افتح القائمة الرئيسية

1000

This article is about the single year 1000; see 1000s, 990s, 10th century, 11th century for events or processes with "approximate date" 1000.

تحويل 1-1-1000م الى هجري  (وصلة خارجية)  | تحويل 31-12-1000م الى هجري  (وصلة خارجية)  | ابحث في الموسوعة عن مواضيع متعلقة بسنة 1000

الألفية: الألفية 1
القرون: القرن 9 - القرن 10 - القرن 11
العقود: عقد 970  عقد 980  عقد 990  - عقد 1000 -  عقد 1010  عقد 1020  عقد 1030
السنوات: 997 998 999 - 1000 - 1001 1002 1003
1000 حسب الموضوع
السياسة
زعماء الدولالدول ذات السيادة
تصنيفات المواليد والوفيات
المواليدالوفيات
تصنيفات التأسيسات والانحلالات
تأسيساتانحلالات
1000 في التقاويم الأخرى
التقويم الگريگوري1000
M
آب أوربه كونديتا1753
التقويم الأرمني449
ԹՎ ՆԽԹ
التقويم الآشوري5750
التقويم البهائي−844 – −843
التقويم البنغالي407
التقويم الأمازيغي1950
سنة العهد الإنگليزيN/A
التقويم البوذي1544
التقويم البورمي362
التقويم البيزنطي6508–6509
التقويم الصيني己亥(التراب الخنزير)
3696 أو 3636
    — إلى —
庚子年 (المعدن الفأر)
3697 أو 3637
التقويم القبطي716–717
التقويم الديسكوردي2166
التقويم الإثيوپي992–993
التقويم العبري4760–4761
التقاويم الهندوسية
 - ڤيكرام سامڤات1056–1057
 - شاكا سامڤات922–923
 - كالي يوگا4101–4102
تقويم الهولوسين11000
تقويم الإگبو0–1
التقويم الإيراني378–379
التقويم الهجري390–391
التقويم اليابانيChōhō 2
(長保2年)
تقويم جوچىN/A
التقويم اليوليوسي1000
M
التقويم الكوري3333
تقويم مينگوو912 قبل جمهورية الصين
民前912年
التقويم الشمسي التايلندي1543

Year 1000 (M) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It was also the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the 1st millennium of the Dionysian era ending on December 31st, but the first year of the 1000s decade.

The year falls well into the period of Old World history known as the Middle Ages; in Europe, it is sometimes and by convention considered the boundary date between the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages. The Muslim world was in its Golden Age. China was in its Song dynasty, Japan was in its classical Heian period. India was divided into a number of lesser empires, such as the Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Pala Empire (Kamboja Pala dynasty; Mahipala), Chola dynasty (Raja Raja Chola I), Yadava dynasty, etc. Sub-Saharan Africa was still in the prehistoric period, although Arab slave trade was beginning to be an important factor in the formation of the Sahelian kingdoms. The pre-Columbian New World was in a time of general transition in many regions. Wari and Tiwanaku cultures receded in power and influence while Chachapoya and Chimú cultures rose toward florescence in South America. In Mesoamerica, the Maya Terminal Classic period saw the decline of many grand polities of the Petén like Palenque and Tikal yet a renewed vigor and greater construction phases of sites in the Yucatán region like Chichén Itzá and Uxmal. Mitla, with Mixtec influence, became the more important site of the Zapotec, overshadowing the waning Monte Albán. Cholula flourished in central Mexico, as did Tula, the center of Toltec culture.

World population is estimated to have been between c. 250 and 310 million.[1]

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فهرست

أحداث

العالم المسيحي

 
Europe in 1000

In continental Europe, the Holy Roman Empire established itself as the most powerful state. Otto III made a pilgrimage from Rome to Aachen and Gniezno (Gnesen), stopping at Regensburg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Gniezno. The Congress of Gniezno (with Bolesław I Chrobry) was part of his pilgrimage. In Rome, he built the basilica of San Bartolomeo all'Isola, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew.

In France, Robert II, the son of Hugh Capet, was the first of the Capetian kings.

The Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty was engaged in a long and hard war with the First Bulgarian Empire. In the year 1000, the Byzantine generals Theodorokanos and Nikephoros Xiphias captured the former Bulgarian capitals of Pliska and Great Preslav, along with Little Preslav, extending Byzantine control over the northeastern portion of the Bulgarian state (Mysia and Scythia Minor). At the same time, Byzantium was instrumental in the Christianization of the Kievan Rus' and of other medieval Slavic states.

In Great Britain, a unified kingdom of England had developed out of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In Scandinavia, Christianization was in its early stages, with the Althingi of the Icelandic Commonwealth embracing Christianity in the year 1000.

On September 9, King Olaf Tryggvason was defeated by an alliance of his enemies in the Battle of Svolder. Sweyn I established Danish control over part of Norway. Oslo, Norway, was founded (the exact year is debatable, but the 1,000 year anniversary was held in the year 2000).

The Papacy during this time was in a period of decline, in retrospect known as the saeculum obscurum ("Dark Age") or "pornocracy" ("rule of harlots"), a state of affairs that would result in the Great Schism later in the 11th century.

Hungary was established in 1000 as a Christian state. In the next centuries, the Kingdom of Hungary became the pre-eminent cultural power in the Central European region. On December 25, Stephen I was crowned as the first King of Hungary in Esztergom.

Sancho III of Navarre became King of Aragon and Navarre. The Reconquista was gaining some ground, but the southern Iberian peninsula would still be dominated by Islam for centuries to come; Córdoba at this time was the world's largest city with 450,000 inhabitants.

It is believed that in or around this year, Norse explorer Leif Ericson became the first European to land in the Americas, at L'Anse aux Meadows in modern-day Newfoundland.

العالم الإسلامي

The Islamic World was in its Golden Age; still organised in Caliphates, it was still dominated by the Abbasid Caliphate, with the Caliphate of Córdoba to the west, and ongoing campaigns in Africa and in India. Persia was a period of instability, with various polities seceding from Abassid rule, among whom the الغزنويون would emerge as the most powerful.

The Islamic world was reaching the peak of its historical scientific achievements. Important scholars and scientists who flourished in the year 1000 include Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), Ibn Yunus (publishes his astronomical treatise Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir in Cairo in c. 1000), Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu al-Wafa, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Al-Muqaddasi, Ali Ibn Isa, and al-Karaji (al-Karkhi). Ibn al-Haytham (Book of Optics), Avicenna, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, and Abu al-Qasim (Al-Tasrif), who all flourished around the year 1000, are considered to be among the greatest scientists of the Middle Ages altogether.[بحاجة لمصدر]

الهجرة التوركية by this time had reached Eastern Europe, and most of the Turkic tribes (الخزر، البلغار، پچنگ، إلخ) had been Islamized.

أكبر المدن

  1. قرطبة، خلافة قرطبة 450,000
  2. Kaifeng, China 400,000
  3. القسطنطينية، الامبراطورية الرومانية الشرقية 300,000
  4. أنگكور، امبراطورية خمير 200,000
  5. كيوتو، اليابان 175,000
  6. القاهرة، مصر 135,000
  7. بغداد، العراق 125,000
  8. نيشاپور، بلاد فارس 125,000
  9. الحسا، دولة القرامطة 110,000
  10. پاتان، گجرات 100,000[2]


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مواليد

وفيات

الهامش

  1. ^ 310 million: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 254 million: Jean-Noël Biraben, 1980, "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution", Population, Selected Papers, Vol. 4, pp. 1–13.
  2. ^ http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa011201c.htm
  • Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium (1999) ISBN 0-316-55840-0
  • John Man Atlas of the Year 1000 (1999) ISBN 0-14-051419-8

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