دوسلدورف

دوسلدورف (بالألمانية: Düsseldorf ؛ UK /ˈdʊsəldɔːrf/ DUUS-əl-dorf, الأمريكي /ˈdjsʔ/ DEWS-,[2][3][4] ألمانية: [ˈdʏsl̩dɔʁf]  (Speaker Icon.svg listen); often Dusseldorf [ك‍] in English sources; Low Franconian and Ripuarian:[أ] Düsseldörp [ˈdʏsl̩dœɐ̯p]; archaic بالهولندية: Dusseldorp)) هي عاصمة ولاية شمال الراين - وستفاليا في غرب ألمانيا و احدى أكبر مدن البلاد. يبلغ عدد سكانها حوالي 617,280 نسمة.[5]

Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf Panorama.jpg
Düsseldorf Sep 2019 22 09 48 149000.jpeg
Dus Hafen2.JPG
Düsseldorf - Marina (Parlamentsufer) 04 ies.jpg
Rheinkniebrücke at night.jpg
Düsseldorf Rheinuferpromenade 02.jpg
Clockwise from top: Düsseldorf skyline, Neuer Zollhof at Media Harbour at night, Rhine Tower and Rhine Knee Bridge at night, riverbank promenade, Düsseldorf Marina, Germany's busiest and upscale shopping street Königsallee
علم Düsseldorf
Flag
درع Düsseldorf
Coat of arms
Düsseldorf is located in ألمانيا
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is located in North Rhine-Westphalia
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
الإحداثيات: 51°14′N 6°47′E / 51.233°N 6.783°E / 51.233; 6.783Coordinates: 51°14′N 6°47′E / 51.233°N 6.783°E / 51.233; 6.783
البلدألمانيا
الولايةشمال الراين-وستفاليا
Admin. regionDüsseldorf
DistrictUrban district
التقسيمات10 districts, 50 boroughs
الحكومة
 • Lord mayorDr. Stephan Keller (CDU)
 • الأحزاب الحاكمةCDU / Greens
المساحة
 • المدينة217٫41 كم² (83٫94 ميل²)
المنسوب
38 m (125 ft)
التعداد
 (2016-03-11)
 • المدينة642٬304
 • الكثافة3٬000/km2 (7٬700/sq mi)
 • Urban
1٬220٬000[1]
 • العمرانية
11٬300٬000 (Rhine-Ruhr)
منطقة التوقيتCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
40210-40629
Dialling codes0211, 0203 (Ortsnetz Duisburg), 02104 (Ortsnetz Mettmann)
لوحة السيارةD
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.Duesseldorf.de

Düsseldorf is located at the confluence of two rivers: the Rhine and the Düssel, a small tributary. The -dorf suffix means "village" in German (English cognate: thorp); its use is unusual for a settlement as large as Düsseldorf. Most of the city lies on the right bank of the Rhine (unlike Cologne, which is on the river's left bank). Düsseldorf lies in the centre of both the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhineland Metropolitan Region. It neighbours the Cologne Bonn Region to the south and the Ruhr to the north. It is the largest city in the German Low Franconian dialect area (closely related to Dutch).

Mercer's 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf the sixth most livable city in the world.[6][7] Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's third-busiest airport after those of Frankfurt and Munich, serving as the most important international airport for the inhabitants of the densely populated Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs,[8][9][10] and is headquarters to one Fortune Global 500 and two DAX companies. Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows.[11] As second largest city of the Rhineland, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February/March, the Düsseldorf carnival celebrations being the third most popular in Germany after those held in Cologne and Mainz.[12]

There are 22 institutions of higher education in the city including the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, the university of applied sciences (Hochschule Düsseldorf), the academy of arts (Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, whose members include Joseph Beuys, Emanuel Leutze, August Macke, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, and Andreas Gursky), and the university of music (Robert-Schumann-Musikhochschule Düsseldorf). The city is also known for its influence on electronic/experimental music (Kraftwerk) and its Japanese community. Düsseldorf is classified as a GaWC Beta+ world city.

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التاريخ

 
دوسلدورف في عام 1647


الجغرافيا

 
The regional parliament, seen from the top of the Rheinturm.
 
Schadow Arkaden - shopping mall.


المدن والدوائر المجاورة

The following districts and cities border Düsseldorf (clockwise starting from the north): the City of Duisburg, the District of Mettmann (Ratingen, Mettmann, Erkrath, Hilden, Langenfeld, and Monheim), and the District of Neuss (Dormagen, Neuss, and Meerbusch).

المناخ

The city has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb, mild in relation to East Germany).[13] Like the rest of the lower Rhineland, Düsseldorf experiences moderate winters with little snowfall and mild to warm summers. The average annual temperature is 11.6 °م (53 °ف) with an average yearly precipitation of 732 milliمترs (29 بوصة). The dominant wind direction is from the west with velocities in the range of 3 to 4 m/s (7–9 mph), with gusts of 3.5 −4.8 m/s (8–10.7 mph). The wind is calm (defined as being under 2 m/s or 4.5 mph) about 35% of the time, more frequently at night and in the winter.[14][15]

بيانات مناخ دوسلدورف (average of 1981–2010, extremes 1981-present)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 16.4
(61.5)
21.0
(69.8)
23.8
(74.8)
28.8
(83.8)
33.8
(92.8)
36.8
(98.2)
40.7
(105.3)
38.5
(101.3)
34.0
(93.2)
27.7
(81.9)
20.4
(68.7)
16.3
(61.3)
40٫7
(105٫3)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 5.6
(42.1)
6.6
(43.9)
10.7
(51.3)
14.8
(58.6)
19.2
(66.6)
21.9
(71.4)
24.3
(75.7)
23.8
(74.8)
19.8
(67.6)
15.1
(59.2)
9.6
(49.3)
6.1
(43)
14٫79
(58٫63)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 2.9
(37.2)
3.4
(38.1)
6.7
(44.1)
9.9
(49.8)
14.1
(57.4)
16.7
(62.1)
19.2
(66.6)
18.8
(65.8)
15.4
(59.7)
11.4
(52.5)
6.8
(44.2)
3.6
(38.5)
10٫74
(51٫34)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 0.2
(32.4)
0.3
(32.5)
2.8
(37)
5.0
(41)
9.0
(48.2)
11.6
(52.9)
14.1
(57.4)
13.7
(56.7)
11.0
(51.8)
7.7
(45.9)
3.9
(39)
1.2
(34.2)
6٫71
(44٫08)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -20.8
(-5.4)
-15.4
(4.3)
-16.1
(3)
-6.3
(20.7)
-1.1
(30)
2.4
(36.3)
4.8
(40.6)
5.0
(41)
0.7
(33.3)
-6.2
(20.8)
-9.4
(15.1)
-15.3
(4.5)
−20٫8
(−5٫4)
هطول mm (inches) 67.3
(2.65)
53.2
(2.094)
65.0
(2.559)
51.8
(2.039)
68.8
(2.709)
75.2
(2.961)
75.0
(2.953)
70.6
(2.78)
64.2
(2.528)
67.2
(2.646)
68.1
(2.681)
71.5
(2.815)
797٫9
(31٫413)
Sunshine hours 56.4 76.2 112.2 166.7 198.8 193.4 209.5 190.7 140.1 110.4 59.8 45.1 1٬559٫3
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst [16]
بيانات مناخ دوسلدورف (average of 1990–2013 and 2019-present)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 16.4
(61.5)
21.0
(69.8)
23.8
(74.8)
28.8
(83.8)
33.8
(92.8)
36.8
(98.2)
40.7
(105.3)
38.5
(101.3)
34.0
(93.2)
27.7
(81.9)
20.4
(68.7)
16.3
(61.3)
40٫7
(105٫3)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 6.9
(44.4)
9.7
(49.5)
11.7
(53.1)
17.1
(62.8)
18.7
(65.7)
24.2
(75.6)
24.8
(76.6)
25.1
(77.2)
20.2
(68.4)
15.6
(60.1)
9.6
(49.3)
7.1
(44.8)
15٫89
(60٫61)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 4.6
(40.3)
6.0
(42.8)
7.6
(45.7)
11.3
(52.3)
13.3
(55.9)
18.7
(65.7)
19.3
(66.7)
19.6
(67.3)
15.5
(59.9)
12.0
(53.6)
6.8
(44.2)
4.8
(40.6)
11٫63
(52٫93)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 1.8
(35.2)
2.2
(36)
3.3
(37.9)
5.1
(41.2)
7.2
(45)
12.7
(54.9)
13.5
(56.3)
14.1
(57.4)
10.7
(51.3)
8.6
(47.5)
3.8
(38.8)
2.3
(36.1)
7٫11
(44٫8)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -20.8
(-5.4)
-15.4
(4.3)
-16.1
(3)
-6.3
(20.7)
-1.1
(30)
2.4
(36.3)
4.8
(40.6)
5.0
(41)
0.7
(33.3)
-6.2
(20.8)
-9.4
(15.1)
-15.3
(4.5)
−20٫8
(−5٫4)
هطول mm (inches) 51.3
(2.02)
84.5
(3.327)
62.8
(2.472)
29.2
(1.15)
40.9
(1.61)
54.1
(2.13)
44.2
(1.74)
68.8
(2.709)
73.3
(2.886)
76.5
(3.012)
77.0
(3.031)
69.0
(2.717)
731٫6
(28٫803)
Sunshine hours 47.7 85.8 129.6 218.7 218.4 229.9 204.0 214.1 147.5 99.0 54.3 47.9 1٬696٫9
Source #1: www.weatheronline.de, extremes and sun = Meteo Climat [17]
Source #2: https://www.dwd.de/DE/leistungen/klimadatendeutschland/klimadatendeutschland.html?nn=540998


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الديمغرافيا

Largest groups of foreign residents

[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]

Nationality Population (31.12.2017)
  تركيا 12,707
  اليونان 10,388
  پولندا 9,316
  إيطاليا 7,799
  اليابان 5,829
  سوريا 5,820
  رومانيا 4,856
  المغرب 4,541
  إسپانيا 4,477
  روسيا 4,430
  الصين 4,251
  شمال مقدونيا 3,842
  كرواتيا 3,720
  فرنسا 3,328
  أوكرانيا 3,266
  العراق 3,079
  إيران 2,962
  الجزائر 2,271

With a population of 612,178 within the city boundaries (31 December 2015),[26] Düsseldorf is Germany's seventh largest city. Its population surpassed the threshold of 100,000 inhabitants during the height of industrialisation in 1882, and peaked at just over 705,000 in 1962. The city then began to lose residents with many moving into neighbouring municipalities. However, since the late 1990s, the city's population has been slowly rising again.

A total of 109,883[27] (18%) of Düsseldorf's population are foreigners (31 December 2008), the majority of whom come from within Europe (81,742). The largest national minorities are Turks, Greeks, and Poles. Düsseldorf and its surroundings have the third-largest Japanese community in Europe and the largest in Germany (about 11,000 people).[28][29] Düsseldorf has the third-largest Jewish community in Germany, with about 7,000 members.[30][31][32]

الحكم

المقاطعات

Since 1975, Düsseldorf is divided into ten administrative districts. Each district (Bezirk) has its own elected district council (Bezirksvertretung) and its own district mayor (Bezirksvorsteher). The district councils are advisory only. Each district is further subdivided into boroughs. There are 50 boroughs in Düsseldorf.[33]

District 1 (Stadtbezirk 1)
Altstadt, Carlstadt, Derendorf, Golzheim, Pempelfort, Stadtmitte
District 2 (Stadtbezirk 2)
Düsseltal, Flingern-Nord, Flingern-Süd
District 3 (Stadtbezirk 3)
Bilk, Flehe, Friedrichstadt, Hafen, Hamm, Oberbilk, Unterbilk, Volmerswerth
District 4 (Stadtbezirk 4)
Heerdt, Lörick, Niederkassel, Oberkassel
District 5 (Stadtbezirk 5)
Angermund, Kaiserswerth, Kalkum, Lohausen, Stockum, Wittlaer
 
de (District 6, Düsseldorf) (Stadtbezirk 6)
Lichtenbroich, Mörsenbroich, Rath, Unterrath
District 7 (Stadtbezirk 7)
Gerresheim, Grafenberg, Hubbelrath, Ludenberg, Knittkuhl
de (District 8, Düsseldorf) (Stadtbezirk 8)
Eller, Lierenfeld, Unterbach, Vennhausen
District 9 (Stadtbezirk 9)
Benrath, Hassels, Himmelgeist, Holthausen, Itter, Reisholz, Urdenbach, Wersten
de (District 10, Düsseldorf) (Stadtbezirk 10)
Garath, Hellerhof


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العمدة

The current Mayor of Düsseldorf is Stephan Keller of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who was elected in 2020.

The most recent mayoral election was held on 13 September 2020, with a runoff held on 27 September, and the results were as follows:

[[قالب:Fullurl:Template talk: ناقش]] – [[قالب:Fullurl:Template: عدّل]]
المرشح الحزب الجولة الأولى الجولة الثانية
الأصوات % الأصوات %
Stephan Keller Christian Democratic Union 83,425 34.1 118,308 56.0
Thomas Geisel Social Democratic Party 64,203 26.3 92,999 44.0
Stefan Engstfeld Alliance 90/The Greens 42,463 17.4
Marie-Agnes Strack-Zimmermann Free Democratic Party 30,584 12.5
Florian Josef Hoffmann Alternative for Germany 6,564 2.7
Udo Adam Bonn The Left 5,257 2.2
Dominique Mirus Die PARTEI 3,039 1.2
Mark Schenk Volt Germany 2,255 0.9
Claudia Krüger Animal Welfare Here! 1,939 0.8
Hans-Joachim Grumbach Free Voters 1,192 0.5
Celine Coldewe Climate List Düsseldorf 954 0.4
Michael Baumeister Independent 947 0.4
Marc Olejak Pirate Party Germany 792 0.3
Markus Brakonier German Sport Party 383 0.2
Andre Maniera The Republicans 325 0.1
Valid votes 244,322 98.8 211,307 99.3
Invalid votes 3,008 1.2 1,571 0.7
Total 247,330 100.0 212,878 100.0
Electorate/voter turnout 470,511 52.6 470,312 45.3
Source: State Returning Officer

مجلس المدينة

The Düsseldorf city council (Düsseldorfer Stadtrat) governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 13 September 2020, and the results were as follows:

[[قالب:Fullurl:Template talk: ناقش]] – [[قالب:Fullurl:Template: عدّل]]
Party Votes % +/- Seats +/-
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 81,833 33.4   3.3 30   1
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) 58,881 24.0 10.3 22 11
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 43,949 17.9   11.4 16   8
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 22,453 9.2 2.2 8 2
The Left (Die Linke) 9,951 4.1   1.1 4 ±0
Alternative for Germany (AfD) 8,776 3.6 0.6 3 1
Volt Germany (Volt) 4,512 1.8 New 2 New
Die PARTEI (PARTEI) 4,371 1.8 New 2 New
Animal Welfare Here! (Tierschutz hier!) 3,437 1.4 New 1 New
Free Voters (FW) 2,212 0.9   0.3 1 ±0
Climate List Düsseldorf (Klimaliste) 2,124 0.9 New 1 New
Pirate Party Germany (Piraten) 1,464 0.6   1.1 0   1
German Sport Party (DSP) 642 0.3 New 0 New
The Republicans (REP) 586 0.2   0.4 0   1
RESISTANCE 2020 We for Düsseldorf 76 0.0 New 0 New
Valid votes 245,271 99.2
Invalid votes 2,085 0.8
Total 247,356 100.0 90 8
Electorate/voter turnout 470,511 52.6 3.4
Source: State Returning Officer

المعالم

 
مطار دوسلدورف الدولي
 
أستاد الهوكي الجديد في دوسلدورف
 
Tonhalle Düsseldorf
 
Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen - K20 (Grabbeplatz)


البلدات التوأم – المدن الشقيقة

Düsseldorf is twinned with:[34]

الصداقة والتعاون

Düsseldorf also cooperates with:[35]

وصلات خارجية

  •   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Düsseldorf" . دائرة المعارف البريطانية. 8 (eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help); More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  • Wikidus.de The Wiki for Düsseldorf
  • Düsseldorf Official English website of the city
  • visitduesseldorf.de Official Düsseldorf Tourist Board
  • dusseldorf.guide Unofficial Düsseldorf Guide
  • Düsseldorf City Panoramas
  • "Burrying [sic] the Hoppeditz: Carnival in Düsseldorf". Archived from the original on 13 January 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2006.
  • The Lost City WW2 Bomb Damage 1942/3
  1. ^ Amt für Statistik und Wahlenlanguage=German. "Demografie-Monitoring Düsseldorf 2013 bis 2018". Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Dusseldorf". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  3. ^ "Düsseldorf" (US) and قالب:Cite Oxford Dictionaries
  4. ^ قالب:Cite Merriam-Webster
  5. ^ 1,525,029 inhabitants for the Düsseldorf Larger Urban Zone
  6. ^ "Mercer's 2011 Quality of Living survey highlights — Global". Mercer. 15 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
  7. ^ Woolsey, Matt (28 April 2009). "World's 20 Best Places To Live". Forbes.com.
  8. ^ "Communla Administration of Düsseldorf, 28 of July 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
  9. ^ "Immobilien Zeitung: Mehr Räume für die große Modenschau vom 28. August 2008, 1 March 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
  10. ^ "Cushman & Wakefield: European Cities Monitor" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
  11. ^ "Messe Düsseldorf Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
  12. ^ 2010 survey by Jones Lang LaSalle; accessed 8 December 2014. (in ألمانية)
  13. ^ "Düsseldorf, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  14. ^ "Bezirksregierung Düsseldorf – Luftreinhalteplan (2004)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2006. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  15. ^ Klimaatlas – NRW (1989): Der Minister für Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalens, Düsseldorf.
  16. ^ "Monatswerte Düsseldorf". Deutscher Wetterdienst. 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  17. ^ "STATION DUSSELDORF, Dusseldorf (Allemagne, 37m)". Meteo Climat. 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  18. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  19. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  20. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  21. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  22. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  23. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  24. ^ "Statistische Informationen" (PDF). Amt 12. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  25. ^ "EU-Ausländer in Duesseldorf" (PDF). Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  26. ^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Information und Technik Nordrhein-Westfalen. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  27. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf – Bevölkerung nach Nationalität" (PDF). Duesseldorf.de. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  28. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة virtualtourist.com
  29. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Japantag in Düsseldorf: Welcome
  30. ^ "Düsseldorf | Jüdische Allgemeine". www.juedische-allgemeine.de. Retrieved 2019-11-28.
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خطأ استشهاد: وسوم <ref> موجودة لمجموعة اسمها "lower-alpha"، ولكن لم يتم العثور على وسم <references group="lower-alpha"/>