افتح القائمة الرئيسية

اللغة الإندونيسية

(تم التحويل من لغة إندونيسية)

اللغة الإندونيسية (bahasa Indonesia [baˈha.sa in.doˈne.sja]) هي اللغة الرسمية لإندونيسيا. تعتبر اللغة الإندونيسية لهجة قياسية للغة الملايو اعترف بذلك رسمياً بعد إعلان الاستقلال الإندونيسي في عام 1945، واللغتان تبقيان متشابهتان بشكل كبير.

Indonesian
bahasa Indonesia
النطق[baˈha.sa in.doˈne.sja]
موطنهاIndonesia
الناطقون الأصليون
43 million (2010 census)[1]
L2 speakers: 156 million (2010 census)[1]
Latin (Indonesian alphabet)
Indonesian Braille
BISINDO, SIBI
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
 إندونيسيا
 آسيان
لغة أقلية
معترف بها في
ينظمهاBadan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1id
ISO 639-2ind
ISO 639-3ind
Glottologindo1316[3]
Linguasphere31-MFA-ac
Indonesian Language Map.svg
██ Countries of the world where Indonesian is a majority native language ██ Countries where Indonesian is a minority language
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

عدد المتحدثين باللغة الإندونيسية كلغة أم هو 17 إلى 30 مليون. يستخدم اللغة الإندونيسية سكان إندونيسيا الذي يعتبرونها لغة ثانية بعد لغاتهم الأم المحلية (كاللغة الجاوية واللغة المينانغكاباوية)، ولكن اللغة التي يستخدمها أغلب الجهات الرسمية والتعليمية والإعلام في إندونيسيا هي اللغة الإندونيسية. الاسم المحلي للغة الإندونيسية هو "باهاسا إندونيسيا" (Bahasa Indonesia) بمعنى "لغة إندونيسيا". الاسم "باهاسا" بحد ذاته لا يعني اللغة الإندونيسية بل يعني "لغة". في حين اللغة الإندونيسية اللغة الرسمية لإندونيسيا، تستخدم اللغة أيضاً في تيمور الشرقية. تستخدم اللغة الإندونيسية الأبجدية اللاتينية في الكتابة.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

فهرست

التاريخ

عصر الممالك المبكرة

 
Rencong alphabet, native writing systems found in central and جنوب سومطرة وشبه جزيرة الملايو. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (in modern Malay "Aku menangis, menyerukan engkau, kaudiseru, tiada datang [itu adik satu]").
 
Kedukan Bukit Inscription, written in Pallava script, is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in جنوب سومطرة، إندونيسيا.


الملايو القديمة كـlingua franca

عصر الاستعمار الهولندي

مولد اللغة الإندونيسية

 
Volksraad session held in July 1938 in Jakarta, where Indonesian was formally used for the first time by Jahja Datoek Kajo.


اتخاذها لغة وطنية

 
The Pledge was the result of second Youth Pledge held in Batavia in October 1928. On the last pledge, there was an affirmation of Indonesian language as a unifying language في أرجاء الأرخبيل.



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الإندونيسية الحديثة والدارجة

 
Road-signs in an airport terminal
 
Toll gate in Indonesia
 
Indonesian language used on a bus advertisement


التبويب واللغات ذات الصلة

Indonesian is one of the many varieties of Malay. Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast.[4] A form known as Proto-Malay language was spoken in Borneo at least by 1000 BCE and was, it has been argued, the ancestral language of all subsequent Malayan languages. Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language, began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan.[5] Indonesian, which originated from Malay, is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages from Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, with a smaller number in continental Asia. It has very high mutual intelligibility with the Malay register in Malaysia, which is officially known there as Bahasa Malaysia. The similarities are comparable to those between British English and American English.

Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean; the Philippines national language, Filipino; and the native language of New Zealanders, Māori language are also members of this language family. Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian language. There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.

الأعداد في اللغات الأسترونيزية
اللغة 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PAN, 4000ح. 4000 BCE *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq
Amis cecay tusa tulu sepat lima enem pitu falu siwa pulu'
Rukai itha drusa tulru supate lrima eneme pitu valru bangate pulruku
Tsou coni yuso tuyu sʉptʉ eimo nomʉ pitu voyu sio maskʉ
Tagalog isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu
Ilocano maysá dua talló uppát limá inném pitó waló siam sangapúlo
Cebuano usá duhá tuló upat limá unom pitó waló siyám napulu
Chamorro maisa/håcha hugua tulu fatfat lima gunum fiti guålu sigua månot/fulu
Malagasy iray roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo
Batak sada dua tolu opat lima onom pitu walu sia sapuluh
Malay/Indonesian satu dua tiga empat lima enam tujuh lapan/delapan sembilan sepuluh
Minangkabau ciek duo tigo ampek limo anam tujuah salapan sambilan sapuluah
Rejang[6] do duai tlau pat lêmo num tujuak dêlapên sêmbilan sêpuluak
Javanese siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga sepuluh
Tetun ida rua tolu hat lima nen hitu ualu sia sanulu
Fijian dua rua tolu lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini
Kiribati teuana uoua teniua aua nimaua onoua itiua waniua ruaiua tebuina
Tongan taha ua tolu nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu
Sāmoan tasi lua tolu lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu
Māori tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau (archaic: ngahuru)
Tahitian hō'ē piti toru maha pae ōno hitu va'u iva 'ahuru
Marquesan tahi 'ua to'u 'ima ono hitu va'u iva 'ahu'u
Leeward Islands (Society Islands) language tahi rua toru rima ono fitu varu iva 'ahuru
Hawaiian kahi lua kolu lima ono hiku walu iwa -'umi


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Official status

 
Indonesian is also the language of Indonesian mass media, such as magazines. Printed and broadcast mass media are encouraged to use proper Indonesian, although more relaxed popular slang often prevails.
 
Warning sign in Indonesia

Phonology

Vowels

It is usually said that there are six vowels in Indonesian.[7] These six vowels are shown in the table below. However, other analyses set up a system with other vowels, particularly the open-mid vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/.[8]

Table of vowel phonemes of Indonesian
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e ə o
Open-mid (ɛ) (ɔ)
Open a

In standard Indonesian orthography, the Latin alphabet is used, and five vowels are distinguished: a, i, u, e, o. In materials for learners, the mid-front vowel /e/ is sometimes represented with a diacritic as é to distinguish it from the mid-central vowel /ə/.

Diphthongs

Indonesian has four native diphthong phonemes only in open syllables[9], they are:

  • /ai̯/: kedai ('shop'), pandai ('clever')
  • /au̯/: kerbau ('buffalo'), limau ('lemon')
  • /oi̯/ (or /ʊi̯/ in Indonesian): dodoi, amboi
  • /ei̯/: survei ('survey')

Some analyses assume that these diphthongs are actually a monophthong followed by an approximant, so ai represents /aj/, au represents /aw/, and oi represents /oj/. On this basis, there are no phonological diphthongs in Indonesian.[10]

Diphthongs are differentiated from two vowels in two syllables, such as:

  • /a.i/: e.g. lain ('other') [la.in], air ('water') [a.ir]
  • /a.u/: bau ('smell') [ba.u], laut ('sea') [la.ut]

Consonants

Indonesian consonant phonemes
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive/Affricate voiceless p t t͡ʃ k (ʔ)
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless (f) s (ʃ) (x) h
voiced (v) (z)
Approximant w l j
Trill r


عبارات أساسية

العبارة الترجمة
bahasa Indonesia اللغة الإندونيسية
halo مرحباً
selamat pagi صباح الخير
selamat sore مساء الخير
selamat tinggal وداعاً
tolong رجاءً
terima kasih شكراً
terima kasih kembali لا شكر على واجب
ini هذا
itu ذلك
berapa؟ بكم؟
ya نعم
tidak لا
maaf آسف
saya tidak mengerti لا أفهم
saya tidak tahu لا أعلم
saya tidak bisa berbicara bahasa Indonesia لا أتحدث اللغة الإندونيسية
di mana toilet? أين الحمام؟

Words

Numbers

 
An old one thousand Indonesian Rupiah banknote

Cardinal

Number English Indonesian
0 zero nol or kosong [nol] or [ko•soŋ]
1 one satu [sa•tu]
2 two dua [du•(w)a]
3 three tiga [ti•ga]
4 four empat [əm•pat]
5 five lima [li•ma]
6 six enam [ə•nam]
7 seven tujuh [tu•dʒuh]
8 eight delapan [də•la•pan]
9 nine sembilan [səm•bi•lan]
10 ten sepuluh [sə•pu•luh]
11 eleven sebelas [sə•bə•las]
12 twelve dua belas [du•(w)a bə•las]
13 thirteen tiga belas [ti•ga bə•las]
14 fourteen empat belas [əm•pat bə•las]
15 fifteen lima belas [li•ma bə•las]
20 twenty dua puluh [du•(w)a pu•luh]
21 twenty one dua puluh satu [du•(w)a pu•luh sa•tu]
30 thirty tiga puluh [ti•ga pu•luh]
100 one hundred seratus [sə•ra•tus]
200 two hundred dua ratus [du•(w)a ra•tus]
210 two hundred ten dua ratus sepuluh [du•(w)a ra•tus sə•pu•luh]
897 eight hundred ninty seven delapan ratus sembilan puluh tujuh [de•la•pan ra•tus sem•bi•lan pu•luh tu•dʒuh]
1000 one thousand seribu [sə•ri•bu]
10000 ten thousand sepuluh ribu [sə•pu•luh ri•bu]
100000 one hundred thousand seratus ribu [sə•ra•tus ri•bu]
1000000 one million sejuta or satu juta [sə•dʒu•ta] or [sa•tu dʒu•ta]
1000000000 one billion satu miliar [sa•tu mi•li•(j)ar] or [sa•tu mil•jar]
1000000000000 one trillion satu triliun [sa•tu tri•li•(j)un] or [sa•tu tril•jun]

Ordinal

Number English Indonesian
1st first pertama [pər•ta•ma]
2nd second kedua [kə•du•(w)a]
3rd third ketiga [kə•ti•ga]
4th fourth keempat [kə•əm•pat]
5th fifth kelima [kə•li•ma]
6th sixth keenam [kə•ə•nam]
7th seventh ketujuh [kə•tu•dʒuh]
8th eighth kedelapan [kə•də•la•pan]
9th ninth kesembilan [kə•səm•bi•lan]
10th tenth kesepuluh [kə•sə•pu•luh]

Days and months

 
An Indonesian-language calendar

Days

English Indonesian
Monday Senin [sə•nin]
Tuesday Selasa [sə•la•sa]
Wednesday Rabu [ra•bu]
Thursday Kamis [ka•mis]
Friday Jumat [dʒum•at]
Saturday Sabtu [sab•tu]
Sunday Minggu/Ahad [miŋ•gu] or [a•had]

Months

English Indonesian
January Januari [dʒa•nu•(w)a•ri]
February Februari [fɛb•ru•(w)a•ri]
March Maret [ma•rət]
April April [ap•ril]
May Mei [meɪ]
June Juni [dʒu•ni•]
July Juli [dʒu•li]
August Agustus [a•gus•tus]
September September [sɛp•tɛm•bər]
October Oktober [ok•to•bər]
November November [no•vɛm•bər]
December Desember [dɛ•sɛm•bər]

Common phrases

English Indonesian Spelling (in IPA)
Hello! Halo! [ˈhalo]
Good morning! Selamat pagi! [sə'lamat ˈpagi]
Good afternoon! Selamat siang! [səˈlamat ˈsiaŋ]
Good evening! or Good night! Selamat malam! [səˈlamat ˈmalam]
Goodbye! Selamat tinggal! [sə'lamat ˈtiŋɡal]
See you later! Sampai jumpa lagi! [ˈsampai̯ ˈdʒumpa ˈlagi]
Thank you Terima kasih (standard, formal) [təˈrima ˈkasih]
Thanks Makasih (colloquial) [maˈkasih]
You are welcome Sama-sama or terima kasih kembali [ˈsa'ma ˈsama] or [təˈrima ˈkasih kəm'bali]
Yes Ya or iya [ˈja] or [ˈija]
No Tidak [ˈtidaʔ]
And Dan [ˈdan]
Or Atau [a'tau̯]
Because Karena [ˈkarəna]
Therefore [ك‍] Karena itu [ˈkarəna ˈʔitu]
Nothing Tidak ada [ˈtidaʔ ˈada]
Maybe Mungkin [ˈmuŋkin]
How are you? Apa kabar? [ˈapa ˈkabar]
I am fine Baik or Baik-baik saja [ˈbaik] or [ˈbaik ˈbaik ˈsadʒa]
Have a nice day! Semoga hari Anda menyenangkan! [sə'moga ˈhari ˈʔanda məɲəˈnaŋkan]
Bon appétit! Selamat makan! or Selamat menikmati! [sə'lamat ˈmakan] or [səˈlamat mənikˈmati]
I am sorry Maafkan saya [ma'ʔafkan ˈsaja]
Excuse me Permisi [pər'misi]
What? Apa? [ˈapa]
Who? Siapa? [siˈapa]
When? Kapan? [ˈkapan]
Where? Di mana? [di ˈmana]
Why? Mengapa? [mə'ŋapa]
How? Bagaimana? [baɡai̯'mana]
How much? Berapa? [bə'rapa]
What is your name? Nama Anda siapa? [ˈnama ˈʔanda siˈapa]
My name is... Nama saya... [ˈnama ˈsaja]
Do you know? Apakah Anda tahu? [aˈpakah ˈʔanda ˈtahu]
Yes, I know / No, I do not know Ya, saya tahu / Tidak, saya tidak tahu [ˈja ˈsaja ˈtahu] / [ˈtidaʔ ˈsaja ˈtidaʔ ˈtahu]
Can you speak Indonesian? Bisakah Anda berbicara bahasa Indonesia? [biˈsakah ˈʔanda bərbi'tʃara baˈhasa indoˈnesi̯a]
Yes, I can speak Indonesian / No, I can not speak Indonesian Ya, saya bisa berbicara bahasa Indonesia / Tidak, saya tidak bisa berbicara bahasa indonesia [ˈja ˈsaja ˈbisa bərbiˈtʃara baˈhasa Indoˈnesi̯a] / [ˈtidaʔ ˈsaja ˈtidaʔ ˈbisa bərbiˈtʃara baˈhasa indoˈnesi̯a]
What time is it now? Pukul berapa sekarang? [ˈpukul bə'rapa səˈkaraŋ]
It is 5.00 o'clock Sekarang pukul 5.00 [səˈkaraŋ ˈpukul ˈlima]
When will you go to the party? Kapan Anda akan pergi ke pesta itu? [ˈkapan ˈʔanda ˈʔakan pər'gi ke ˈpesta ˈʔitu]
Soon Nanti [ˈnanti]
Today Hari ini [ˈhari ˈʔini]
Tomorrow Besok [ˈbesok]
The day after tomorrow Lusa [ˈlusa]
Yesterday Kemarin [kə'marin]
Congratulations! Selamat! [sə'lamat]
Happy New Year! Selamat Tahun Baru! [sə'lamat ˈtahun ˈbaru]
Merry Christmas! Selamat Natal! [sə'lamat ˈnatal]
Please Mohon or tolong [ˈmohon] or [ˈtoloŋ]
Stop! Berhenti! [bər'henti]
I am happy Saya senang [ˈsaja sə'naŋ]
I understand Saya mengerti [ˈsaja ˈməŋərti]
Help! Tolong! [ˈtoloŋ]
I need help Saya memerlukan bantuan [ˈsaja məmərˈlukan ban'tuan]
Can you help me? Bisakah Anda menolong saya? [biˈsakah ˈʔanda mə'noloŋ ˈsaja]
Can I help you? / Do you need help? Dapatkah saya membantu Anda? / Apakah Anda membutuhkan bantuan? [da'patkah ˈsaja məm'bantu ˈʔanda] / [aˈpakah ˈʔanda məmbuˈtuhkan banˈtuan]
May I borrow your eraser? Bolehkah saya meminjam penghapus Anda? [boˈlehkah ˈsaja mə'minjam peŋ'hapus ˈʔanda]
With my pleasure Dengan senang hati [dəˈŋan sə'naŋ ˈhati]
Welcome Selamat datang [sə'lamat ˈdataŋ]
Welcome to Indonesia Selamat datang di Indonesia [sə'lamat ˈdataŋ di ʔindoˈnesi̯a]
I agree / I disagree Saya setuju / Saya tidak setuju [ˈsaja sə'tudʒu] / [ˈsaja ˈtidaʔ sə'tudʒu]
I understand / I do not understand Saya mengerti / Saya tidak mengerti [ˈsaja ˈməŋərti] / [ˈsaja ˈtidaʔ ˈməŋərti]
I am hungry Saya lapar [ˈsaja ˈlapar]
I am thirsty Saya haus [ˈsaja ˈhaus]
I am sick Saya sakit [ˈsaja ˈsakit]
Get well soon Semoga cepat sembuh [sə'moga tʃə'pat səmˈbuh]

Example

The following texts are excerpts from the official translations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Indonesian and Malay, along with the original declaration in English.

English[11] Indonesian[12] Malay[13]
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Pernyataan Umum tentang Hak Asasi Manusia Perisytiharan Hak Asasi Manusia sejagat
Article 1 Pasal 1 Perkara 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikaruniai akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan. Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan sama rata dari segi maruah dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bergaul dengan semangat persaudaraan.

See also

References

  1. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة sensus2010
  2. ^ "East Timor Languages". www.easttimorgovernment.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  3. ^ قالب:Glottolog
  4. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander (2004). "Where does Malay come from? Twenty years of discussions about homeland, migrations and classifications" (PDF). Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 160 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003733. hdl:11343/122869. JSTOR 27868100.
  5. ^ Andaya, Leonard Y. (2001), "The Search for the 'Origins' of Melayu", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 32 (3): 315–330, doi:10.1017/s0022463401000169, http://sabrizain.org/malaya/library/search.pdf, retrieved on 13 October 2019 
  6. ^ Munir Hamidy, Badrul (1985). Kamus Lengkap Indonesia-Rejang, Rejang-Indonesia. Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. p. xv.
  7. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة SodOlson2008
  8. ^ Yunus Maris, M. (1980). The Indonesian Sound System. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd, page 2.
  9. ^ Minister of Education and Culture Decree No: 50/2015, Jakarta, 2015.
  10. ^ Clynes, A (1997). "On the Proto-Austronesian 'diphthongs'". Oceanic Linguistics. 36 (2): 347–362. doi:10.2307/3622989. JSTOR 3622989.
  11. ^ "OHCHR -". www.ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 30 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  12. ^ "OHCHR -". www.ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  13. ^ "OHCHR -". www.ohchr.org. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.

External links