ملايو (شعب)

(تم التحويل من Malays (ethnic group))

الملايو (مالاي: Orang Melayu، بالجاوية: أورڠ ملايو)، هي جماعة عرقية من الشعوب الأسترونسية والتي تستوطن شبه جزيرة الملايو، شرق سومطرة وبرونيو الساحلية، وكذلك بعض الجزر الأصغر والتي تقع بين هذه المواقع-المناطق التي تعرف مجتمعة بعالم الملايو. هذه المناطق تعتبر اليوم جزءاً من دول ماليزيا، أستراليا، إندونسيا، بروناي، سنغافورة، وجنوب تايلاند.

الملايو
Malays
Orang Melayu
أورڠ ملايو
Malay couple.jpg
زوجان من الملايو في حفل زواج تقليدي.
المناطق ذات التجمعات المعتبرة
ماليزيا ماليزيا: 14,749,378[1]
بروناي بروناي: 261,902[2]
المنطقة الأصلية.
إندونيسيا إندونسيا5,365,399[3]
تايلند تايلاند1,964,384[4]
سنغافورة سنغافورة653,449[5]
ميانمار ميانمار~27,000[6]
الشتات.
جنوب أفريقيا جنوب أفريقيا~200,000[7][1]
سريلانكا سريلانكا40,189[8][2]
أستراليا أستراليا33,183[9]
المملكة المتحدة المملكة المتحدة~33,000[10]
اللغات
Official: اللهجات: Others:
الدين
Star and Crescent.svg الإسلام

^ note: Highly naturalised population of mixed origins, but using the 'Malay' identity


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التسمية

 
Joget dance from the Malacca Sultanate; many aspects of Malay culture are derived from the Malaccan court.


 
Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds in Jambi, historically linked to the pre-Islamic Melayu Kingdom.



الأصول

أنماط ما قبل الملايو



التاريخ

النفوذ الهندوسي :

 
Early Malayic and pre-Malayic-speaking areas, classical kingdoms and urban settlements preceding the rise of Srivijaya in the 7th century and prior to the eastward Malay cultural expansion to the shores of Borneo. It also can be witnessed that the historical forebears of Minangkabaus, eastern Acehnese and Southern Thais were of Malay origin during this era.


 
Chedi Phra Borommathat, a stupa located in Nakhon Si Thammarat, تايلند. Once a centre of Buddhist teaching and learning, it was built in the early 13th century and witnessed the rise and fall of Tambralinga, a powerful Buddhist-Malay kingdom that managed to conquer Jaffna kingdom in Sri Lanka. Constructed as a religious monument for Mahayana Buddhism, which was historically followed by a portion of pre-Islamic Malays, this stupa stands today as a major religious site for Thai, Theravada Buddhist pilgrims. The temple complex is believed to hold ancient relics of Buddha brought from Sri Lanka during the conquest of Jaffna in 1247.


 
The Buddhist maritime empire of Srivijaya, the first vast Malay polity in the region


دخول الإسلام

 
The extent of the Malaccan Sultanate in the 15th century. This was a powerful empire that has effectively molded the Malay-Muslim socio-cultural identity until this day.


 
The reigning elite of the Riau-Lingga Sultanate, together with the Sultan (being seated, in the middle) as depicted in this photograph taken in 1867. The administrative class of Riau-Lingga are known to be strict adherents of Sufi Tariqa, this resulted various laws and legal enactments based on Islamic principles to be strictly observed throughout the kingdom. The sultanate would be abolished under the Dutch powers in almost half a century after the image was taken, in 1911



الاستعمار

 
The Malay Rulers and nobilities with British colonial officers during the first Durbar, 1897.


 
Tuan Lebeh Long Raya (seated, in the middle) in 1899, the Raja Muda (crown prince) of the Reman Sultanate. A kingdom in the northern Malay Peninsula made wealthy by tin mining, the State of Reman was abolished by the Rattanakosin Kingdom alongside various other Malay kingdoms that revolted for independence in the early 20th century including Pattani, Saiburi, Nongchik, Yaring, Yala, Legeh and Teluban.




القومية الملاوية

 
The bronze mural of the legendary Malay warrior, Hang Tuah with his renowned quote Ta' Melayu Hilang Di-Dunia (Malay for "Never shall the Malays vanish from the face of the earth") written on the top. The quote is a famous rallying cry for Malay nationalism.[11][12]
 
Federation of Malaya's commemorative stamp issued in 1957. The semi-independent federation was formed in 1948 from nine Malay states and two British Straits Settlements. It achieved independence in 1957.


 
Supporters of Negara Soematra Timoer (State of East Sumatra) that sought to maintain the monarchy system in post-World War II Dutch-established territory of East Sumatra. The state was headed by a president, Dr. Tengku Mansur, a member of Asahan royal family. Both the state and the traditional Malay monarchy institution in East Sumatra dissolved following her merger into the newly formed unitarian Republic of Indonesia in 1950. (image taken c. 1947–1950)



الثقافة

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اللغة

 
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription written in Pallava script. Dating back from 683, it is one of the oldest surviving Malay written artefact.




الأدب

 
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa in Jawi text. Also known as the Kedah Annals, it is an ancient Malay literature that chronicles the bloodline of Merong Mahawangsa and the foundation of Kedah.
مقال رئيسيs: أدب ملاوي and فلكلور ملاوي




الديانة

 
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei on the eve of Ramadhan. The wealthy kingdom adopted Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy) as the national philosophy since its independence in 1984.



العمارة

 
The replica of Malacca Sultanate's palace which was built from information and data obtained from the Malay Annals. This historical document had references to the construction and the architecture of palaces during the era of Sultan Mansur Shah, who ruled from 1458 to 1477.
 
Anjung Seni Idrus Tintin in Pekanbaru, Riau. A major performing arts centre in Indonesia.




الفنون البصرية

المطبخ

مقال رئيسي: مطبخ ملاوي


الفنون التطبيقية

 
A troupe of Siamese Malay dancers performing the Mak Yong during the reign of King Rama V of Siam (c. 19th century), a dance theatre that owes its origin from the Pattani and Kelantanese palace courts. In 2005, it received recognition as being among the masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity by UNESCO.



الزي التقليدي

 
أطفال ملاويون يرتدون الزي التقليدي أثناء عيد الفطر.
مقال رئيسيs: Baju Melayu and Baju Kurung



الفنون القتالية

مقال رئيسيs: Silat and Silat Melayu


الألعاب التقليدية

 
A Wau-maker's workshop in Kelantan, Malaysia.


 
A close-up to two Malay style Gasings.



الأسماء والألقاب


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الجماعات العرقية الفرعية

 
Ethnic Malays among other ethnic groups in Indonesia. Although only constituting 3.4% of total population, ethnic Malays are one of the most widely distributed ethnicities in Indonesia. The realm of Malays is described in green and other related sub-ethnic groups are rendered in darker or lighter green. Malay ethnic groups are depicted to inhabit eastern coast of Sumatra and coastal Kalimantan. Outside the Indonesian Archipelago in white, the Malay people inhabit the Malay Peninsular, forming the dominant ethnic group in Peninsular Malaysia and significant minority in Singapore, Thailand and southern Myanmar. While the eastern core of Bornean Malay territories beginning north from southwestern Sabah, Brunei, coastal Sarawak and continuing down to the green shaded shores of Kalimantan.[13]
الجماعة العرقية الممالك التاريخية مناطق ذات كثافة سكانية
Bangka-Belitung Malay   Bangka–Belitung Islands
Bangkok Malay[14][15]   Min Buri, Nong Chok   Lam Luk Ka, Mueang Pathum
  Ayutthaya Province
Bengkulu Malay   Bengkulu
Berau Malays
  • Berau Sultanate (1377–1830)
  • Gunung Tabur Sultanate (1810–1945)
  • Sambaliung Sultanate (1810–1945)
  Berau Regency
Bruneian Malay[16][17][18][19]   بروناي
  لابوان,   سرواك,   صباح
Buginese Malay[20][21]
Assimilated Malay group of Bugis descent
  سلانغور دار الإحسان,   جوهر دار التعظيم,   پهنگ دار المعمور,   پيرق دار الرضوان
  Riau,   Riau Islands,
  سنغافورة
Cape Malay   Western Cape,   Gauteng
Cocos Malays   جزر كوكس،   صباح
Deli Malay   North Sumatra
Jambi Malay   Jambi
Javanese Malay[20][21]
Assimilated Malay group of Javanese descent
  سلانغور دار الإحسان,   پيرق دار الرضوان,   جوهر دار التعظيم,

  South Sumatra,   North Sumatra,
  سنغافورة

Johorean Malay[17][18][19]   جوهر دار التعظيم
Kedahan Malay[17][18][19][23]   قدح دار الأمان,   پرليس,   پنانگ,   پيرق دار الرضوان
  Satun,   Trang,   Krabi,   Phuket,   Phang Nga
  Ranong,   Nakhon Si Thammarat,   Phattalung
  Songkhla,   Yala
  Tanintharyi Division
Kelantanese Malay[17][18][19]   كلنتن دار النعيم,   ترنجانو دار الإيمان
Loloan Malay   Jembrana Regency
Malaccan Malay[17][18][19]   ملاك دار العظيم
Minangkabau Malay[20][21]
Assimilated Malay group of Minangkabau descent
  نگري سمبيلن دار الخصوص,   سلانغور دار الإحسان,   جوهر دار التعظيم,   پيرق دار الرضوان
  Riau,   Riau Islands,
  سنغافورة
Pahang Malay[17][18][19]   پهنگ دار المعمور
Palembang Malay   South Sumatra
Pattani Malay[17][18][19]

  Pattani,   Yala,   Narathiwat,   Songkhla,   Krabi
  قدح دار الأمان,   كلنتن دار النعيم,   پيرق دار الرضوان

Perakian Malay[17][18][19]   پيرق دار الرضوان
Pontianak Malay   West Kalimantan
Riau Malay
  • Bintan Sultanate
  • Kuntu Kampar Sultanate (1234–1933)
  • Indragiri Sultanate (1298–1945)
  • Rokan Sultanate (1569–1940)
  • Pelalawan Sultanate (1791–1946)
  • Riau-Lingga Sultanate (1824–1911)
  Riau,   Riau Islands,   Limapuluh Koto,   Pasaman
Sarawakian Malay
  • Sarawak Sultanate (1598–1641)
  سرواك
Malay Singaporeans   سنغافورة
Sri Lankan Malays   سريلانكا
Tamiang Malay
  • Bukit Karang Kingdom (1023–1330)
  • Benua Tamiang Sultanate (1330–1528)
  Aceh Tamiang Regency
Terengganuan Malay[17][18][19]   ترنجانو دار الإيمان

انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  1. ^ Economic Planning Unit (Malaysia) 2010
  2. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة CIA (B)
  3. ^ Badan Pusat Statistika Indonesia 2010, p. 9
  4. ^ World Population Review 2015
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook 2012
  6. ^ Malay in Myanmar - Joshua Project
  7. ^ Malay, Cape in South Africa - Joshua Project
  8. ^ Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka - Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012
  9. ^ Australia - Ancestry
  10. ^ Malay in United Kingdom - Joshua Project
  11. ^ Tan 1988, p. 14
  12. ^ Chew 1999, p. 78
  13. ^ In search of Brunei Malays outside Brunei
  14. ^ Umaiyah Haji Omar 2003
  15. ^ Umaiyah Haji Omar 2007
  16. ^ IBP USA 2007, pp. 151–152
  17. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ Colling 1973, p. 6804
  18. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ Mohd. Aris Hj. Othman 1983, pp. 1–26
  19. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ M. G. Husain 2007, pp. 16, 33, 34
  20. ^ أ ب ت Gulrose Karim 1990, p. 74
  21. ^ أ ب ت Joseph & Najmabadi 2006, p. 436
  22. ^ "Mempawah Sultanate<". Melaju Online.
  23. ^ Majlis Kebudayaan Negeri Kedah 1986, pp. 19–69
  24. ^ "Setoi (Setul) Mambang Segara Dalam Lintasan Sejarah Negeri-Negeri Melayu Utara". Jurnal Perspektif Jil. 8 Bil. 2(123-134).
  25. ^ Nik Anuar 1999, p. 39
  26. ^ Nik Anuar 1999, p. 39
  27. ^ Nik Anuar 1999, p. 39
  28. ^ Nik Anuar 1999, p. 39
  29. ^ Nik Anuar 1999, p. 39

المراجع