شمال كاليفورنيا

(تم التحويل من Northern California)

Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal; بالاسپانية: Norte de California) is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties,[1][2] its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area (anchored by the cities of San Jose, San Francisco, and Oakland), the Greater Sacramento area (anchored by the state capital Sacramento), and the Metropolitan Fresno area (anchored by the city of Fresno). Northern California also contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta (the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range after Mount Rainier in Washington), and most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions.

Northern California
Clockwise: California State Capitol in Sacramento, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco skyline, San Jose skyline, Muir Woods National Monument, the northern California coast as seen from Muir Beach Overlook, view of the California side of Lake Tahoe and Natural Bridges State Beach in Santa Cruz.
Clockwise: California State Capitol in Sacramento, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco skyline, San Jose skyline, Muir Woods National Monument, the northern California coast as seen from Muir Beach Overlook, view of the California side of Lake Tahoe and Natural Bridges State Beach in Santa Cruz.
Northern California counties in red
Northern California counties in red
Country الولايات المتحدة
State كاليفورنيا
Major CitiesSan Jose
San Francisco
Sacramento
Oakland
Fresno
Stockton
Modesto
Hayward
Fremont
Santa Rosa
Sunnyvale
San Rafael
Redding
Salinas
Visalia
Chico
Eureka
Largest citySan Jose
التعداد
 (2015)
15٬376٬997

The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, and from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area.[3]

Evidence of Native American habitation in the area dates from at least 19,000 years ago[بحاجة لمصدر] and successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California. In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County.[بحاجة لمصدر]

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الوصف

 
Map of northern California counties
 
Map of the three Californias according to the Cal 3 ballot proposal██ Northern California██ California██ Southern California


المدن

Climate

 
Köppen climate types in northern California

Northern California has warm or mild to cold climate, in which the Sierra gets snow in the late fall through winter and occasionally into spring. Summers are mild along the coast and generally warm and dry, while winters are cool and usually wet. The high temperatures range from 50s to 30s in the winters while summers temperature range is 90s to 60s or 50s, with highs well into the 100s for the Sacramento region. Snow covers the mountains (generally above 3000 feet) in mid January through February. Fog occurs infrequently or occurs normally in the west and coast, especially in the summer, creating some of the coolest summer conditions in North America.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Population

التعداد التاريخي
التعداد Pop.
185086٬105
1860346٬714302٫7%
1870516٬08948٫9%
1880772٬77849٫7%
1890961٬62824٫4%
19001٬147٬72519٫4%
19101٬569٬14136٫7%
19202٬003٬07527٫7%
19302٬632٬27331٫4%
19403٬066٬65416٫5%
19504٬654٬24851٫8%
19606٬318٬48235٫8%
19707٬849٬57524٫2%
19809٬359٬16019٫2%
199011٬490٬92622٫8%
200013٬234٬13615٫2%
201014٬573٬94610٫1%

The population of the forty-eight counties of northern California has shown a steady increase over the years.[4][5]

Educational institutions

Northern California hosts a number of world-renowned universities including Stanford University and University of California, Berkeley. Top-tier public graduate schools include Boalt Hall and Hastings law schools and UC San Francisco, a top-ranked medical school, and UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, the largest vet school in the United States.

Public institutions

Private institutions

(Partial list)

Research institutions

(Partial list)

Counties

Regions

The following regions are entirely or partly within northern California:


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Cities and towns in northern California with more than 50,000 inhabitants

Largest cities (city proper) in northern California
City Population (2010)
Alameda 73,812
Antioch 102,372
Berkeley 112,580
Brentwood 51,481
Chico 86,187
Citrus Heights 83,301
Clovis 95,631
Concord 122,067
Cupertino 58,302
Daly City 101,123
Davis 65,622
Elk Grove 153,015
Fairfield 105,321
Folsom 72,203
Fresno 510,365
Fremont 214,089
Hanford 53,967
Hayward 144,186
Livermore 80,968
Lodi 62,134
Madera 61,416
Manteca 67,096
Merced 78,958
Milpitas 66,790
Modesto 201,165
Mountain View 74,066
Napa 76,915
Novato 51,904
Oakland 390,724
Palo Alto 64,403
Petaluma 57,941
Pittsburg 63,264
Pleasanton 70,285
Porterville 54,165
Rancho Cordova 64,776
Redding 89,861
Redwood City 76,815
Richmond 103,701
Rocklin 56,974
Roseville 118,788
Sacramento 466,488
Salinas 150,441
San Francisco 805,235
San Jose 945,942
San Leandro 84,950
San Mateo 97,207
San Rafael 57,713
San Ramon 72,148
Santa Clara 116,468
Santa Cruz 59,946
Santa Rosa 167,815
South San Francisco 63,632
Stockton 291,707
Sunnyvale 140,081
Tracy 82,922
Tulare 59,278
Turlock 68,549
Union City 69,516
Vacaville 92,428
Vallejo 115,942
Visalia 124,442
Walnut Creek 64,173
Watsonville 51,199
Woodland 55,468
Yuba City 64,925

[6]

Metropolitan areas

Northern California is home to three of the state's four extended metropolitan areas that are home to over three-fourths of the region's population as of the 2010 United States Census:[7]

Metropolitan region Population
San Francisco Bay Area 7,468,390
Greater Sacramento 2,461,780
Metropolitan Fresno 1,081,315

Major business districts

The following are major central business districts:

النقل

انظر أيضاً المقالات:

انظر أيضاً التصنيفات:

المطارات في شمال كاليفورنيا

 
San Francisco International Airport or SFO is the largest and busiest airport in northern California and second in the state and tenth in the United States.

There are 11 airports in Northern California categorized as Primary Service Commercial airports by the FAA:[8]

Airport ID City Category 2018 Enplanements
San Francisco International Airport SFO San Francisco Large Hub 27,794,154
San Jose International Airport SJC San Jose Medium Hub 7,037,144
Oakland International Airport OAK Oakland Medium Hub 6,687,963
Sacramento International Airport SMF Sacramento Medium Hub 5,907,901
Fresno Yosemite International Airport FAT Fresno Small Hub 853,538
Charles M. Schulz–Sonoma County Airport STS Santa Rosa Non Hub 217,994
Monterey Regional Airport MRY Monterey Non Hub 188,046
Stockton Metropolitan Airport SCK Stockton Non Hub 99,258
Arcata-Eureka Airport ACV Arcata Non Hub 69,604
Redding Municipal Airport RDD Redding Non Hub 42,775
Mammoth Yosemite Airport MMH Mammoth Lakes Non Hub 23,522

السكك الحديدية

 
The 19th Street/Oakland BART station in downtown Oakland

هيئات النقل الرئيسية


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عبارات النقل الرئيسية

 
The historic San Francisco Ferry Building is the busiest ferry terminal on the West Coast and connects Downtown San Francisco to various parts of the Bay Area.

الطرق السريعة

الطرق بين الولايات

طرق الولايات المتحدة

 
جسر گولدن گيت is one of northern California's most well known landmarks and one of the most famous bridges in the world.
 
I-80 and I-580 in Berkeley in the Bay Area
 
State Route 120 is one of the many highways that traverse the isolated areas of inner northern California

الطرق الولائية الرئيسية

الاتصالات

Telephone Area Codes

الرياضة

الفرق الرياضية المحترفة في الروابط الرئيسية

الرياضة الرابطة الفريق المضمار City
Baseball MLB Oakland Athletics (American League) RingCentral Coliseum Oakland
San Francisco Giants (National League) AT&T Park San Francisco
Basketball NBA Golden State Warriors Chase Center San Francisco
Sacramento Kings Golden 1 Center Sacramento
Football NFL San Francisco 49ers Levi's Stadium Santa Clara
Ice hockey NHL San Jose Sharks SAP Center San Jose
Soccer MLS San Jose Earthquakes Avaya Stadium San Jose
Arena Football IFL Oakland Panthers Oakland Arena Oakland

فرق رياضية جامعية

مضامر رياضية

أحداث رياضية

See also

الهامش

  1. ^ Morgan, Neil (April 19, 1963). "Westward Tilt: Northern California". Lodi News-Sentinel. Lodi, California. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  2. ^ John E. Kent, ed. (1917). Kent Guide Manual (Harrison Narcotic Law) and Progressional Registry. San Francisco: The Service Press. p. 6.
  3. ^ Metcalf, Gabriel; Terplan, Egon (November–December 2007). "The northern California megaregion". The Urbanist. San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  4. ^ "Historical census data by U.S. Census Bureau". Archived from the original on December 31, 2003. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  5. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  6. ^ Population figures are the most recent figures contained in the respective Wikipedia articles, in the List of cities in California (by population), or in the State of California, Department of Finance 2007 estimates Archived March 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine..
  7. ^ Excerpted from 2010 United States Census
  8. ^ "Passenger Boarding (Enplanement) and All-Cargo Data for U.S. Airports – Airports". Faa.gov. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  9. ^ For current information, see nanpa.com, the North American Numbering Plan Administration site.

وصلات خارجية