كاتيپونان

(تم التحويل من Katipunan)

قالب:Infobox Philippine political party

Katipunan
Kataástaasan, Kagalanggalang na Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan[1]
Philippine revolution flag kkk1.svg
early flag of the Katipunan Revolutionaries
الاختصارKKK
الشعار الحاديSee the Kartilya ng Katipunan
التشكلJuly 7, 1892
النوعMilitary secret society
الوضع القانونيDefunct
الغرضSee Katipunan aims
الأعضاءhip
Masonic
Official language
Tagalog, regional languages
President
Deodato Arellano (1892–1893)
Roman Basa (1893–1895)
Andrés Bonifacio (1895–1897)
الهيئة الرئيسية
Kalayaan (dated January 1896, published March 1896)[2][3]

The Katipunan (usually abbreviated to KKK) was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. Based on recently found contemporary documents, the society has been organized as early as January 1892 but may have not became active until July 7 of the same year on the night when Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan earlier in the day. Founded by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa and others, initially, the Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution.

The Tagalog word "katipunan", literally meaning 'association', comes from the root word "tipon," a Tagalog word meaning "gather"."[4][المصدر لا يؤكد ذلك] Its official revolutionary name was Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan[1][5] (حرفياً 'Supreme and Most Honorable Society of the Children of the Nation', بالاسپانية: Suprema y Venerable Asociación de los Hijos del Pueblo). The Katipunan is also known by its acronym, KKK.[6]

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أصل الكلمة

The name "Katipunan" comes from the full Tagalog name for the society: "Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang Katipunan nang mga Anak nang Bayan" (حرفياً 'Highest and Most Respected Society of the Children of the Nation ').[7]


التشكيل

التاريخ

 
A late 19th century photograph of leaders of the Propaganda Movement: José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce. Photo was taken in Spain in 1890.


Founding of the Katipunan

 
Seal of the Katipunan. The initials are read as "Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan."

Captured Katipunan members (also known as Katipuneros), who were also members of La Liga, revealed to the Spanish colonial authorities that there was a difference of opinion among members of La Liga. One group insisted on La Liga's principle of a peaceful reformation while the other espoused armed revolution.[8]


Literature of the society

The triumvirate of Katipunan (from left to right): Bonifacio, Jacinto, and Valenzuela.
اقرأ نصاً ذا علاقة في

Pahimakas



Preparation for the revolution

Attempt to seek Rizal's support

 
Flags of the Katipunan (Casa Real Shrine)

The night when Governor-General Eulogio Despujol y Dusay exiled Dr. José Rizal to Dapitan,[9] Katipunan was founded.

الثورة

 
Typical Katipunero bolo.


The Battle of Kakarong de Sili

مقال رئيسي: Battle of Kakarong de Sili
 
Inang Filipina Shrine
 
Panorama of the Park and the Shrine
 
Facade


الفض

Following the victory of the الولايات المتحدة against the First Philippine Republic in the Philippine–American War, the Americans exterminated any remaining vestige of the Katipunan.[10][المصدر لا يؤكد ذلك]

See also


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References

Notes and citations

  1. ^ أ ب Cruz 1922 II[12].
    "Kailan at saan itinayo ang 'Samahang Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan?'"
    (بالإنگليزية: "When and where was the Supreme and Most Honorable Society of the Sons of the Nation established?")
    See also the Transcriber's note in the frontmatter of the source cited. Typographical oddities regarding the placement of the tilde ("~") character in the cited source have been regularized here.
  2. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة newspaper1
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة newspaper2
  4. ^ Woods 2006, p. 43
  5. ^ May be rated to modern Tagalog orthography as kulitkulitan, Kain na kain lang mga Anak ng Bayan.
  6. ^ The organization has no affiliation with the White supremacy group known as the Ku Klux Klan whose name is also associated with the acronym "KKK".
  7. ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 718. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
  8. ^ "The Founding of the Katipunan".
  9. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة zaide 203
  10. ^ Worcester 1914, p. 180

Published works

  • Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1990) [1960]. "History of the Filipino People" (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing. ISBN 971-8711-06-6. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1956). "The Revolt of the Masses: the story of Bonifacio and the Katipunan". Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Artigas y Cuerva, Manuel (1911). "Andres Bonifacio y el Katipunan". La Vanguardia. Manila.
  • Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad Masangkay (1998). The Cry of Balintawak: a contrived controversy. Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 978-971-550-278-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Cruz, Hermenegildo (November 16, 1922). Tamiko I. Camacho, Jerome Espinosa Baladad and PG Distributed Proofreaders (ed.). Kartilyang Makabayan: Mga Tanong at Sagot Ukol Kay Andrés Bonifacio at sa KKK. e-book reproduction from Project Gutenberg.[1] (in Tagalog) (Internet, Project Gutenberg ed.). Manila: Guillermo Masangkay, Alvarado St., Brgy. 535, Manila. External link in |work= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Diwa, Ladislao (December 24, 1926). "Andres Bonifacio y el Katipunan". La Opinión. Manila.
  • Fernandez, Leandro H. (1926). The Philippine Republic. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Fernandez, Leandro H. (1930). "Autobiography of Gregoria de Jesus". Philippine Magazine. Manila.
  • Reynaldo, Ileto (1998). "Filipinos and their revolution: event, discourse, and historiography". Ateneo de Manila University Press. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Guerrero, Milagros C. (1996). "Balintawak: The Cry for a Nationwide Revolution". Sulyap Kultura (Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Manila: Rex Book Store. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Jesus-Nakpil, Gregoria (1932). "Mga Tala ng Aking Buhay at mga Ulat ng Katipunan". published by Jose P. Santos. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Kalaw, Maximo M. The Development of Philippine Politics (1872–1920) (Manila: Oriental Commercial Co. Inc., 1926; reprint ed., Manila: Solar Publishing Corp., 1986)
  • Kalaw, Teodoro M. (1925). "The Philippine Revolution". Manila: Manila Book Store Company. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • National Historical Institute. Filipinos in History 5 vols. (Manila: National Historical Institute, 1989)
  • Reyes, Isabelo de los (1899). "La Sensacional memoria sobre la revolución filipina" (in Spanish). Madrid: Tip. lit. de J. Corrales. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Retana, Wenceslao E. (1897). "Archivo del biblio filipino". Madrid. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Retana, Wenceslao E. (1907). "Vida y Escritos del Dr. José Rizal". Cite journal requires |journal= (help) At Google Books
  • Retana, Wenceslao. Vida y Escritorios de Dr. José Rizal. Madrid: 1907.
  • Ricarte, Artemio (1926). "The Hispano-Philippine Revolution". Yokohama. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) This book was published by Ricarte himself, includes his memoirs on the Philippine Revolution.
  • St. Clair, Francis (1902). "Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan Nang Manga Anac Nang Bayan". Manila.
  • Sagmit, Rosario S.; Sagmit-Mendosa, Lourdes (2007). The Filipino Moving Onward 5 (2007 ed.). Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-4154-0..
  • Santos, Epifanio de los (1918). "Andres Bonifacio". The Philippine Review. Manila.
  • Santos, Epifanio de los (1961). "The Trial of Rizal". Horacio de la Costa, S.J. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Santos, Jose P. (1930). "Kung Sino si Jacinto". Pagkakaisa. Manila.
  • Woods, Damon L. (2006) [2006]. The Philippines: a global studies handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-675-2.
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press.
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1957). Philippine Political and Cultural History: the Philippines Since the British Invasion. II (1957 Revised ed.). Manila: McCullough Printing Company.
  • Zaide, Gregorio (November 26, 1932). "The Women of the Katipunan". Philippines Free Press. Manila.
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1973). Manila during the Revolutionary Period. Manila: National Historical Commission. citing a letter sent to him by Pío Valenzuela dated December 19, 1931.
  • Zaide, Gregorio (1939). "History of the Katipunan". Loyal Press. Manila.
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1931). Documentary History of the Katipunan Discovery. Manila.
  • Zaide, Gregorio (October 25, 1930). "The Rise and Fall of the Katipunan Press". The Sunday Tribune Magazine. Manila.
  • The Catholic Historical Review. Washington, D.C.: American Catholic Historical Association. 4. 1919. Missing or empty |title= (help)


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وصلات خارجية

الكلمات الدالة: