پتسبرگ، پنسلڤانيا

(تم التحويل من Pittsburgh)

قالب:About-distinguish

مدينة پيتسبرگ

Pittsburgh
City
Clockwise from top: Pittsburgh skyline; Carnegie Mellon University; PNC Park; Duquesne Incline; Cathedral of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh
الكنية: 
مدينة الجسور, مدينة الصلب , مدينة الحملات, المدينة, مدينة الحديد, Steel Town, مدينة الجامعة, Roboburgh
الشعار: 
Interactive maps of Pittsburgh
الإحداثيات: 40°26′23″N 79°58′35″W / 40.43972°N 79.97639°W / 40.43972; -79.97639Coordinates: 40°26′23″N 79°58′35″W / 40.43972°N 79.97639°W / 40.43972; -79.97639
مقاطعة الولايات المتحدة
كومنويلث پنسيلڤانيا
مقاطعةAllegheny
Historic empires
Historic colonies
تأسست27 نوفمبر 1758
أدرجت22 أبريل 1794 (إقليم)
 18 مارس 1816 (مدينة)
الحكومة
 • النوعMayor-council
 • MayorBill Peduto (D)
 • City Council
المساحة
 • City58٫34 ميل² (151٫11 كم²)
 • البر55٫38 ميل² (143٫42 كم²)
 • الماء2٫97 ميل² (7٫69 كم²)  4.8%
 • العمران
5٬343 ميل² (13٬840 كم²)
أعلى منسوب
1٬370 ft (420 m)
Lowest elevation
710 ft (220 m)
التعداد
 (2010)
 • City305٬704
 • Estimate 
(2019)[2]
300٬286
 • الترتيبUS: 66th
 • الكثافة5٬422٫67/sq mi (2٬093٫70/km2)
 • Urban
1٬775٬634 (US: 25th)
 • العمرانية
2٬362٬453 (US: 22nd)
 • CSA
2٬659٬937 (US: 24th)
 • GMP
$131٫3 billion (23rd)
صفة المواطنPittsburgher, Yinzer
منطقة التوقيتUTC−5 (Eastern Standard Time)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC−4 (Eastern Daylight Time)
ZIP Code
مفتاح الهاتف412, 724, 878
FIPS code42-61000
GNIS feature ID1213644
الموقع الإلكتروني{{URL|example.com|optional display text}}
Invalid designation
التوصيف1946[3]

بيتسبرگ (بالإنجليزية Pittsburgh؛ /ˈpɪtsbɜːrɡ/ PITS-burg)، هي ثاني أكبر مدينة في ولاية بنسلفانيا وفي المرتبة 20 من حيث عدد السكان في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية حيث يصل عدد السكان إلى 2.358.695 ، وفي المرتبة رقم 50 من حيث المساحة في أمريكا الشمالية. وتحتوي مدينة پيتسبرگ على 151 مبنى شاهق ,[4] ، و 446 جسر ,[5] وسط المدينة مخطط على هيئة مثلث حيث تلتقي الأنهار المارة في المدينة. وتعرف المدينة بأنها مدينة الصلب وذلك لشهرة صناعة الصلب بها.

Pittsburgh is located in the southwest of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River, forming the Ohio River.[6] Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges.[7] The city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Virginians, Whiskey Rebels, and Civil War raiders.[8]

Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in the manufacturing of other important materials — aluminum and glass — and in the petroleum industry. Additionally, it is a leader in computing, electronics, and the automotive industry.[9] For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York City and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment; it had the most U.S. stockholders per capita.[10] Deindustrialization in the 1970s and 80s laid off area blue-collar workers as steel and other heavy industries declined, and thousands of downtown white-collar workers also lost jobs when several Pittsburgh-based companies moved out.[11] The population dropped from a peak of 675,000 in 1950 to 370,000 in 1990. However, this rich industrial history left the area with renowned museums, medical centers,[12] parks, research centers, and a diverse cultural district.[13]

After the deindustrialization of the mid-20th century, Pittsburgh has transformed into a hub for the health care, education, and technology industries.[14] Pittsburgh is a leader in the health care sector as the home to large medical providers such as University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC). The area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh.[15] Google, Apple Inc., Bosch, Facebook, Uber, Nokia, Autodesk, Amazon, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, robotics, energy research and the nuclear navy.[16] The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, and six of the top 300 U.S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND Corporation (RAND), BNY Mellon, Nova, FedEx, Bayer, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.S. job growth.[17]

In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world";[18][19] The Economist's Global Liveability Ranking placed Pittsburgh as the most or second-most livable city in the United States in 2005, 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2014.[20] The region is a hub for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and energy extraction.[21]

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التسمية


التاريخ

 
Fort Pitt Blockhouse, built by the British in 1764, oldest extant structure in Pittsburgh
Historical claims
French Empire 1669–1758
British Empire 1681–1781
United States 1776–present

Pittsburgh was named in 1758, by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. As Forbes was a Scot, he probably pronounced the name /ˈpɪtsbərə/ PITS-bər-ə (similar to Edinburgh).[22][23] Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act:[24] "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be ... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."[25] From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations.[26][22] After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed.[22] The Pittsburgh Press continued without the h in its nameplate until August 1, 1921.[27]

The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans.[28] The first known Europeans to enter the region were the French explorers/traders Robert de La Salle and Martin Chartier from Quebec during their 1669 expedition down the Ohio River.[29] Chartier is also noted to be the first white man in Nashville, Tennessee. European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and later that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements.[30]

In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers.[30] During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off. The French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims. The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne.[31] The British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes finally took the forks in 1758. He began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough".[32]

During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare, whose effectiveness is questioned.[33][34][35]

During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes. By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the Penns were allowed to purchase the modern region from the Iroquois. A 1769 survey referenced the future city as the "Manor of Pittsburgh".[36] Both the Colony of Virginia and the Province of Pennsylvania claimed the region under their colonial charters until 1780, when they agreed under a federal initiative to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. On March 8, 1771, Bedford County, Pennsylvania was created to govern the frontier. On April 16, 1771, the city's first civilian local government was created as Pitt Township.[37][38] William Teagarden was the first constable, and William Troop was the first clerk.[39]

Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was boat building for settlers of the Ohio Country. In 1784, Thomas Viceroy completed a town plan which was approved by the Penn family attorney. Pittsburgh became a possession of Pennsylvania in 1785. The following year, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette was started, and in 1787, the Pittsburgh Academy was chartered. Unrest during the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 resulted in federal troops being sent to the area. By 1797, glass manufacture began, while the population grew to around 1,400. Settlers came via routes over the Appalachian Mountains or through the Great Lakes. Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Northwest Territory.

1800 to 1900

The federal government recognizes Pittsburgh as the starting point for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.[40] Preparations began in Pittsburgh in 1803 when Meriwether Lewis purchased a keelboat that would later be used to ascend the Missouri River.[41]

 
Monongahela River scene, 1857
ملف:Muralof300SixthStreetBuilding.jpg
Downtown facade memorializing Pittsburgh's industrial heritage with an image of legendary steelworker Joe Magarac

The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American industry. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass. On March 18, 1816, the 46-year-old local government became a city. It was served by numerous river steamboats, that increased trading traffic on the rivers.

In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the Merthyr steelworks immigrated to the city following the aftermath of the Merthyr Rising. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. The Great Fire of Pittsburgh destroyed over a thousand buildings in 1845. The city rebuilt with the aid of Irish immigrants who came to escape the Great Famine. By 1857, Pittsburgh's 1,000 factories were consuming 22 million coal bushels yearly. Coal mining and iron manufacturing attracted waves of European immigrants to the area, the most came from Germany.

 
Pittsburgh in 1874, by Otto Krebs

While Pennsylvania had been established as a free state after the Revolution, enslaved African Americans sought freedom here through escape as refugees from the South, or occasionally fleeing from travelers they were serving who stayed in the city. There were active stations of the Underground Railroad in the city, and numerous refugees were documented as getting help from station agents and African-American workers in city hotels. The Drennen Slave Girl walked out of the Monongahela House in 1850, apparently to freedom.[42] The Merchant's Hotel was also a place where African-American workers would advise slaves the state was free and aid them in getting to nearby stations of the Underground Railroad.[43] Sometimes refugee slaves from the South stayed in Pittsburgh, but other times they continued North, including into Canada. Many slaves left the city and county for Canada after Congress passed the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, as it required cooperation from law enforcement even in free states and increased penalties. From 1850 to 1860, the black population in Allegheny County dropped from 3,431 to 2,725 as people headed to more safety in Canada.[42]

 
Burning of Union Depot, Pittsburgh, during the Pittsburgh railroad strike of 1877

The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased iron and armament demand by the Union. Andrew Carnegie began steel production in 1875 at the Edgar Thomson Steel Works in North Braddock, Pennsylvania, which evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company. He adopted the Bessemer process to increase production. Manufacturing was key to growth of Pittsburgh and the surrounding region. Railroad lines were built into the city along both rivers, increasing transportation access to important markets.

1900 to present

 
Pittsburgh in 1903

In 1901, J. P. Morgan and attorney Elbert H. Gary merged Carnegie Steel Company and several other companies into U.S. Steel. By 1910, Pittsburgh was the nation's 8th-largest city, accounting for between one-third and one-half of national steel output.

The Pittsburgh Agreement was subscribed in May 1918 between the Czech and Slovak nationalities, as envisioned by T. G. Masaryk, concerning the future foundation of Czechoslovakia.[44]

The city's population swelled to more than a half million, attracting numerous European immigrants to its industrial jobs. By 1940, non-Hispanic whites were 90.6% of the city's population.[45] Pittsburgh also became a main destination of the African-American Great Migration from the rural South during the first half of the 20th century.[46] Limited initially by discrimination, some 95% percent of the men became unskilled steel workers.[47]

During World War II, demand for steel increased and area mills operated 24 hours a day to produce 95 million tons of steel for the war effort.[32] This resulted in the highest levels of air pollution in the city's almost century of industry. The city's reputation as the "arsenal of democracy"[48][49] was being overshadowed by James Parton's 1868 observation of Pittsburgh being "hell with the lid off."[50]

Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance," cleaning up the air and the rivers. The "Renaissance II" project followed in 1977, focused on cultural and neighborhood development. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1970s, but beginning in the early 1980s both the area's steel and electronics industries imploded during national industrial restructuring. There were massive layoffs from mill and plant closures.[11]

In the later 20th century, the area shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare/medicine, finance, and high technology such as robotics. Although Pittsburgh successfully shifted its economy and remained viable, the city's population has never rebounded to its industrial-era highs. While 680,000 people lived in the city proper in 1950, a combination of suburbanization and economic turbulence resulted in a decrease in city population, even as the metropolitan area population increased again.

During the late 2000s recession, Pittsburgh was economically strong, adding jobs when most cities were losing them. It was one of the few cities in the United States to see housing property values rise. Between 2006 and 2011, the Pittsburgh metropolitan statistical area (MSA) experienced over 10% appreciation in housing prices—the highest appreciation of the largest 25 MSAs in the United States, as 22 of the top 25 MSAs saw a depreciation of housing values.[51] Pittsburgh's story of economic regeneration was the inspiration of President Barack Obama to host the 2009 G-20 Pittsburgh summit.[52]


الجغرافيا

 
منظر لوسط المدينة من خلال الشاطئ الشمالي لجسر روبرتو كليمنت

تصل مساحة مدينة پيتسبرگ إلى 58.3 ميل مربع (55.6 ميل مربع من الأرض و 2.8 ميل مربع من المياه) حيث تشكل المياه نسبة 4.75 % من إجمالي مساحة المدينة.


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Cityscape

Areas

The city consists of the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,[53] and four main areas surrounding it. These surrounding areas are subdivided into distinct neighborhoods (Pittsburgh has 90 neighborhoods).[54] Relative to downtown, these areas are known as the Central, North Side/North Hills, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End.

Golden Triangle

صور

 
Panorama of Pittsburgh, PA from the Duquesne Incline which shows the confluence of the Allegheny (left) and the Monongahela (right) rivers which merge to form the Ohio River (lower left)


Pittsburgh seen from Mt. Washington at night in 2015, with the Monongahela River in the foreground
Daytime photo from Mt. Washington in 2015

المناخ

يصنف مناخ مدينة پيتسبرگ على أنه مناخ قاري رطب. وتتوافر فرصة سقوط الأمطار طوال شهور السنة الأربعة. بينما يسمح المناخ القاري بتنوعات كبيرة في درجات الحرارة ، فإن المناخ في فصل الشتاء في مدينة پيتسبرگ يكون متأثرا بالهواء القادم من بالمحيط الأطلنطي والمرتفعات المحيطة بالمدينة مما يعطي هواءا باردا في الشمال. وبصفة عامة فإن المناخ في پيتسبرگ هو مناخ بارد شتاء مع تساقط الثلوج ، و حار رطب صيفا مع بعض السحب وإمكانية سقوط الأمطار.

درجات الحرارة الشهرية
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس إبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر أكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر
Record high 74°F (23°C) 76° (24°) 84° (29°) 90° (32°) 92° (33°) 96° (36°) 101° (38°) 97° (36°) 92° (33°) 85° (29°) 79° (26°) 74° (23°)
Normal high 37° (3°) 39° (4°) 50° (10°) 62° (17°) 71° (22°) 80° (27°) 85° (29°) 83° (28°) 76° (24°) 64° (18°) 53° (12°) 42° (6°)
Normal low 20° (-7°) 21° (-6°) 29° (-2°) 38° (3°) 48° (9°) 56° (13°) 62° (17°) 60° (16°) 53° (12°) 41° (5°) 33° (1°) 25° (-4°)
Record low -19° (-28°) -2° (-19°) 2° (-17°) 21° (-6°) 29° (-2°) 38° (3°) 37° (3°) 47° (8°) 35° (2°) 22° (-6°) 13° (-11°) 2° (-17°)
Precipitation 2.6 in. (6.6 cm.) 2.5 (6.3) 3.2 (8.2) 3.1 (7.8) 4 (10.3) 3.9 (10) 3.9 (9.9) 3.2 (8) 3.1 (8) 2.4 (6) 3.1 (7.7) 2.9 (7.3)
Source: The Weather Channel[55]

المنظر العام للمدينة

 
Pittsburgh is home to 89 حي سكني متميز.
 
شارع في حي Shadyside في إيست إند
 
South Side with both the Flats and the Slopes.
 
Common rowhouse scene in Lawrenceville
 
مدينة پيتسبرگ ليلا


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السكان

التعداد تاريخياً
الإحصاء التعداد
18104٬768
18207٬24852.0%
183012٬56873.4%
184021٬11568.0%
185046٬601120.7%
186049٬2215.6%
187086٬07674.9%
1880156٬38981.7%
1890238٬61752.6%
1900321٬61634.8%
1910533٬90566.0%
1920588٬34310.2%
1930669٬81713.8%
1940671٬6590.3%
1950676٬8060.8%
1960604٬332-10.7%
1970520٬117-13.9%
1980423٬938-18.5%
1990369٬879-12.8%
2000334٬563-9.5%

تبعا لتقرير المكتب الأمريكي للتعداد وصل عدد الأسر في پيتسبرگ إلى 74.169 عائلة. ووصل عدد السكان 163.739. يشكل البيض نسبة 84.33% من إجمالي سكان المدينة ، بينما أخذ السود نسبة 12.41%.

الجريمة

الإقتصاد

تشكل صناعة الصلب الحجر الأساسي في الذي يقوم على أساسه إقتصاد مدينة پيتسبرگ. The growth of Pittsburgh and its economy was caused by the extensive trade of steel. Since, Pittsburgh has adapted to the collapse of the region's steel industry. The primary industries have shifted more to high technology, such as robotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, and services. Education is also a major employer, from primary through magnet schools, specialized professional institutes and highly-ranked universities. In fact, Pittsburgh still maintains its status as a corporate headquarters city, with seven Fortune 500 companies calling the city home. This ranks Pittsburgh in a tie for the sixth-most Fortune 500 headquarters in the nation.[56] In 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Pittsburgh among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.[57]

الوظائف الهامة

خلال السنوات الأخيرة تقدمت الصناعة في پيتسبرگ بما فيها الصناعات التكنولوجية ، وصناعة الأدوية. أكبر الوظائف في المدينة في جامعة پيتسبرگ الطبية (26.000 موظف) ، وفي جامعة پيتسبرگ (10.700 موظف).[58]

الثقافة

 
متحف كارنجي للتاريخ الطبيعي.

الكتابة

اللهجة المحلية

المزارات

أهم المزارات:

المعيشة

الإعلام والثقافة العامة

الرياضة

النادي الرياضة الإتحاد, Conference المكان البطولات الهامة
Pittsburgh Steelers كرة قدم أمريكية National Football League; AFC North Heinz Field Super Bowl Champions: 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2006
Pittsburgh Penguins هوكي الجليد National Hockey League; Eastern Atlantic Mellon Arena Stanley Cup Champions: 1990–91, 1991–92
Pittsburgh Pirates بيسبول Major League Baseball; NL Central PNC Park National League Champions (pre-World Series): 1901, 1902; World Series Champions: 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, 1979
Pittsburgh Pipers كرة سلة American Basketball Association; Eastern Division Civic Arena ABA Champions: 1967-68
Pittsburgh Xplosion كرة سلة Continental Basketball Association; American Division Mellon Arena
Petersen Events Center
Pittsburgh Riverhounds كرة قدم USL Second Division Chartiers Valley High School Stadium
Pittsburgh Passion كرة قدم أمريكية National Women's Football Association; Northern Conference George K. Cupples Stadium NWFA World Champions: 2007
Pittsburgh Harlequins Rugby Union Mid-Atlantic Rugby Football Union Division I; Potomac Rugby Union Founders Field

الحكومة والسياسة

 
Henry Hornbostel's Pittsburgh City-County Building

التعليم

البنية التحتية

 
Looking NE down the Allegheny River towards the 40th St. Bridge, from Herr's Island

النقل

المطارات

هيئة الميناء

مدن شقيقة

ترتبط مدينة پيتسبرگ مع 16 مدينة شقيقة:[60]

انظر أيضا

وصلات خارجية

يمكنك أن تجد معلومات أكثر عن Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania عن طريق البحث في مشاريع المعرفة:

  تعريفات قاموسية في ويكاموس
  كتب من معرفة الكتب
  اقتباسات من معرفة الاقتباس
  نصوص مصدرية من معرفة المصادر
  صور و ملفات صوتية من كومونز
  أخبار من معرفة الأخبار.

المواقع الرسمية

هيئات

السفر

خرائط وصور

إهتمامات خاصة

مقالات عامة أخرى


المصادر

  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  2. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة USCensusEst2019
  3. ^ "Approved Markers". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  4. ^ "High-rise Buildings of Pittsburgh"
  5. ^ Pitt Chronicle: "Venice, Schmenice"
  6. ^ "Pittsburgh". Encyclopaedia Britannica. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  7. ^ قالب:Pittsburgh Names
  8. ^ قالب:Pittsburgh history
  9. ^ قالب:Pittsburgh Industries
  10. ^ قالب:Pittsburgh financial
  11. ^ أ ب قالب:Pittsburgh diaspora
  12. ^ قالب:Pittsburgh medical
  13. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Ritenbaugh
  14. ^ 30 Years: Pittsburgh moves from heavy industry to medicine, tech, energy
  15. ^ قالب:Pittsburgh colleges
  16. ^ قالب:Pittsburgh Technology. The University of Pittsburgh is amongst the top 20 universities in the country by the amount of federal research funding granted by the NIH, and CMU is amongst the top 50 universities in the country by amount of federal research funding granted by the NSF.
  17. ^ قالب:Pittsburgh economics
  18. ^ "The Metropolis Guide to the Best Cities to Live, Work, and Play in (2015)". Metropolis. July 28, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
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