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
(31) Pingquan[ر] 136,401 229,622 see Chengde 2010-11-01
32 Anguo 135,524 185,386 see Baoding 2010-11-01
  1. ^ أ ب New districts established after census: Gaocheng (Gaocheng CLC), Luquan (Luquan CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ أ ب New district established after census: Caofeidian (Tanghai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. ^ أ ب New districts established after census: Yongnian (Yongnian County), Feixiang (Feixiang County); Handan County merged into Hanshan & Congtai. These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. ^ أ ب New districts established after census: Mancheng (Mancheng County), Qingyuan (Qingyuan County), Xushui (Xushui County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ Xiong'an New Area is a special urban area jurisdiction consist of Rongcheng County, Anxin County, & Xiongxian County established after census.
  6. ^ أ ب New district established after census: Funing (Funing County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. ^ أ ب New districts established after census: Wanquan (Wanquan County), Chongli (Chongli County); Xuanhua County merged into Xuanhua. These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. ^ أ ب New district established after census: Jizhou (Jizhou CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. ^ Luanxian County is currently known as Luanzhou CLC after census.
  10. ^ Pingquan County is currently known as Pingquan CLC after census.
 
أكبر cities في Hebei
Source: China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population[33]
الترتيب التعداد الترتيب التعداد
 
Shijiazhuang
 
Handan
1 Shijiazhuang 2,843,100 11 Chengde 597,800  
Tangshan
 
Baoding
2 Handan 2,044,000 12 Dingzhou 416,100
3 Tangshan 2,041,700 13 Renqiu 368,500
4 Baoding 1,730,000 14 Qian'an 350,000
5 Qinhuangdao 1,338,600 15 Zhuozhou 277,800
6 Zhangjiakou 1,072,200 16 Luanzhou 273,000
7 Xingtai 936,800 17 Wu'an 248,300
8 Cangzhou 648,800 18 Zunhua 243,300
9 Hengshui 643,400 19 Sanhe 218,700
10 Langfang 608,400 20 Xinji 211,300

السياسة


الاقتصاد

 
وسط مدينة Shijiazhuang.
 
A corner in downtown Zhangjiakou.

تشكلت في المقاطعة صناعة الكيماويات وصناعة التعدين ومواد البناء والماكينات والأطعمة وغيرها من الصناعات الركائزية والصناعة الخفيفة والغزل والنسج وغير ذلك من القطاعات ذات التفوق التقليدي. وكمية إنتاجها من الزجاج المسطح والغزل والفولاذ والإسمنت في مقدمة البلاد. وتشهد السياحة والمعلومات والأعمال المصرفية والعقارات وغيرها من الخدمات بها تطورا سريعا.

وضعت الحكومة المركزية في بكين عددا من الخطط التنموية عبر البلاد، وتوجد بخبي ثلاث مناطق تنموية رئيسية:

  • منطقة تشينهوانغداو للتنمية الاقتصادية والتكنولوجية
  • منطقة شيجياتشوانغ لتنمية صناعات التكنولوجيا العالية والحديثة
  • منطقة باودينغ لتنمية صناعات التكنولوجيا العالية والحديثة

وتشكل خبي مع كل من بلديتي بكين وتيانجين مايعرف باسم منطقة جينغ- جين- جي الاقتصادية. وتستفيد خبي من الأموال والتكنولوجيا وغير ذلك مما تنتجه منطقتي بكين وتيانجين، فيما تزودهما بالبضائع والمواد والطاقة.

الموارد

تعتبر خبي من كبرى المقاطعات الزراعية في البلاد، وإحدى القواعد الهامة للمنتجات المائية في شمال الصين، وتحتل المرتبة الأولى محليا من حيث إنتاج القمح والبقول والفول السوداني. تمتلك موارد معدنية غنية، احتياطي الحديد فيها هو ثاني أكبر الإحتياطيات في الصين كما أن يأتي احتياطي البترول في المركز الثالث.

الديموغرافيا

الجماعات العرقية في خبي، تقديرات 2000
القومية السكان النسبة
الهان 63,781,603 95.65%
المانشو 2,118,711 3.18%
الهوي 542,639 0.78%
منغول 169,887 0.26%
Zhuang 20,832 0.031%

الأديان

الأديان في خى‌بـِيْ [34][note 1] ██ Deity worshippers, Taoists, Buddhists, Confucians, folk religious sects, or not religious people (90.61%)██ Chinese ancestral religion (5.52%)██ المسيحية (3.05%)██ الإسلام (0.82%)

The predominant religions in Hebei are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 5.52% of the population believe in and are involved in ancestor veneration, while 3.05% of the population identify as Christian,[34] mostly of the Catholic Church. Local worship of deities in the region began to organise into "benevolent churches" as a reaction to Catholicism in the Qing dynasty.

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.61% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and folk religious sects. Zailiism is a folk religious sect that originated in Hebei. There is a presence of Tibetan Buddhist schools in the province.

Hebei has the largest Catholic population in China, with 1 million members according to the local government.[36] and 1.5 million Catholics according to the Catholic Church.[37] The province is considered as the center of Catholicism in China. The town of Donglu in Baoding, where an apparition of the Virgin Mary was reported to have occurred in 1900, is reportedly "one of the strongholds of the unofficial Catholic Church in China".[38]

A large number of Catholics in Hebei remain loyal to the Pope and reject the authority of the Catholic Patriotic Church. Four of Hebei's underground bishops have been imprisoned in recent years: Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Donglu since 1996; Bishop James Su Zhimin since October 1997; and Bishops Han Dingxiang of Yongnian who died in prison in 2007 and Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding since late 1999.[37][39] In 2003 there were 350.000 Protestants and 580.000 Muslims according to government statistics.[40][41] According to a survey, as of 2010 Muslims constitute 0.82% of the population of Hebei.[35]

The giant Bodhisattva statue of Puning Temple complex (Tibetan Buddhism).
Great Temple of Zhang Hui (张挥公大殿 Zhāng Huī gōng dàdiàn), the central ancestral shrine of the Zhang lineage, in Qinghe (Zhangs' ancestral home).

الثقافة

 
برگر الحمير على طريقة هـِيْ‌جيان
 
پاگودا لياودي، المبنية في 1055 في عهد أسرة سونگ

الاعلام

النقل

يعبر المقاطعة العديد من خطوط المواصلات الرئيسية، وتحتل مرتبة متقدمة في البلاد من حيث حجم البضائع التي تعبرها -بالسكك الحديدية والطرق البرية- وهي الأولى من حيث تشغيل الطرق السريعة. عدا النقل البري تتوفر "خبي" على العديد من المنشآت الخاصة بالنقل والشحن البحري، من بين الموانئ التي تعدها: ميناء تشينهوانگداو، دينگتانگ، تيانجين وهوانگهوا.

السياحة

 
The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang Dynasty.

الرياضة

الكليات والجامعات



التقسيمات الشقيقة

Hebei is twinned with the following country subdivisions:[42]

انظر ايضا

الملاحظات

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[34] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i.e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organized into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010.[35]

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المصادر

  • مجلة الصين اليوم

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Hebei قالب:County-level divisions of Hebei

الكلمات الدالة: