سلطنة رياو-ليڠگا

(تم التحويل من Riau-Lingga Sultanate)
سلطنة رياو-ليڠگا
Riau-Lingga Sultanate
Kesultanan Riau-Lingga (الملايو)
کسلطانن رياوليڠݢ(الجاوي)
Sultanaat van Riau en Lingga (الهولندية)

1824–1911
علم Riau-Lingga Sultanate
العلم
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الدرع
أملاك سلطنة رياو-ليڠگا بالأحمر، بما في ذلك العديد من الجزر في بحر الصين الجنوبي وجيوب في بر سومطرة الرئيسي.
أملاك سلطنة رياو-ليڠگا بالأحمر، بما في ذلك العديد من الجزر في بحر الصين الجنوبي وجيوب في بر سومطرة الرئيسي.
الوضعمحمية هولندية
العاصمةPenyengat Inderasakti
(ادارية 1824–1900)
(ملكية وادارية 1900–1911)
دايك
(Royal 1824–1900)
اللغات المشتركةملايو
الدين
الإسلام السني
الحكومةملكية
سلطان 
• 1819–1832
Abdul Rahman
• 1832–1835
Muhammad II
• 1835–1857
Mahmud IV
• 1857–1883
Sulaiman II
• 1885–1911
Abdul Rahman II
Yang Dipertuan Muda 
• 1805–1831
Jaafar
• 1831–1844
Abdul
• 1844–1857
Ali II
• 1857–1858
Abdullah
• 1858–1899
Muhammad Yusuf
الحقبة التاريخيةالامبراطورية الهولندية
1824
• ألغاها الهولنديون
1911
Preceded by
Succeeded by
سلطنة جوهر
جزر الهند الشرقية الهولندية
اليوم جزء من إندونيسيا
 سنغافورة
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تاروما نگارا (358-723)
سايلندرا (القرنان الثامن والتاسع)
مملكة سوندا (669-1579)
مملكة مطرم (752–1045)
كديري (1045–1221)
سنغاساري (1222–1292)
ماجاپاهيت (1293–1500)
نشأة الدول الإسلامية
انتشار الإسلام (1200–1600)
سلطنة ملقا (1400–1511)
سلطنة دماك (1475–1518)
سلطنة آچه (1496–1903)
سلطنة بانتن (1526–1813)
سلطنة مطرم (1500s to 1700s)
الاستعمار الاوروبي
البرتغاليون (1512–1850)
شركة الهند الشرقية الهولندية (1602–1800)
الهند الشرقية الهولندية (1800–1942)
بزوغ إندونسيا
الصحوة الوطنية (1899–1942)
الاحتلال الياباني (1942–45)
إعلان الإستقلال (1945)
الثورة الوطنية (1945–1950)
إندونسيا المستقلة
الديمقراطية الليبرالية (1950–1957)
الديمقراطية المهدية (1957–1965)
بداية النظام الجديد (1965–1966)
النظام الجديد (1966–1998)
عصر الإصلاح (1998–الحاضر)
عدّل هذا القالب

سلطنة رياو-ليڠگا (Malay/Indonesian: Kesultanan Riau-Lingga, Jawi: کسلطانن رياوليڠݢ‎), also known as the Lingga-Riau Sultanate, Riau Sultanate or Lingga Sultanate was a Malay sultanate that existed from 1824 to 1911, before being dissolved following Dutch intervention.

The sultanate came into existence as a result of the partition of the Johor-Riau Sultanate that separated Peninsular Johor, together with the island of Singapore, from the Riau archipelago. This partition followed the succession dispute following the death of Mahmud III of Johor, when Abdul Rahman was crowned as the first Sultan of Riau-Lingga. The maritime kingdom was recognised by both the British and the Dutch following the المعاهدة الإنگليزية الهولندية 1824.

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التاريخ

خلفية

 
The region witnessed the triumph of Haji Fisabillah of Johor-Riau during the battle against the Dutch East India Company on 6 January 1784 in Tanjung Pinang, Riau. It was the largest military campaign in the Strait of Malacca during the 18th century.

The Riau Archipelago became a part of the Malaccan Empire after the expansion by Tun Perak in the 15th century, following the decline of the Srivijaya Empire. After the fall of Malacca at the hands of the Portuguese, the axis of regional power was inherited by the Johor Sultanate. During the golden age of Johor, the kingdom stretched across half of the Malay Peninsular, eastern Sumatra, Singapore, Bangka, Jambi and the Riau Islands.

According to the 1849 Johor Annals, on 27 September 1673 the Laksamana (admiral) of Johor, Tun Abdul Jamil, was ordered by Abdul Jalil Shah III to found a settlement in Sungai Carang, Ulu Riau, on Bintan Island. The settlement in Sungai Carang was later known as Riau Lama. Initially a fortress to protect the Johor Empire, Riau Lama then prospered and became an increasingly prominent entrepôt for regional trade in the Strait of Malacca.

السلطان بدر العالم شاه الثاني

 
Tandjoengpinang في 1859


تصاعد القومية

 
Ali Kelana, Crown Prince of Riau-Lingga, one of the founding fathers of the Roesidijah Club Riouw, the first modern organisation in the Netherlands East Indies. (taken in 1899)
 
A Dutch map of Residentie Riouw en Onderhoorigheden (Residence of Riau and Dependencies) in 1860.


الفض على يد الهولنديين

 
The last Sultan of Riau-Lingga، عبد الرحمن الثاني. He was forced to live in exile after his refusal to sign an agreement with the Dutch that was intended to totally limit his powers.


 
The dissolution of the sultanate as reported in Rotterdam's Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant on 19 February 1911.

The bold resolution shown by the sultan and fellow officials was not welcomed by the Dutch. According to the journal kept by the Syahbandar (Harbourmaster), the decision of the sultan was deplored by the Dutch Resident, G.F Bruijn Kops who stated "they molded the sultan to retaliate (against the Dutch), so a retaliation (by the Dutch) shall be administered".


الأعقاب

 
Datuk Kaya or local Malay rulers of Poelau Toedjoeh (Tudjuh Archipelago) with G.F Bruijn Kops, the Dutch Resident of Riouw. Taken in Tanjung Pinang, a week after the abdication of the Sultan (1911).


الحكومة

 
A picture Sultan Abdul Rahman II (1890-1911) shows him with a headdress with a crescent and five-pointed star from which a lily-shaped ornament rises. The crescent and star symbolise "Head of State" as the crescent is the Islamic emblem of state, and the star the emblem of a (Muslim) ruler.[1]

Adat

 
Onderkoning Van Riau (Dutch: Viceroy of Riau) inscribed on the mohor (royal seal) of Yang Dipertuan Muda Abdullah, the XI Yang Dipertuan Muda of Riau Lingga (1857–8). In a fusion of Arab-Malay written in Jawi script the seal also bears the inscription Al Watik Baladun Al Aziz Al Ghaffar Sultan Alauddin Syah Ibni Al Marhum Raja Jaafar 1273-Hijrah (lit: the trusted governor, the powerful, the protector, Sultan Alauddin Syah Ibni Al Marhum Raja Jaafar, Year 1273 AH (1856AD)


The pledge of allegiance included the following words:

Jawi script Rumi script English translation

...جكالاو توان كڤد بوڬيس
توانله كڤد ملايو
دان جكالاو توان كڤد ملايو
توانله كڤد بوڬيس

دان جكالاو موسوه كڤد بوڬيس
موسوهله كڤد ملايو
دان جكالاو موسوه كڤد ملايو
موسوهله كڤد بوڬيس

مك بارڠسياڤا موڠكير

دبينساكن الله سمڤأي انق چوچوڽ..."

...jikalau tuan kepada Bugis,
tuanlah kepada Melayu
dan jikalau tuan kepada Melayu
tuanlah kepada Bugis

dan jikalau musuh kepada Bugis
musuhlah kepada Melayu
dan jikalau musuh kepada Melayu
musuhlah kepada Bugis

maka barangsiapa mungkir
dibinasakan Allah sampai anak cucunya...

"... if he was an ally to the Bugis
he shall then be an ally to the Malays
and if he was an ally to the Malays
he shall then be an ally to the Bugis

and if he was a nemesis to the Bugis
he shall then be a nemesis to the Malays
and if he was a nemesis to the Malays
he shall then be a nemesis to the Bugis

if one ever betrayed
calamity by Allah till his descendants..."

Yang Dipertuan Muda

 
The Dutch Resident with the Sultan. (1890-1910)




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قائمة المسئولين

 
عبد الرحمن الثاني with fellow rulers (c. 1880)
 
محمد يوسف، the 10th Yang Dipertuan Muda of Riau-Lingga (taken circa 1858-1899)
 
The remains of Istana Kantor, built in 1844, was the first administration and residential complex of the Yang Dipertuan Muda Dynasty.
 
The Royal Mausoleum in Penyengat Inderasakti

سلاطين رياو

سلاطين جوهر-رياو العهد
Malacca-Johor Dynasty
Alauddin Riayat Shah II 1528–1564
Muzaffar Shah II 1564–1570
Abdul Jalil Shah I 1570–1571
Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II 1571–1597
Alauddin Riayat Shah III 1597–1615
Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah 1615–1623
Abdul Jalil Shah III 1623–1677
Ibrahim Shah 1677–1685
Mahmud Shah II 1685–1699
Bendahara Dynasty
Abdul Jalil Shah IV 1699–1720
Malacca-Johor Dynasty (descent)
Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah (Raja Kecil) 1718–1722
Bendahara Dynasty
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah 1722–1760
Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah 1760–1761
Ahmad Riayat Shah 1761–1761
Sultan Mahmud Shah III 1761–1812
Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah 1812–1832
Muhammad II Muazzam Shah 1832–1842
Mahmud IV Muzaffar Shah 1842–1857
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah II 1857–1883
Yang Dipertuan Muda Dynasty
Abdul Rahman II Muazzam Shah 1883–1911

Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau

Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau In office
Daeng Marewah 1722–1728
Daeng Chelak 1728–1745
Daeng Kemboja 1745–1777
Raja Haji 1777–1784
Raja Ali 1784–1805
Raja Ja'afar 1805–1831
Raja Abdul Rahman 1831–1844
Raja Ali bin Raja Jaafar 1844–1857
Raja Haji Abdullah 1857–1858
Raja Muhammad Yusuf 1858–1899

National symbol

Flags of the Riau-Lingga Sultanate

The earlier flag of Riau Sultanate was established on 26 November 1818.[مطلوب توضيح] It was provided in section 11 of the Royal decree that the flag of the Sultanate of Riau should be black with a white canton. The similar flag design was also adopted by its sister state of Johor.

Royal and noble ranks

 
The Heraldic badge of Riau-Lingga Sultanate in Arabic calligraphy, comprising a Dua and verses from sura As-Saff.

Royal family

  • Sultan: The reigning prince was styled the Sultan (personal reign name) ibni al-Marhum (father's title and personal name), Sultan of Riau, Lingga and dependencies, with the style of His Highness.
  • Tengku Ampuan: The senior consort of the ruling prince.
  • Tengku Besar: The Heir Apparent.
  • Tengku Besar Perempuan: The consort of the Heir Apparent.
  • Tengku Muda: The Heir Presumptive
  • Tengku Muda Perempuan: The consort of the Heir Presumptive.
  • Tengku: The other sons, daughters and descendants of Sultans, in the male line: They would be styled as Tengku (personal name) ibni al-Marhum (father's title and personal name).

Yang Dipertuan Muda

  • Yang di-Pertuan Muda: The ruling prince of Riau, with the style of His Highness. In earlier days, the ruling prince also received the personal title of Sultan and a reign name.
  • Raja Muda: The Heir Apparent, styled as Raja (personal name) bin Raja (father's name), Raja Muda.
  • Raja: The sons, daughters, grandchildren's and other descendants of the ruling prince, in the male line: Raja (personal name) bin Raja (father's name).

Territory

Following the partition of Johor and the relinquishing of rights over the mainland peninsular, the sultanate was effectively a maritime state. The Riau Sultanate's dominions encompassed the Riau, Lingga and Tudjuh Archipelago, including Batam, Rempang, Galang, Bintan, Combol, Kundur, Karimun, Bunguran, Lingga, Singkep, Badas, Tambelan, Natuna, Anambas and many smaller islands. There were also several territories in Igal, Gaung, Reteh and Mandah located in Indragiri on mainland Sumatra. All these territories were headed by a Datuk Kaya (nobleman), known as an Amir (equivalent to a Viscount) who had been chosen by the sultan or by the ruling elite to deal with the local administration.

Foreign relations and trade

 
A tin mine belonging to the Sultan in Singkep.


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Legacy

The sultanate is widely credited in the development of the Malay and Indonesian language, as various books, literary works and dictionary was contributed in the sultanate. These works formed as the backbone of the modern Indonesian language. Raja Ali Haji, was celebrated for his contribution on the language and honoured as the National Hero of Indonesia in 2004.[2]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة hubert-herald1
  2. ^ "Raja Ali Haji" (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Balai Melayu. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

Bibliography

  • Barbara Watson Andaya (2003) Gender, Islam and the Bugis Diaspora in Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Riau, Kuala Lumpur:National University of Malaysia, online edition
  • Vivienne Wee (2002) Ethno-nationalism in process: ethnicity, atavism and indigenism in Riau, Indonesia, The Pacific Review, online edition
  • Mun Cheong Yong (2004) The Indonesian Revolution and the Singapore Connection, 1945-1949, Singapore: KITLV Press, ISBN 9067182060
  • Derek Heng, Syed Muhd Khirudin Aljunied (ed.) (2009) Reframing Singapore: Memory, Identity, Trans-regionalism, Singapore: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9789089640949
  • Virginia, Matheson (1989) Pulau Penyengat : Nineteenth Century Islamic Centre of Riau, online edition
  • Barbara Watson Andaya (1977) From Rūm to Tokyo: The Search for Anticolonial Allies by the Rulers of Riau, 1899-1914, online edition

قالب:Precolonial states in Indonesia