افتح القائمة الرئيسية

پونتياناك، كليمنتن الغربية

(تم التحويل من Pontianak, Indonesia)

Pontianak is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, founded by Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie as a capital of Sultanate of Kadriyah on 23 October 1771 / 14 Rajab 1185 AH. Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie developed Pontianak as a trading port on the island of Borneo, occupying an area of 107.82 km² in the delta of the Kapuas River. It is located on the equator, hence it is widely known as Kota Khatulistiwa (Equatorial City). The city center is less than 3 kiloمترs (2 ميل) south of the equator. Pontianak is the 26th largest city in Indonesia in terms of population, as well as the fifth largest city on the island of Borneo (Kalimantan) in terms of population after Samarinda, Banjarmasin, Kuching and Balikpapan.

Pontianak
City of Pontianak
Kota Pontianak
الكتابة بـOther
 • Chinese坤甸
 • Jawiڤونتيناك
From top, left to right: Shopping complex in Pontianak, The Pontianak Equatorial Monument, Some of the official government buildings, Traditional Malay House, Traditional Borneo birds sculpture, Road gate of Pontianak city, Enggang Badak sculpture.
From top, left to right:
Shopping complex in Pontianak, The Pontianak Equatorial Monument, Some of the official government buildings, Traditional Malay House, Traditional Borneo birds sculpture, Road gate of Pontianak city, Enggang Badak sculpture.
Official seal of Pontianak
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Kota Khatulistiwa (Equatorial City)
الشعار الحادي: 
Pontianak Bersinar (Pontianak Shines)
Location within West Kalimantan
Location within West Kalimantan
Pontianak is located in Kalimantan
Pontianak
Pontianak
Pontianak is located in إندونيسيا
Pontianak
Pontianak
Location in Kalimantan and Indonesia
الإحداثيات: 00°01′14″S 109°20′29″E / 0.02056°S 109.34139°E / -0.02056; 109.34139Coordinates: 00°01′14″S 109°20′29″E / 0.02056°S 109.34139°E / -0.02056; 109.34139
CountryFlag of Indonesia.svg اندونيسيا
RegionKalimantan
ProvinceCoat of arms of West Kalimantan.svg West Kalimantan
Founded by the Sultanate of Pontianak23 October 1771
Settled by the Dutch5 July 1779
Granted municipality status1953
Granted city status31 December 1965
الحكم
 • النوعCity Government
 • MayorEdi Rusdi Kamtono
 • Vice MayorBahasan
المساحة
 • City of Pontianak107٫82 كم² (41٫63 ميل²)
الارتفاع1 m (3 ft)
أعلى ارتفاع1٫5 m (4٫9 ft)
أوطى ارتفاع0٫8 m (2٫6 ft)
التعداد(2014)
 • City of Pontianak573٬751
 • الكثافة5٬300/km2 (14٬000/sq mi)
 • DemonymOrang Pontianak
منطقة التوقيتIWST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+7)
 • الصيفيNot observed (UTC+7)
Area code(+62) 561
Vehicle registrationKB
HDI (2018) 0.786 (High)[1]
الموقع الإلكترونيpontianakkota.go.id
پونتياناك، كليمنتن الغربية
اسم صيني
بالصينية 坤甸
اسم Jawi
[[Jawi (لغة)|Jawi]] كوت بونتياناك

The city was founded as a small Malay fishing village at the bank of the Kapuas River. It then became the seat of the Pontianak Sultanate for several centuries. Pontianak was then incorporated into the Dutch East Indies after an agreement between the Pontianak Sultanate and the Dutch Government. During the colonial era, Pontianak was the seat of the Residentie Westerafdeeling van Borneo, one of the residencies of the Dutch East Indies. When the Japanese occupied the Dutch East Indies, Pontianak became the site of the Pontianak massacre, in which many Malay aristocrats and sultans as well as people from other ethnic groups were massacred by the Imperial Japanese Army, especially in the Massacre of Mandor (Holocaust of Mandor).

After the Japanese surrendered, Pontianak became part of the Republic of Indonesia and was designated as the capital city of the province of West Kalimantan.

Pontianak is a multicultural city, as different ethnic groups such as the Dayak, Malay, Bugis people, and Chinese live in the city, with some transmigrant such as Javanese, Madura people, Bataks, Ambon people, Papuan transmigrants, Manado people, etc. This has created a unique culture that can not be found in other parts of Indonesia. Different languages are spoken in Pontianak, such as Pontianak Malay, Dayak language and different dialects of Chinese and some varieties of Malays, Dayaks, Javanese, Bataks, Bugis, etc.

Pontianak is connected by air to other cities of Indonesia as well as some cities in Malaysia such as Kuala Lumpur and Kuching. Well paved roads connect Pontianak to other towns such as Ketapang and Singkawang as well as other provinces. As Pontianak lies on the Trans Kalimantan Highway, it is possible to travel to East Malaysia and Brunei by land using the Trans Kalimantan Highway. Several bus routes operate from Pontianak to Kuching in Malaysia and Bandar Seri Begawan in Brunei.

پونتياناك Pontianak : مدينة في إندونيسيا تقع غرب جزيرة بورنيو نهاية النهر,

وكلمة پونتياناك في ثقافة الملايو هي في العادة امرأة تعتبر من الأشباح مصاصي الدماء كانت قد توفيت وهي طفلة وأصبحت فيما بعد من الأشخاص الذين لا يموتون. تظهر عادة على أنها امرأة جميلة تدفعك إلى التوقف لأجلها على جادة الطريق من ثم تقوم بقتلك.

ومن تلك الأساطير تم تأليف الكثير من القصص والأفلام الرعب وحتي المضحكة

ولأن المدينة كانت عاصمة سلطنة بونتياناك والإسم مرتبط بطفلة الشبح,

فيقام مهرجانات سنوية إحتفالية إستعراضية مرتبطة بالأشباح,

أما المدينة فهي هادئة وجميلة ,

وبها الكثير من المأكولات الخاصة كالمأكولات البحرية والمملحة,

وبها قنصلية ماليزية


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فهرست

التاريخ

 
Pontianak, around 1920


 
Sultan Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie of Pontianak and Family, circa 1920


Climate

Pontianak features a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification (Af) with no distinct seasons at all. The city experiences a large amount of rainfall throughout the year, averaging 3,210 mم (10.53 قدم) of precipitation annually. Only in the month of August does the average monthly precipitation fall below 200 mم (7 78 بوصة). Temperatures are consistent throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures of 30 °م (86 °ف) and average low temperatures of 23 °م (73 °ف).

بيانات مناخ Pontianak
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 32.4
(90.3)
32.7
(90.9)
32.9
(91.2)
33.2
(91.8)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
32.9
(91.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.6
(90.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.2
(90)
32.0
(89.6)
32٫7
(90٫9)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
28.0
(82.4)
28.2
(82.8)
28.2
(82.8)
28.2
(82.8)
27.7
(81.9)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.2
(81)
27٫7
(81٫9)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 22.7
(72.9)
22.6
(72.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.1
(73.6)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
22.8
(73)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
22٫7
(72٫9)
هطول mm (inches) 260
(10.24)
215
(8.46)
254
(10)
292
(11.5)
256
(10.08)
212
(8.35)
201
(7.91)
180
(7.09)
295
(11.61)
329
(12.95)
400
(15.75)
302
(11.89)
3٬196
(125٫83)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15 13 21 22 20 18 16 14 25 27 25 22 238
Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN)[2]


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Administrative divisions

Pontianak City comprises six administrative districts (kecamatan), listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census:[3]

Demographics

The 2010 census enumerated Pontianak's population at 554,764; the latest official estimate (from January 2014) is 573,751.[4] Population is an important element in urban and regional planning. In the funding, the elements of the population among others are needed to calculate the land needs, the needs of facilities and utilities of a region, predict the movement of transportation, and provide an overview of the characteristics of a region. Important aspects of the population in its link with planning are population size, population distribution and population composition.

Researchers conducted research on population data in the city of Pontianak during the last 2 years i.e., 2010 - 2015 collected by the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) Pontianak by accessing the data online. According to the data obtained, Population Growth Rate in Pontianak City in the period of 1990-2000 is 0.7 percent per year, while for the period 2000-2010 increased to 1.8 percent per year.

Ethnicities

The population of Pontianak is predominantly ethnic Malays and Chinese. In addition there are also ethnic Dayak, Javanese, Bugis, Madurese, Arabic, Sundanese, Banjar, Batak, Minangkabau and others. Intermarriage between different ethnic groups is not uncommon in Pontianak.

Ethnic groups in Pontianak, 2015
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Chinese 190,485 33.20%
Malay 167,246 29.15%
Dayak 75,218 13.11%
Javanese 61,620 10.74%
Bugis 36,720 6.40%
Madurese 35,859 6.25%
Others 6,598 1.15%

One of the main differences compared to other cities is Indonesia is that Pontianak is one of the few cities that has Chinese Indonesian in a significant percentage. The Chinese have lived in Pontianak for centuries. Most of the Chinese had already passed by west Borneo from the third century for last sailing rest point before returning to China, and starting from the 7th century a lot of Chinese had started trading the area of west Borneo. Apart from the Chinese traders, in the 17th century, Dutch colonization brought in mass Chinese for mining gold. Most of these Chinese miners originated from the provinces Fujian or Guangdong. The two largest sub-groups of the Pontianak Chinese are the Teochew and Hakka. The Teochew people are from the northeastern coast of Guangdong and Hakka people from the interior of Fujian come to West Kalimantan with the use of the same language. The Hakka people are pioneer groups living in villages and mining areas to work as miners, farming and also becoming small traders. This is in contrast to the Teochew people who prefer to live in urban areas to trade, even now the Teochew people forms the largest ethnic Chinese population in the city of Pontianak and south of Pontianak. The Hakka people mostly live in the northern area of Pontianak.

The second largest ethnic group in Pontianak is the Malay people. The Pontianak Malay are one of the early inhabitants of the city. Pontianak was the seat of the Pontianak Sultanate, a great Malay kingdom for centuries. The Malay people mostly live on the bank of the Kapuas River and other rivers in Pontianak. They also live in coastal areas of the city. Most of the Pontianak Malay work as traders, government officials, and in other jobs.

Other significant ethnic groups living in Pontianak are the Dayak, Bugis, Madurese and Javanese. Most of the Dayak living in Pontianak are the indigenous / native people of the interior part of West Kalimantan. Some of the Dayak still practice animism, which involves traditional rituals and dances. However, most of the Dayaks have converted to Christianity and are more urbanized. The Bugis, Javanese and Madurese are immigrants from other parts of Indonesia. They migrated to Pontianak due to the Transmigration program enacted by the Dutch and continued during the New Order. Conflicts often erupted between the Madurese and the Dayak.

Language

Indonesian is the official language of Pontianak as well as other parts of Indonesia. All road signs and documents issued by the city government should be written in Indonesian. The native language and main lingua franca of the city is Pontianak Malay, a distinct variety of Malay that is closely related to Sarawak Malay in neighbouring Sarawak, Malaysia as well as Johor-Riau Malay in Malaysia, Riau and Riau Islands in Indonesia and Singapore. The main differences between Pontianak Malay and Indonesian is that they use "Kamek" instead of "Kami" and "Kitak" instead of "Kalian". However, many people in the city also use Indonesian as their second language.

The other prevailing language in Pontianak is the Chinese language. Several varieties of Chinese exists in Pontianak, the most notably being Teochew and Hakka. Teochew is a variant of Southern Min originated from Guangdong. It is mutually intelligible with Hokkien. Teochew are mostly spoken in central to the southern part of the city, as well as suburbs south of the city. Hakka are spoken at the northern part of the city, as well as in suburbs north of the city. There are more Teochew speakers then Hakka speakers in Pontianak. These varieties of Chinese has been influenced by other languages such as Malay, Indonesian and other languages. They have incorporated words from Indonesian and other languages. Therefore, original speakers in China may find it difficult communication using Teochew and Hakka with the people from Pontianak. Other Chinese variants such as the Cantonese and Hokkien are also spoken by only small numbers of the population.

Other languages such as the Javanese, Madurese, Buginese and different dialects of Dayak are also spoken.


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Religion

 
The Chinese Dharma Bhakti buddhist temple in Jalan Tanjung Pura, Pontianak

The majority of the population are Muslims (63.4%), the rest are Buddhists (20.2%), Catholics (9.1%), Protestants (3.2%), Confucians (1.3%), Hindus (0.1%), and others (0.1%).[5] Most of the Muslims are the Malay, Javanese, Madurese, etc. While most of the people who adheres Buddhism and Confucianism are Chinese Indonesian, many Chinese adhere to Christianity. The Dayak people adheres to either Catholicism or Protestantism, while also incorporating local beliefs. Some of the Dayak also adheres to Kaharingan, a local folk religion. However, the Indonesian government does not recognize Kaharingan as a religion and therefore classifies those who adheres to Kaharingan as Hindus.

Several places of worship are located in Pontianak, such as the Jami Mosque of Pontianak, which is considered the great mosque of Pontianak. Located in the complex of the palace of the former Pontianak Sultanate, this mosque is the oldest mosque and is one of the two buildings that witnessed the establishment of the city of Pontianak. At first, this mosque was also used as a center of government for the Sultanate of Pontianak. The name of this mosque was given by Syarif Usman Alkadri who is the son of Sultan Sharif Abdurrahman, who continued the construction of the mosque until it was completed.

Other places of worship are the Cathedral of Saint Joseph, Pura Giripati Mulawarman, Vihara Budhisatva Karaniya Metta, and the Pontianak Congregation of West Kalimantan Christian Church. Some of these have existed since the Dutch colonial era, while some are constructed by the Indonesian government.

الاقتصاد

ترتبط المدينة بعدة طرق برية بالمدن المجاورة,

وترتبط بالعالم عن طريق مطار سوباديو Supadio Airport,

وبها ميناء سينغي البحري نهاية إحدي فروع دلتا نهر كابواس

المدن الشقيقة

Pontianak has sister relationships with these cities:

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Indeks Pembangunan Manusia Kota Pontianak, Badan Pusat Statistik, 2018
  2. ^ "Weather Information for Pontianak".
  3. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 December 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Peringatan". sp2010.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2018-02-15.

وصلات خارجية

  • Official website
  •   [[voy:Pontianak#خطأ لوا في وحدة:Wikidata على السطر 863: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).|Pontianak]] travel guide from Wikivoyage

قالب:Pontianak قالب:West Kalimantan