مؤشر الديمقراطية

The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map for 2018.[1]

الإيكونوميست هي دراسة وفحص للديموقراطية في 167 بلدا ومحاولة تحديد حجم هذا مع وحدة الاستخبارات الاقتصادية> مؤشر الديمقراطية الذي ركز على خمس فئات عامة ؛ العملية الانتخابية والتعددية والحريات المدنية ، وأداء الحكومة ، والمشاركة السياسية ، والسياسية الثقافة. وفقا لوحدة الاستخبارات الاقتصادية والديمقراطية وسجل مؤشر السويد عام 2008 ما مجموعه 9.88 على مقياس من صفر الى عشرة ، وهو أعلى نتيجة لذلك ، في حين أن كوريا الشمالية مع وسجل أدنى مستوى 0.86. البلدان المصنفة في "الديموقراطية الكاملة" و "قصور الديمقراطيات" ، و "النظم المختلطة" (تعتبر جميع الديمقراطيات) ، و "الأنظمة الاستبدادية" (تعتبر الديكتاتورية).

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الطريقة

تعريفات التصنيف

مؤشر الديمقراطية حسب البلد 2018

Democracy Index 2018
Rank Country Score Elec­toral process
and plura­lism
Functio­ning of
govern­ment
Poli­tical
partici­pation
Poli­tical
culture
Civil
liber­ties
Regime
type
Continent
1 Flag of Norway.svg نرويج 9.87 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 9.71 Full democracy Europe
2 Flag of Iceland.svg آيسلندا 9.58 10.00 9.29 8.89 10.00 9.71 Full democracy Europe
3 Flag of Sweden.svg السويد 9.39 9.58 9.64 8.33 10.00 9.41 Full democracy Europe
4 Flag of New Zealand.svg نيوزيلندا 9.26 10.00 9.29 8.89 8.13 10.00 Full democracy Oceania
5 Flag of Denmark.svg الدنمارك 9.22 10.00 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.12 Full democracy Europe
=6 Flag of Ireland.svg أيرلندا 9.15 9.58 7.86 8.33 10.00 10.00 Full democracy Europe
Flag of Canada.svg كندا 9.15 9.58 9.64 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy North America
8  فنلندا 9.14 10.00 8.93 8.33 8.75 9.71 Full democracy Europe
9  أستراليا 9.09 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy Oceania
10 Flag of Switzerland.svg سويسرا 9.03 9.58 9.29 7.78 9.38 9.12 Full democracy Europe
11 Flag of the Netherlands.svg هولندا 8.89 9.58 9.29 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy Europe
12 Flag of Luxembourg.svg لوكسمبورگ 8.81 10.00 8.93 6.67 8.75 9.71 Full democracy Europe
13 Flag of Germany.svg ألمانيا 8.68 9.58 8.57 8.33 7.50 9.41 Full democracy Europe
14 Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة 8.53 9.58 7.50 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy Europe
15  أوروگواي 8.38 10.00 8.57 6.11 7.50 9.71 Full democracy South America
16 Flag of Austria.svg نمسا 8.29 9.58 7.86 8.33 6.88 8.82 Full democracy Europe
17  موريشيوس 8.22 9.17 8.21 5.56 8.75 9.41 Full democracy Africa
18 Flag of Malta.svg مالطا 8.21 9.17 8.21 6.11 8.75 8.82 Full democracy Europe
19 Flag of Spain.svg إسپانيا 8.08 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.82 Full democracy Europe
20  كوستاريكا 8.07 9.58 7.50 6.67 7.50 9.12 Full democracy North America
21 Flag of South Korea (bordered).svg كوريا الجنوبية 8.00 9.17 7.86 7.22 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy Asia
22 Flag of Japan (bordered).svg اليابان 7.99 8.75 8.21 6.67 7.50 8.82 Flawed democracy Asia
=23 Flag of Chile.svg تشيلي 7.97 9.58 8.57 4.44 8.13 9.12 Flawed democracy South America
Flag of Estonia.svg إستونيا 7.97 9.58 8.21 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
25  الولايات المتحدة 7.96 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy North America
26  الرأس الأخضر 7.88 9.17 7.86 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Africa
27 البرتغال البرتغال 7.84 9.58 7.50 6.11 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy Europe
28 Flag of Botswana.svg بوتسوانا 7.81 9.17 7.14 6.11 7.50 9.12 Flawed democracy Africa
29 Flag of France.svg فرنسا 7.80 9.58 7.50 7.78 5.63 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
30  إسرائيل 7.79 9.17 7.50 8.89 7.50 5.88 Flawed democracy Asia
31 Flag of Belgium.svg بلجيكا 7.78 9.58 8.93 5.00 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
32  تايوان 7.73 9.58 8.21 6.11 5.63 9.12 Flawed democracy Asia
33 Flag of Italy.svg إيطاليا 7.71 9.58 6.07 7.78 6.88 8.24 Flawed democracy Europe
34 Flag of the Czech Republic.svg التشيك 7.69 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
35 Flag of Cyprus.svg قبرص 7.59 9.17 6.43 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Europe
=36 Flag of Slovenia.svg سلوفينيا 7.50 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy Europe
Flag of Lithuania.svg لتوانيا 7.50 9.58 6.43 6.11 6.25 9.12 Flawed democracy Europe
38 Flag of Latvia.svg لاتفيا 7.38 9.58 6.07 5.56 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Europe
39 Flag of Greece.svg اليونان 7.29 9.58 5.36 6.11 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
40 علم جنوب أفريقيا جنوب أفريقيا 7.24 7.42 7.50 8.33 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy Africa
41 Flag of India.png الهند 7.23 9.17 6.79 7.22 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy Asia
42 Flag of East Timor.svg تيمور الشرقية 7.19 9.08 6.79 5.56 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy Asia
43 Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg ترينيداد وتوباگو 7.16 9.58 7.14 6.11 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy North America
44 Flag of Slovakia.svg سلوفاكيا 7.10 9.58 6.79 5.56 5.63 7.94 Flawed democracy Europe
45  پنما 7.05 9.58 6.07 6.67 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy North America
46  بلغاريا 7.03 9.17 6.43 7.22 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy Europe
=47 Flag of Argentina.svg الأرجنتين 7.02 9.17 5.36 6.11 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
Flag of Jamaica.svg جامايكا 7.02 8.75 7.14 4.44 6.25 8.53 Flawed democracy North America
49 سورينام سورينام 6.98 9.17 6.43 6.67 5.00 7.65 Flawed democracy South America
50 Flag of Brazil.svg البرازيل 6.97 9.58 5.36 6.67 5.00 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
51 كولومبيا كولومبيا 6.96 9.17 6.79 5.00 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
52 ماليزيا ماليزيا 6.88 7.75 7.86 6.67 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy Asia
53 Flag of the Philippines.svg الفلپين 6.71 9.17 5.71 7.22 4.38 7.06 Flawed democracy Asia
=54 Flag of Poland.svg بولندا 6.67 9.17 6.07 6.11 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy Europe
گويانا گويانا 6.67 9.17 5.71 6.11 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy South America
56 Flag of Lesotho.svg ليسوتو 6.64 9.17 5.00 6.67 5.63 6.76 Flawed democracy Africa
=57 Flag of Ghana.svg غانا 6.63 8.33 5.71 6.67 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy Africa
Flag of Hungary.svg المجر 6.63 8.75 6.07 5.00 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy Europe
59 Flag of Peru (state).svg پيرو 6.60 9.17 5.00 5.56 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy South America
60 Flag of Croatia.svg كرواتيا 6.57 9.17 6.07 5.56 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy Europe
61  جمهورية الدومنيكان 6.54 9.17 5.36 6.11 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy North America
62  منغوليا 6.50 9.17 5.71 5.56 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy Asia
=63 Flag of Serbia.svg صربيا 6.41 8.25 5.36 6.11 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy Europe
Flag of Tunisia.svg تونس 6.41 6.42 5.71 7.78 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy Africa
65 Flag of Indonesia.svg اندونيسيا 6.39 6.92 7.14 6.67 5.63 5.59 Flawed democracy Asia
=66 Flag of Singapore.svg سنغافورة 6.38 4.33 7.86 6.11 6.25 7.35 Flawed democracy Asia
Flag of Romania.svg رومانيا 6.38 9.17 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy Europe
68 Flag of Ecuador.svg إكوادور 6.27 8.75 5.36 6.11 4.38 6.76 Flawed democracy South America
69 Flag of Namibia.svg ناميبيا 6.25 5.67 5.36 6.67 5.63 7.94 Flawed democracy Africa
70 Flag of Paraguay.svg پاراگواي 6.24 8.75 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy South America
=71 Flag of Sri Lanka.svg سريلانكا 6.19 7.83 5.71 5.00 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy Asia
Flag of Mexico.svg المكسيك 6.19 8.33 6.07 7.22 3.13 6.18 Flawed democracy North America
=73 Flag of Hong Kong.svg هونگ كونگ 6.15 3.08 6.07 5.56 7.50 8.53 Flawed democracy Asia
Flag of Senegal.svg سنغال 6.15 7.50 6.07 4.44 6.25 6.47 Flawed democracy Africa
75 Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg پاپوا غينيا ج. 6.03 6.92 6.07 3.89 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy Oceania
76 ألبانيا ألبانيا 5.98 7.00 4.71 5.56 5.00 7.65 Hybrid regime Europe
77  السلڤادور 5.96 9.17 4.29 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime North America
78  جمهورية مقدونيا 5.87 6.50 5.36 6.67 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime Europe
=79  مولدوڤا 5.85 7.08 4.64 6.11 4.38 7.06 Hybrid regime Europe
 فيجي 5.85 6.58 5.36 6.11 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Oceania
=81  الجبل الأسود 5.74 6.08 5.36 6.11 4.38 6.76 Hybrid regime Europe
بنين بنين 5.74 6.50 5.71 5.00 5.63 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
83 Flag of Bolivia (state).svg بوليفيا 5.70 7.50 4.64 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime South America
84 Flag of Ukraine.svg أوكرانيا 5.69 6.17 3.21 6.67 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime Europe
85  هندوراس 5.63 8.50 4.64 4.44 4.38 6.18 Hybrid regime North America
86  زامبيا 5.61 6.17 4.64 3.89 6.88 6.47 Hybrid regime Africa
87  گواتيمالا 5.60 7.92 5.36 3.89 4.38 6.47 Hybrid regime North America
88 بنگلادش بنگلادش 5.57 7.83 5.07 5.56 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime Asia
89  جورجيا 5.50 7.83 3.57 6.11 4.38 5.59 Hybrid regime Europe
90 Flag of Malawi.svg ملاوي 5.49 6.58 4.29 4.44 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
=91 Flag of Tanzania.svg تنزانيا 5.41 7.00 5.00 5.00 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
Flag of Mali.svg مالي 5.41 7.42 3.93 3.89 5.63 6.18 Hybrid regime Africa
93 Flag of Liberia.svg ليبيريا 5.35 7.42 2.57 5.56 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Africa
94 Flag of Bhutan.svg بوتان 5.30 8.75 6.79 2.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
95 Flag of Madagascar.svg مدغشقر 5.22 6.08 3.57 6.11 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime Africa
96 أوغندا أوغندا 5.20 5.25 3.57 4.44 6.88 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
97 Flag of Nepal.svg نيبال 5.18 4.33 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Asia
=98 Flag of Kenya.svg كينيا 5.11 3.50 5.36 6.67 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
قرغيزستان قرغيزستان 5.11 6.58 2.93 6.67 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime Asia
100 المملكة المغربية المملكة المغربية 4.99 5.25 4.64 5.00 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
101 Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg البوسنة والهرسك 4.98 6.50 2.93 5.56 3.75 6.18 Hybrid regime Europe
102 Flag of Haiti.svg هايتي 4.91 5.58 2.93 3.89 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime North America
103  أرمنيا 4.79 5.67 4.64 5.56 2.50 5.59 Hybrid regime Europe
104  بوركينا فاسو 4.75 4.42 4.29 4.44 5.63 5.00 Hybrid regime Africa
105 سيراليون سيراليون 4.66 6.58 1.86 3.33 6.25 5.29 Hybrid regime Africa
=106 لبنان لبنان 4.63 3.92 2.21 6.67 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime Asia
Flag of Thailand.svg تايلند 4.63 3.00 4.29 5.00 5.00 5.88 Hybrid regime Asia
108 Flag of Nigeria.svg نيجيريا 4.44 6.08 4.64 3.33 3.75 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
109 فلسطين السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية 4.39 3.83 2.14 7.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
110 Flag of Turkey.svg تركيا 4.37 4.50 5.00 5.00 5.00 2.35 Hybrid regime Europe
111 غامبيا غامبيا 4.31 4.48 4.29 3.33 5.63 3.82 Hybrid regime Africa
112 Flag of Pakistan.svg پاكستان 4.17 6.08 5.36 2.22 2.50 4.71 Hybrid regime Asia
113 Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg ساحل العاج 4.15 4.83 2.86 3.33 5.63 4.12 Hybrid regime Africa
114 Flag of Iraq.svg العراق 4.06 4.75 0.07 6.67 5.00 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
115  الأردن 3.93 3.58 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian Asia
=116  موزمبيق 3.85 3.58 2.14 5.00 5.00 3.53 Authoritarian Africa
الكويت الكويت 3.85 3.17 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian Asia
118 Flag of Myanmar.svg ميانمار 3.83 3.67 3.93 3.89 5.63 2.06 Authoritarian Asia
119 موريتانيا موريتانيا 3.82 3.00 3.57 5.00 3.13 4.41 Authoritarian Africa
120 نيجر نيجر 3.76 5.25 1.14 3.33 4.38 4.71 Authoritarian Africa
121 جزر القمر جزر القمر 3.71 4.33 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
122 Flag of Nicaragua.svg نيكاراگوا 3.63 2.67 1.86 3.89 5.63 4.12 Authoritarian North America
123 Flag of Angola.svg أنگولا 3.62 1.75 2.86 5.56 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
124 الگابون الگابون 3.61 2.58 2.21 4.44 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
125 Flag of Cambodia.svg كمبوديا 3.59 1.33 5.00 2.78 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian Asia
126 Flag of Algeria.svg الجزائر 3.50 2.58 2.21 3.89 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
127 Flag of Egypt.svg مصر 3.36 3.58 3.21 3.33 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
=128  إثيوپيا 3.35 0.00 3.57 5.56 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
Flag of Rwanda.svg رواندا 3.35 1.67 5.00 2.78 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
130 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg الصين 3.32 0.00 5.00 3.89 6.25 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
131 Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg الكونغو 3.31 3.17 2.50 3.89 3.75 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
132 Flag of Cameroon.svg كاميرون 3.28 3.17 2.86 3.33 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
133 قطر قطر 3.19 0.00 4.29 2.22 5.63 3.82 Authoritarian Asia
=134  زيمبابوي 3.16 0.50 2.00 4.44 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
Flag of Venezuela.svg ڤنزويلا 3.16 1.67 1.79 4.44 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian South America
136 غينيا غينيا 3.14 3.50 0.43 4.44 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
137 Flag of Belarus.svg بلاروس 3.13 0.92 2.86 3.89 5.63 2.35 Authoritarian Europe
138 توغو توغو 3.10 3.17 0.79 3.33 5.00 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
139 Flag of Vietnam.svg ڤيتنام 3.08 0.00 3.21 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian Asia
140 عُمان عُمان 3.04 0.00 3.93 2.78 4.38 4.12 Authoritarian Asia
141 Flag of سوازيلاند سوازيلاند 3.03 0.92 2.86 2.22 5.63 3.53 Authoritarian Africa
142  كوبا 3.00 1.08 3.57 3.33 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian North America
143 Flag of Afghanistan.svg أفغانستان 2.97 2.92 1.14 4.44 2.50 3.82 Authoritarian Asia
=144 كازاخستان كازاخستان 2.94 0.50 2.14 4.44 4.38 3.24 Authoritarian Europe
Flag of Russia.svg روسيا 2.94 2.17 1.79 5.00 2.50 3.24 Authoritarian Europe
146 جيبوتي جيبوتي 2.87 0.42 1.79 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
147 Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg الإمارات العربية 2.76 0.00 3.93 2.22 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian Asia
148 البحرين البحرين 2.71 0.83 3.21 2.78 4.38 2.35 Authoritarian Asia
149 أذربيجان أذربيجان 2.65 0.50 2.14 3.33 3.75 3.53 Authoritarian Europe
150 إيران إيران 2.45 0.00 3.21 4.44 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
=151 Flag of Eritrea.svg إرتريا 2.37 0.00 2.14 1.67 6.88 1.18 Authoritarian Africa
Flag of Laos.svg لاوس 2.37 0.83 2.86 1.67 5.00 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
153 Flag of Burundi.svg بوروندي 2.33 0.00 0.43 3.89 5.00 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
154 Flag of Libya.svg ليبيا 2.19 1.00 0.36 1.67 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
155 السودان السودان 2.15 0.00 1.79 2.78 5.00 1.18 Authoritarian Africa
156 أوزبكستان أوزبكستان 2.01 0.08 1.86 2.22 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
157 غينيا بيساو غينيا بيساو 1.98 1.67 0.00 2.78 3.13 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
158  اليمن 1.95 0.00 0.00 3.89 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
=159 Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg السعودية 1.93 0.00 2.86 2.22 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
طاجيكستان طاجيكستان 1.93 0.08 0.79 1.67 6.25 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
161  غينيا الإستوائية 1.92 0.00 0.43 3.33 4.38 1.47 Authoritarian Africa
162 ترکمنستان ترکمنستان 1.72 0.00 0.79 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian Asia
163 تشاد تشاد 1.61 0.00 0.00 1.67 3.75 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
164 Flag of the Central African Republic.svg أفريقيا الوسطى 1.52 2.25 0.00 1.11 1.88 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
165  الكونغو الديمقراطية 1.49 0.50 0.71 2.22 3.13 0.88 Authoritarian Africa
166 سوريا سوريا 1.43 0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00 Authoritarian Asia
167 Flag of North Korea.svg كوريا الشمالية 1.08 0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00 Authoritarian Asia
Rank Country Score Elec­toral process
and plura­lism
Functio­ning of
govern­ment
Poli­tical
partici­pation
Poli­tical
culture
Civil
liber­ties
Regime
type


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التغييرات الأخيرة

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[2] its score, which had been declining for some years, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report states that this was caused by a myriad of factors dating back to at least the late 1960s which have eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[2][3][4]

The 2017 Democracy index registered the worst year for global democracy since 2010–11. Asia was the worst-performing region overall. Venezuela was downgraded from a "hybrid regime" to an "authoritarian regime".

Australia (ranked 8th) and Taiwan (ranked 33rd) both legalised same-sex marriage in 2017. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, further entrenched his power by writing his contribution to the Chinese Communist Party’s ideology, dubbed "Xi Jinping Thought", into the party's constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a "flawed democracy" to a "hybrid regime" as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia was reupgraded from an "authoritarian regime" to a "hybrid regime"[5] as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[6]

نقد

The Democracy Index has been criticized for lacking transparency and accountability beyond the numbers. To generate the index, the Economist Intelligence Unit has a scoring system in which various experts are asked to answer 60 questions and assign each reply a number, with the weighted average deciding the ranking. However, the final report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts.[7]

مؤشر الديمقراطية حسب نوع النظام

The following table gives the number and percentage of countries and the percentage of the world population for each regime type in 2018:[1]

Type of regime Score (s) Number of
countries
Percentage
of countries
Percentage of
world population
Full democracies 8 < s 20 12.0 4.5
Flawed democracies 6 < s ≤ 8 55 32.9 43.2
Hybrid regimes 4 < s ≤ 6 39 23.4 16.7
Authoritarian regimes s ≤ 4 53 31.7 35.6

World population refers to the total population of the 167 countries covered by the Index. Since this excludes only microstates, this is nearly equal to the entire estimated world population.

مؤشر الديمقراطية حسب المنطقة

The following table gives the index average by world region, and the number of covered countries in 2017. Note that some regional groups (e.g. Eastern Europe and Asia and Australasia) are very heterogeneous and composed of full democracies as well as authoritarian regimes:

Rank Region Countries 2006[8] 2008[9] 2010[10] 2011[11] 2012[12] 2013[13] 2014[14] 2015[15] 2016[16] 2017[17] 2018[1]
1 Northern America 2 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.56 8.56 8.56 8.56
2 Western Europe 21 8.60 8.61 8.45 8.40 8.44 8.41 8.41 8.42 8.40 8.38 8.35
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 6.37 6.43 6.37 6.35 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.37 6.33 6.26 6.24
4 Asia and Australasia 28 5.44 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.56 5.61 5.70 5.74 5.74 5.63 5.67
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.76 5.67 5.55 5.50 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.55 5.43 5.40 5.42
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.24 4.28 4.23 4.32 4.33 4.36 4.34 4.38 4.37 4.35 4.36
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 3.54 3.48 3.52 3.62 3.73 3.68 3.65 3.58 3.56 3.54 3.54
  World 167 5.52 5.55 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.53 5.55 5.55 5.52 5.48 5.48

أنظر أيضا

ملاحظات

المصادر

  1. ^ أ ب ت The Economist Intelligence Unit (8 January 2019). "Democracy Index 2018: Me Too?". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 13 January 2019. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |dead-url= (help)
  2. ^ أ ب Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  3. ^ Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com.
  4. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Democracy Index 2017". www.eiu.com (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  6. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 : Free Speech Under Attack" (PDF). www.eiu.com. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  7. ^ "Peter Tasker: The flawed 'science' behind democracy rankings". asia.nikkei.com (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  8. ^ Laza Kekic, director, country forecasting services (15 November 2006). "The Economist Intelligence Unit's index of democracy" (PDF). The World in 2007. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  10. ^ "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  11. ^ "Democracy index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  12. ^ "Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  13. ^ "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 31 January 2018.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Politics country lists

الكلمات الدالة: