جمهورية تگالوگ

جمهورية تگالوگ (بالفلپينية: Republika ng Katagalugan أو Republikang Tagalog؛ بالإنگليزية: Tagalog Republic) هي مصطلح يُستخدم للاشارة إلى حكومتين ثوريتين أسهمتا في ثورة الفلپين ضد اسبانيا وفي الحرب الأمريكية الفلپينية. وكلاهما كانتا ترتبطان بحركة كاتيپونان الثورية.

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بونيفاتشيو

The First Tagalog Republic

Haring Bayang Katagalugan
1896–1897
 
One of several variations of Katipunan flags
النشيد: Marangál na Dalit ng̃ Katagalugan
("Honorable Hymn of the Tagalog Nation")
المكانةUnrecognized state
العاصمةTondo, Manila
الحكومةجمهورية
Supremo 
الحقبة التاريخيةPhilippine Revolution
• تأسست
August 24 1896
• Death of Andrés Bonifacio
May 10 1897
Preceded by
Succeeded by
  Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies  
Republic of Biak-na-Bato  

In the last days of August, the Katipunan members met in Caloocan and decided to start their revolt[1] (the event was later called the "Cry of Balintawak" or "Cry of Pugad Lawin"; the exact location and date are disputed). A day after the Cry, the Supreme Council of the Katipunan held elections, with the following results:[1][2]

Position Name
President / Supremo Andrés Bonifacio
Secretary of War Teodoro Plata
Secretary of State Emilio Jacinto
Secretary of the Interior Aguedo del Rosario
Secretary of Justice Briccio Pantas
Secretary of Finance Enrique Pacheco

The above was divulged to the Spanish by the Katipunan member Pío Valenzuela while in captivity.[1][2] Teodoro Agoncillo thus wrote:

Immediately before the outbreak of the revolution, therefore, Bonifacio organized the Katipunan into a government revolving around a ‘cabinet’ composed of men of his confidence.[3]

Milagros C. Guerrero and others have described Bonifacio as "effectively" the commander-in-chief of the revolutionaries. They assert:

As commander-in-chief, Bonifacio supervised the planning of military strategies and the preparation of orders, manifests and decrees, adjudicated offenses against the nation, as well as mediated in political disputes. He directed generals and positioned troops in the fronts. On the basis of command responsibility, all victories and defeats all over the archipelago during his term of office should be attributed to Bonifacio.[1]
 
"Presidente" Bonifacio in La Ilustración Española y Americana, February 8, 1897

One name for Bonifacio's concept of the Philippine nation-state appears in surviving Katipunan documents: Haring Bayang Katagalugan ("Sovereign Nation of the Tagalog People", or "Sovereign Tagalog Nation") - sometimes shortened into Haring Bayan ("Sovereign Nation"). Bayan may be rendered as "nation" or "people". Bonifacio is named as the president of the "Tagalog Republic" in an issue of the Spanish periodical La Ilustración Española y Americana published in February 1897 ("Andrés Bonifacio - Titulado "Presidente" de la República Tagala"). Another name for Bonifacio's government was Repúblika ng Katagalugan (another form of "Tagalog Republic") as evidenced by a picture of a rebel seal published in the same periodical the next month.[1][2]

Official letters and one appointment paper of Bonifacio addressed to Emilio Jacinto reveal Bonifacio's various titles and designations, as follows:[1][2]

  • President of the Supreme Council
  • Supreme President
  • President of the Sovereign Nation of Katagalugan / Sovereign Tagalog Nation
  • President of the Sovereign Nation, Founder of the Katipunan, Initiator of the Revolution
  • Office of the Supreme President, Government of the Revolution


ساكاي

The Second Tagalog Republic

Repúbliká ng̃ Katagalugan
1902–1906
Flag
Coat of arms
المكانةUnrecognized state
الحكومةRepublic
President 
Vice President 
الحقبة التاريخيةPhilippine–American War
• Declaration of Independence
May 6 1902
• Capture of Macario Sakay
July 14 1906
Preceded by
Succeeded by
  United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands
  First Philippine Republic
Insular Government of the Philippine Islands  

After Emilio Aguinaldo and his men were captured by the US forces in 1901, General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member, established in 1902 his own Tagalog Republic (تگالوگية: Repúbliká ng̃ Katagalugan) in the mountains of Morong (today, the province of Rizal), and held the presidency with Francisco Carreón as vice president.[4] In April 1904, Sakay issued a manifesto declaring Filipino right to self-determination at a time when support for independence was considered a crime by the American colonial government.[5]

Position Name
President Macario Sakay
Vice President Francisco Carreón
Minister of War Domingo Moriones
Minister of the Government Alejandro Santiago
Minister of State Nicolás Rivera

The republic ended in 1906 when Sakay and his leading followers were arrested by American authorities and the following year executed for banditry.[5] Some of its survivors escaped to Japan to be joined with Artemio Ricarte, an exiled Katipunan veteran, and later returned to support the Second Philippine Republic, a client state of Japan, during World War II.[بحاجة لمصدر]


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة guerrero1
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة guerrero2
  3. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p.[صفحة مطلوبة]
  4. ^ Kabigting Abad, Antonio (1955). General Macario L. Sakay: Was He a Bandit or a Patriot?. J. B. Feliciano and Sons Printers-Publishers.
  5. ^ أ ب Flores, Paul (August 12, 1995). "Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?". Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Retrieved 2007-04-08.

المراجع


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