افتح القائمة الرئيسية

جورجية

الجورجية Georgism (أو بالاقتصاد الجورجي)، هي فلسفة اقتصادية تؤمن بأن القيمة الاقتصادية المستمدة من الموارد والفرص الطبيعية ينبغي توزيعها بالتساوي على جميع أفراد المجتمع، فيما عدا الأشخاص الذين يملكون القيمة التي أنشؤوها.[1][2][3] يقدم النموذج الجورجي حلولاً للمشكلات الاجتماعية والبيئية، معتمدة على مبائ حقوق الأرض والمالية العامة والتي تحاول دمج الكفاءة الاقتصادية والعدالة الاجتماعية.[4][5]

الجورجية معنية بالتوزيع العادل للريع الاقتصادي الناجم عن الاحتكارات الطبيعية، التلوث، ويشمل سند ملكية الموارد الطبيعية والامتيازات الخلاقة الأخرى (مثل الملكية الفكرية). أي موارد طبيعية، والتي تقتصر بطبيعتها على المخزون، يمكن أن تولد ريع اقتصادي، لكن الأمثلة الكلاسيكية والأكثر أهمية لاحتكار الأراضي تنطوي على استخلاص الدخل العقاري من قيمة الأماكن الحضرية والزراعية.

يزعم الجورجيون أن فرض الضرائب على الريع الاقتصادي المستمد من الأراضي والوارد الطبيعية يعتبر فعالاً، عادلاً، ومنصف. الأداة السياسية الجورجية الرئيسية هي الرسم المفروضة على قيمة المكان، والتي يشارإليها عادة على أنها ضريبة قيمة الأرض. يزعم الجورجيون أن socially captured rents يمكنها أن تخفض أو تلغي الضرائب القائمة المفروضة على العمل والاستثمار والتي تعتبر غير عادلة وغير فعالة. كذلك يدعي بعض الجورجيين إلى رد فائض الإيرادات العامة المحصلة من الريع الاقتصادي إلى الأشخاص من خلال الدخل الأساسي أو حصة المواطن. لاحظ الاقتصاديون من أول آدم سميث، أنه غلى عكس الضرائب الأخرى، فإن ضريبة قيمة الأرض لا تتسبب في أي عجز اقتصادي بل إنها تحفز النشاط الاقتصادي.[6] كثيراً ما يقال أن لضريبة قيمة الأرض تأثير الضريبة التصاعدية، والتي تدفع بشكل رئيسي من قبل الأثرياء بدون المرور على المستأجرين.[7][8] Land value capture يمكن أن تقلل التفاوت الاقتصادي، زيادة الأجور، إزالة محفزات سوء الاستغلال العقاري، والحد من الضعف الذي يواجهه الاقتصاد جراء الائتمان وفقاعات الممتلكات.[9]

يعود الأساس الفلسفي للجورجية إلى العديد من أنصاره الأوائل مثل جون لوك[10] وباروخ سپينوزا،[11] لكن مفهوم تحصيل الإيرادات العامة من امتيازات الموارد الطبيعية أصبح شائعاً على نطاق واسع بواسطة الاقتصادي والمصلح الاجتماعي هنري جورج وأول كتبه، التقدم والفقر.[12]

كانت الأفكار الجورجية شائعة ومؤثرة في أوائل القرن العشرين.[13] في ذلك الوقت، تأسست أحزاب سياسية، مؤسسات وتجمعات معتمدة على المبادئ الجورجية. أطلق أوائل أتباع الفلسفة الجورجية على أنفسهم جامعو الضرائب الوحيدون، وكانوا مرتبطين بفكرة زيادة الإيرادات العامة بشكل حصري من الأراضي والامتيازات، لكن المصطلح أُعتبر خاطئاً لأن الجورجيين لم يعتبروا مقترحاتهم ضرائب حقيقية وعادة ما كانوا يدعمون آليات التمويل المتعددة. في الاقتصاد الكلاسيكي والجورجي، مصطلح يُعرف 'الأرض' على أنه جميع الأماكن، الفرص الطبيعية، الموارد، القوى البدنية، والامتيازات الحكومية على المجالات الاقتصادية، والتي ترتبط بشكل وثيق بمفهوم المشاع.[14] صيغت الجروجية لاحقاً، ويفضل البعض مصطلح الاقتصاد الجورجي للتفرقة بينها وبين معتقدات هنري جورج.[15][16]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

فهرست

المبادئ الرئيسية

 
مخطط العرض والطلب يوضح تأثيرات ضريبة قيمة الأرض. لاحظ أن العبء يقع بالكامل على مالك الأرض، وليس هناك deadweight loss.



الخصائص الاقتصادية

الاقتصاد
 
التصنيفات العامة

الاقتصاد الجزئي • الاقتصاد الكلي
تاريخ الفكر الاقتصادي
المنهاجية • الطرق المغايرة

التقنيات

اقتصاد رياضي • اقتصاد قياسي
التجريبي • المحاسبة الوطنية

المجالات والمجالات الفرعية

السلوكي • الثقافي • التطوري
النمو • التنمية • التاريخ
الدولي • أنظمة اقتصادية
النقدي و مالي
عام و علم اقتصاد الريع
الصحة • العمال • الاداري
المعلومات • نظرية الألعاب
منظمة صناعية  • القانون
الزراعي • الموارد الطبيعية
البيئة • البيئي
الحضري • الريفي • الإقليمي

القوائم

الدوريات · المطبوعات
تصنيفات · المواضيع · الاقتصاديين

  بوابة الأعمال والاقتصاد
 ع  ن  ت


مصادر الريع الاقتصادي والتدخلات السياسية المرتبطة


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الجورجية والاقتصادات البيئية

استخدامات الإيرادات


المرادفات والمتغيرات


التأثير

 
هنري جورج، الذي شكلت كتاباته ودعوته أساس الجورجية.


التجمعات

 
مدرسة هنري جورج للعلوم الاجتماعية في نيويورك



مؤسسات ومنظمات


نقد

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

مشاهير الجورجيين

انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  1. ^ "An Introduction to Georgist Philosophy & Activity". http://www.cgocouncil.org/. Council of Georgist Organizations. Retrieved 28 June 2014. External link in |website= (help)
  2. ^ Heavey, Jerome F. (July 2003). "Comments on Warren Samuels' "Why the Georgist movement has not succeeded"". American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 62 (3): 593–599. doi:10.1111/1536-7150.00230. JSTOR 3487813. human beings have an inalienable right to the product of their own labor
  3. ^ McNab, Jane. "How the reputation of Georgists turned minds against the idea of a land rent tax" (PDF). http://www.business.uwa.edu.au/. Retrieved 18 June 2014. External link in |website= (help)
  4. ^ Gaffney, Mason, and Harrison, Fred (1994). The Corruption of Economics. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. ISBN 978-0-85683-244-4
  5. ^ Hudson, Michael; Feder, Kris; and Miller, George James (1994). A Philosophy for a Fair Society. Shepheard-Walwyn, London. ISBN 978-0-85683-159-1.
  6. ^ Smith, Adam (1776). "Chapter 2, Article 1: Taxes upon the Rent of Houses". The Wealth of Nations, Book V.
  7. ^ Binswanger-Mkhize, Hans P; Bourguignon, Camille; Brink, Rogier van den (2009). Agricultural Land Redistribution : Toward Greater Consensus. World Bank. A land tax is considered a progressive tax in that wealthy landowners normally should be paying relatively more than poorer landowners and tenants. Conversely, a tax on buildings can be said to be regressive, falling heavily on tenants who generally are poorer than the landlords
  8. ^ Plummer, Elizabeth (March 2010). "Evidence on the Distributional Effects of a Land Value Tax on Residential Households" (PDF). National Tax Journal. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  9. ^ Land Value Taxation: An Applied Analysis, William J. McCluskey, Riël C. D. Franzsen
  10. ^ Locke, John. "Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money". Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  11. ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Logos Abused: The Decadence and Tyranny of Abstract Reasoning in Economics" (PDF). Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  12. ^ Foldvary, Fred. "Geoism Explained". The Progress Report. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  13. ^ The Forgotten Idea That Shaped Great U.S. Cities by Mason Gaffney & Rich Nymoen, Commons magazine,October 17, 2013.
  14. ^ ""ECONOMICS" and POLITICAL ECONOMY". http://www.henrygeorge.org/. Retrieved 27 March 2015. External link in |website= (help)
  15. ^ Tideman, Nic. "Basic Principles of Geonomics". Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  16. ^ Casal, Paula (2011). "Global Taxes on Natural Resources" (PDF). Journal of Moral Philosophy. 8 (3): 307–327. doi:10.1163/174552411x591339. Retrieved 14 March 2014. It can also invoke geoism, a philosophical tradition encompassing the views of John Locke and Henry George ...
  17. ^ Brown, H. G. "A Defense of the Single Tax Principle." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 183.1 (1936): 63-69.
  18. ^ Harter, Lafayette G. John R. Commons, His Assault on Laissez-faire. Corvallis: Oregon State UP, 1962. Pages 21, 32, 36, 38.
  19. ^ "Two Centuries of Economic Thought on Taxation of Land Rents." In Richard Lindholm and Arthur Lynn, Jr., (eds.), Land Value Taxation in Thought and Practice. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1982, pp. 151-96.
  20. ^ Brue, Stanley (2012). The Evolution of Economic Thought (PDF) (Supplemental Biography of John Rogers Commons for chapter 19 of the online edition of The Evolution of Economic Thought ed.). Cengage Learning. Retrieved 1 September 2014. "After reading Henry George's Progress and Poverty," Commons "became a single-taxer."
  21. ^ Crotty, Raymond D. (1988). A Radical's Response. Poolbeg. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  22. ^ Sheppard, Barry. "'Progress and Poverty' – Henry George and Land Reform in modern Ireland". http://www.theirishstory.com/. Retrieved 29 August 2014. External link in |website= (help)
  23. ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Stimulus: The False and the True Mason Gaffney". Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  24. ^ Douglas, Paul (1972). In the fullness of time; the memoirs of Paul H. Douglas. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0151443769.
  25. ^ Edenhofer, Ottmar. "Hypergeorgism: When is Rent Taxation as a Remedy for Insufficient Capital Accumulation Socially Optimal?". Retrieved 11 November 2013. Edenhofer writes, "Extending and modifying the tenet of georgism, we propose that this insight be called hypergeorgism." "From a historical perspective, our result may be closer to Henry George’s original thinking than georgism or the neoclassical Henry George Theorems."
  26. ^ Edenhofer, Ottmar. "Financing Public Capital Through Land Rent Taxation: A Macroeconomic Henry George Theorem". Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  27. ^ Edenhofer, Ottmar. "The Triple Dividend Climate Change Mitigation, Justice and Investing in Capabilities" (PDF). Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  28. ^ Fred Foldvary's website
  29. ^ Mason Gaffney's homepage
  30. ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  31. ^ Airlie Worrall, The New Crusade: the Origins, Activities and Influence of the Australian Single Tax Leagues, 1889–1895 (M.A. thesis, University of Melbourne, 1978).
  32. ^ Andelson Robert V. (2000). Land-Value Taxation Around the World: Studies in Economic Reform and Social Justice Malden. MA:Blackwell Publishers, Inc. p. 359.
  33. ^ Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Pay As You Park: UCLA professor Donald Shoup inspires a passion for parking" (May 2005). Planning Magazine. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  34. ^ Shoup, Donald C. "The Ideal Source of Local Public Revenue." Regional Science and Urban Economics 34.6 (2004): 753-84.
  35. ^ Washington, Emily. "The High Cost of Free Parking Chapters 19-22". marketurbanism.com. Market Urbanism. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  36. ^ Quotes from Nobel Prize Winners Herbert Simon stated in 1978: "Assuming that a tax increase is necessary, it is clearly preferable to impose the additional cost on land by increasing the land tax, rather than to increase the wage tax – the two alternatives open to the City (of Pittsburgh). It is the use and occupancy of property that creates the need for the municipal services that appear as the largest item in the budget – fire and police protection, waste removal, and public works. The average increase in tax bills of city residents will be about twice as great with wage tax increase than with a land tax increase."
  37. ^ Herbert Simon. (2014). The Famous People website. Retrieved 12:59, Oct 30, 2014, from http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/herbert-simon-293.php.
  38. ^ Foldvery, Fred E. (2005). "Geo-Rent: A Plea to Public Economists" (PDF). Econ Watch. 2 (1): pp 106–132. Retrieved 2 October 2013.CS1 maint: extra text (link)
  39. ^ Cleveland, Mary Manning. "How a Progressive Tax System Made Detroit a Powerhouse (and Could Again)". Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  40. ^ Tideman, Nicolaus. "Global Economic Justice". Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  41. ^ Bill Vickrey – In Memoriam
  42. ^ Cirillo, Renato (Jan 1984). "Léon Walras and Social Justice". The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 43 (1): 53–60. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.1984.tb02222.x. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  43. ^ Barker, Charles A., 1955. Henry George. New York: Oxford University Press
  44. ^ Boast, Richard (2008). Buying the land, selling the land : governments and Maori land in the North Island 1865-1921. Wellington N.Z: Victoria University Press, Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 9780864735614.
  45. ^ http://www.cooperativeindividualism.org/churchill-winston_mother-of-all-monopolies-1909.html
  46. ^ MacLaren, Andrew (Autumn 2001). "The People's Rights: Opportunity Lost?". Finest Hour. 112. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  47. ^ Dugan, Ianthe Jeanne (March 17, 2013). "It's a Lonely Quest for Land-Tax Fans, But, by George, They Press On". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  48. ^ Laurent, John (2005). Henry George's legacy in economic thought. Cheltenham, UK Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub. p. 9. ISBN 1843768852.
  49. ^ Bastian, Peter (2009). Andrew Fisher an underestimated man. Sydney, N.S.W: UNSW Press. pp. 28–30. ISBN 1742230040.
  50. ^ The Life of Henry George, Part 3 Chapter X1
  51. ^ Hayes, Rutherford B. "Henry George". Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  52. ^ "Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862–1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography: Online Edition.
  53. ^ Stout, Robert (14 April 1885). "ADDRESS BY THE HON. R. STOUT" (Volume XXII, Issue 7302). PAPERPAST. New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  54. ^ WOOLF, S.J. (April 27, 1941). "MORGENTHAU AT 85 RECALLS A FULL LIFE; MORGENTHAU AT 85". New York Times. NY Times Magazine. At heart [Woodrow Wilson] was a follower of Henry George and strongly objected to private profit accruing through the increase in land values.
  55. ^ Trescott, Paul B. (2007). Jingji Xue: The History of the Introduction of Western Economic Ideas Into China, 1850-1950. Chinese University Press. pp. 46–48. The foregoing help to demonstrate why Sun Yat-sen would have regarded Henry George as a very credible guide, and why in 1912 Sun could tell an interviewer, 'The teachings of your single-taxer, Henry George, will be the basis of our program of reform.'
  56. ^ Miller, Joseph Dana (1902). Land and Freedom: An International Record of Single Tax Progress, Volume 2. Single Tax Publishing Company. pp. 40–41.
  57. ^ "A Remembrance of Warren Worth Bailey". Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  58. ^ أ ب ت Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler". Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  59. ^ Finegold, Kenneth (1995). Experts and politicians : reform challenges to machine politics in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691037345.
  60. ^ Stevens, Elizabeth Lesly (July–August 2012). "The Power Broker". Washington Monthly. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  61. ^ Cameron, Clyde. "REVENUE THAT IS NOT A TAX". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  62. ^ "Single Tax Loses, But Mayor Favoring This Reform Is Chosen By a Small Vote Margin". The Milwaukee Journal. Mar 6, 1912. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  63. ^ Davis, John W. "Henry George, Original Thinker". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  64. ^ Gaynor, William Jay. Some of Mayor Gaynor's Letters and Speeches. New York: Greaves Pub., 1913. 214-21. http://books.google.com/books?id=-7kMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219#v=onepage&q&f=false
  65. ^ "Socialism in England: James Keir Hardie Declares That It Is Capturing That Country". California Digital Newspaper Collection. San Francisco Call. 25 September 1895. Retrieved 4 November 2014. Hardie states, "I was a very enthusiastic single-taxer for a number of years."
  66. ^ Howe, Frederic C. The Confessions of a Reformer. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1988.
  67. ^ Arcas Cubero, Fernando: El movimiento georgista y los orígenes del Andalucismo : análisis del periódico "El impuesto único" (1911–1923). Málaga : Editorial Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros, 1980. ISBN 84-500-3784-0
  68. ^ "Single Taxers Dine Johnson". New York Times May 31, 1910.
  69. ^ "Henry George". Ohio History Central: An Online History of Ohio History.
  70. ^ "Frank de Jong: Economic Rent Best Way to Finance Government". Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  71. ^ Gaffney, Mason. "What's the matter with Michigan? Rise and collapse of an economic wonder" (PDF). Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  72. ^ Cleveland, Polly. "The Way Forward for Detroit? Land Taxes". Washington Spectator. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  73. ^ Gaffney, Mason. "New Life in Old Cities" (PDF). UC Riverside. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  74. ^ Bryson, Phillip (2011). The economics of Henry George : history's rehabilitation of America's greatest early economist. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 145.
  75. ^ Moore, Robert (1974). Pit-men, preachers & politics the effects of Methodism in a Durham mining community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 61.
  76. ^ Jones, Carolyn C. (Spring 1997). "TAXING WOMEN: THOUGHTS ON A GENDERED ECONOMY: SYMPOSIUM: A HISTORICAL OUTLOOK: TAXES AND PEACE: A CASE STUDY OF TAXING WOMEN". Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  77. ^ أ ب Rothbard, Murray (2007). Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought (Complete, 1965-1968). Ludwig von Mises Institute. p. 263. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  78. ^ Brandeis, Louis (1971). Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Vol. 1. p. 82.
  79. ^ "101+ Famous Thinkers on Owning Earth". Retrieved 22 October 2013. Brandeis said, "I find it very difficult to disagree with the principles of Henry George... I believe in the taxation of land values only."
  80. ^ How to Abolish Unfair Taxation: An Address Before a Los Angeles Audience, Delivered March 1913 http://books.google.com/books/about/How_to_Abolish_Unfair_Taxation.html?id=rlOFHAAACAAJ
  81. ^ Darrow, Clarence. "The Land Belongs To The People" (PDF). www.umn.edu. Everyman. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  82. ^ "The Centre for Incentive Taxation". 20 (4). August 1994. Darrow replied about Georgism, "Well, you either come to it or go broke." Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  83. ^ Beth Shalom Hessel. "Field, Sara Bard"; http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-00220.html; American National Biography Online April 2014. Access Date: Sun Mar 22 2015 14:24:04 GMT-0700 (Pacific Daylight Time)
  84. ^ Lane, Fintan. The Origins of Modern Irish Socialism, 1881–1896.Cork University Press, 1997 (pp. 79, 81).
  85. ^ Miller, Joseph Dana (1921). "Mr. Samuel Gompers Replies to Our Criticism". The Single Tax Review. 21-22: 42. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  86. ^ Gompers, Samuel (1986). The Samuel Gompers Papers: The making of a union leader, 1850-86, Volume 1. University of Illinois Press. pp. 431–432. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  87. ^ Leubuscher, F. C. (1939). Bolton Hall. The Freeman. January issue.
  88. ^ Miller, Joseph Dana (1921). The Single Tax Review, Volumes 21-22. p. 178. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  89. ^ Land and Freedom, Volumes 22-23. 1922. p. 179. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  90. ^ "The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources". Retrieved 5 December 2014. Holmes said, "The passing years have only added to my conviction that Henry George is one of the greatest of all modern statesmen and prophets."
  91. ^ Eckert, Charles R. "Henry George, Sound Economics and the "New Deal"". Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  92. ^ Caves, Roger W. Encyclopedia of the City. Abingdon, Oxon, OX: Routledge, 2005.
  93. ^ Marsh, Benjamin Clarke. Lobbyist for the People; a Record of Fifty Years. Washington: Public Affairs, 1953.
  94. ^ "Single-Taxers again laud Henry George" (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Sep 8, 1912. p. 12 (1st col from top). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  95. ^
  96. ^ Jorgensen, Emil Oliver. The next Step toward Real Democracy: One Hundred Reasons Why America Should Abolish, as Speedily as Possible, All Taxation upon the Fruits of Industry, and Raise the Public Revenue by a Single Tax on Land Values Only. Chicago, IL: Chicago Singletax Club, 1920.
  97. ^ أ ب Gorgas, William Crawford, and Lewis Jerome Johnson. Two Papers on Public Sanitation and the Single Tax. New York: Single Tax Information Bureau, 1914. http://books.google.com/books?id=v3NHAAAAYAAJ
  98. ^ أ ب Ware, Louise. George Foster Peabody, Banker, Philanthropist, Publicist. Athens: U of Georgia, 1951. http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/ugapressbks/pdfs/ugp9780820334561.pdf
  99. ^ Young, Arthur Nichols (1916). Single tax Movement in the United States. S.l: Hardpress Ltd.
  100. ^ Thompson, John (1987). Reformers and war : American progressive publicists and the First World War. Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York: Cambridge University Press.
  101. ^ Post, Louis F. The Prophet of San Francisco: Personal Memories & Interpretations of Henry George. The Minerva Group.
  102. ^ Powderly, Terence Vincent (1889). Thirty Years of Labor. 1859-1889. Excelsior publishing house. Retrieved 8 December 2014. "It would be far easier to levy a "single tax," basing it upon land values." "It is because [...] a single land tax would prove to be the very essence of equity, that l advocate it.
  103. ^ Mitgang, Herbert (1996). The Man Who Rode the Tiger: The Life and Times of Judge Samuel Seabury. Fordham Univ Press.
  104. ^ Magarey, Susan (1985). Unbridling the tongues of women : a biography of Catherine Helen Spence. Sydney, NSW: Hale & Iremonger. ISBN 0868061492.
  105. ^ Thomas Spence was a self-taught militant who believed that the land had been stolen from the people and should be returned to them. This idea was the corner stone of his Plan. http://thomas-spence-society.co.uk/2.html
  106. ^ Wenzer, Kenneth (1997). An Anthology of Henry George's Thought (Volume 1). University Rochester Press. pp. 87, 243.
  107. ^ "Oregon Biographies: William S. U'Ren". Oregon History Project. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  108. ^ Candeloro, Dominic (April 1979). "The Single Tax Movement and Progressivism, 1880-1920". American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 38 (2): 113–127. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  109. ^ "The Inquisitive Voter". The Great Adventure. 4 (35). September 11, 1920. The proposition of Henry George will do more to lift humanity from the slough of poverty, crime, and misery than all else. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  110. ^ "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  111. ^ "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  112. ^ Eisenstein, Charles. "Post-Capitalism". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  113. ^ أ ب ت "The Funeral Procession". New York Times. November 1, 1897. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  114. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vviBboUXhuA Fred Harrison speaks at ALTER Spring Conference 2014
  115. ^ Steuer, Max (June 2000). "REVIEW ARTICLE A hundred years of town planning and the influence of Ebenezer Howard". The British Journal of Sociology. 51 (2): 377–386. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2000.00377.x. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  116. ^ Meacham, Standish (1999). Regaining Paradise: Englishness and the Early Garden City Movement. Yale University Press. pp. 50–53. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  117. ^ Purdom, Charles Benjamin (1963). The Letchworth Achievement. p. 1. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  118. ^ Harrison, F. (May–June 1989). "Aldous Huxley on 'the Land Question'". Land & Liberty. "Huxley redeems himself when he concedes that, if he were to rewrite the book, he would offer a third option, one which he characterised as 'the possibility of sanity.' In a few bold strokes he outlines the elements of this model: 'In this community economics would be decentralist and Henry Georgian, politics Kropotkinesque and co-operative.'"
  119. ^ Kunstler, James Howard (1998). Home from Nowhere: Remaking Our Everyday World For the 21st Century. Simon and Schuster. pp. Chapter 7.
  120. ^ Lora, Ronald; Longton, William Henry, eds. (1999). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-century America. Greenwood Publishing, Inc. p. 310. "Thus, the Freeman was to speak for the great tradition of classical liberalism, which [Albert Jay Nock and Francis Nielson] were afraid was being lost, and for the economics of Henry George, which both men shared."
  121. ^ Norris, Kathleen. "The Errors of Marxism". Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  122. ^ Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 3 November 2014.Sinclair was an active georgist but eventually gave up on explicitly advocating the reform because, "Our opponents, the great rich bankers and land speculators of California, persuaded the poor man that we were going to put all taxes on this poor man's lot."
  123. ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Excerpts from The Corruption of Economics". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  124. ^ A Great Iniquity.. Leo Tolstoy once said of George, "People do not argue with the teaching of George, they simply do not know it".
  125. ^ Lebrun, Victor. "Leo Tolstoy and Henry George". Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  126. ^ Starr, Kevin (1997). The dream endures : California enters the 1940s. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195157974. Wood had "strong leanings toward the single-tax theory of Henry George".
  127. ^ Barnes, Tim. "C.E.S. Wood (1852-1944)". The Oregon Encyclipedia. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  128. ^ Buckley, William F. Jr. "FIRING LINE: Has New York Let Us Down?" (PDF). http://www.schalkenbach.org/. PBS. Retrieved 6 November 2014. External link in |website= (help)Buckly says, "The location problem is, of course, easily solved by any Georgist, and I am one."
  129. ^ Perry, Jeffrey (2009). Hubert Harrison the voice of Harlem radicalism, 1883-1918. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 023113911X.
  130. ^ أ ب Sklar, Dusty. "Henry George and Zionism". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  131. ^ Kinsley, Michael (Jun 13, 2012). "Inequality: It's Even Worse Than We Thought". Bloomberg. BloombergView. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  132. ^ Kinsley, Michael. "The Capital-Gains Tax: A Tragedy in Two Acts" (Dec 19, 2012). Retrieved 31 October 2014.Kinsley reiterates that George is his favorite economist and that land taxes are the best source of revenue.
  133. ^ "The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources". Retrieved 31 October 2014.In The New Republic (February 12, 1992) Kinsley advocates removing all taxes and collecting land rent instead.
  134. ^ Chamberlain, John (1965). Farewell To Reform. Quadrangle Books. pp. 47–48. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  135. ^ Bernstein, David (May 2003). "Lochner's Feminist Legacy". Michigan Law Review. 101 (6). Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  136. ^ Matthews, Dylan (January 7, 2014). "Five conservative reforms millennials should be fighting for". The Washington Post. Wonkblog. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  137. ^ https://twitter.com/dylanmatt/status/414149160775204864 Dylan Matthews's verified account states, "I think we've both been Georgists for a while now."
  138. ^ Lawson, R (2006). A commonwealth of hope : the New Deal response to crisis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801884063.
  139. ^ Salam, Reihan (July 15, 2010). "On Property Taxes". Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  140. ^ Martin Wolf (2010-07-08). "Why we must halt the land cycle". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
  141. ^ Merryn Somerset Webb (2013-09-27). "How a levy based on location values could be the perfect tax". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
  142. ^ https://twitter.com/iddqkfa/status/468204465057566720
  143. ^ Smith, Charles Joseph (January–February 1941). "Forty Years of the Struggle for Freedom". Land and Freedom. XLI (1). Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  144. ^ Filler, Louis (1993). The muckrakers. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
  145. ^ Miller, Joseph Dana (ed.), 1917. Single Tax Year Book. NY: Single Tax Review Publishing Company
  146. ^ Worstall, Tim (2012-12-22). "What Michael Kinsley Gets Wrong About Taxation". Forbes. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  147. ^ Matthew, Yglesias. "My Five-Point Plan for Fixing Everything". Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  148. ^ https://twitter.com/mattyglesias/status/313754546486796288 "WSJ story on Georgism fails to note that it’s clearly correct"
  149. ^ Wineapple, Brenda. Sister Brother: Gertrude and Leo Stein. Lincoln: U of Nebraska, 2008.
  150. ^ Mills, Allen. "Single Tax, Socialism and the Independent Labour Party of Manitoba: The Political Ideas of F.J. Dixon and S.J. Farmer." Labour / Le Travail 5 (1980): 33-56. JSTOR. Web. 04 Dec. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/25139947?ref=no-x-route:ace15c2e1d6b230b7bafc46e82f39f89>
  151. ^ Smith, Carl (2008). Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman, Second Edition. University of Chicago Press. p. 359.
  152. ^ Muse return with new album The Resistance "Sure, he has already launched into a passionate soliloquy about Geoism (the land-tax movement inspired by the 19th-century political economist Henry George)".
  153. ^ Co-founder of the Henry George Club, Australia.
  154. ^ Williams, Karl. "Walter Burley Griffin". Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  155. ^ Aller, Pat. "The Georgist Philosophy in Culture and History". Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  156. ^ "Henry George, our hero in the battle for the right (Songs of the Hutchinsons)". Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  157. ^ "George Inness (1825–1894)". http://www.metmuseum.org/. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 27 August 2014. External link in |website= (help)
  158. ^ Schor, Esther (2006). Emma Lazarus. Random House. Author of "The New Colossus", on the Statue of Liberty, and the poem "Progress and Poverty", named after George's book, of which she said, “The life and thought of no one capable of understanding it can be quite the same after reading it.”
  159. ^ Peseroff, Joyce (March–April 2007). "Emma Lazarus". Tikkun. 22 (2). Retrieved 20 December 2014. Lazarus "supported Henry George's single tax".
  160. ^ Schwartzman, Jack. "A Remembrance of Anna George de Mille and Agnes de Mille". Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  161. ^ Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. pp. 29 & 47.
  162. ^ Easton, Carol (1996). No Intermissions The Life of Agnes de Mille. Da Capo Press.
  163. ^ Louvish, Simon (2008). Cecil B. DeMille: A Life in Art. Macmillan. pp. 40 & 249.
  164. ^ Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. p. 314.
  165. ^ "Henry George, The Scholar" – A Commencement Address Delivered by Francis Neilson at the Henry George School of Social Science, June 3, 1940.
  166. ^ Neilson, Francis (September 1939). "Albert Jay Nock on Henry George – Truth Sets Men Free". The Freeman. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  167. ^ McQueen, Humphrey. A New Britannia. St. Lucia, Qld.: U of Queensland, 2004.
  168. ^ Taylor, Mark (2010). Arden. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8.
  169. ^ Shields, Jerry. "Forgotten Writings of Arden's Frank Stephens". Collecting Delaware Books.
  170. ^ "Frank Lloyd Wright on Henry George's Remedy". Wealthandwant.com. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  171. ^ Carlson, Allan. The New Agrarian Mind: The Movement Toward Decentralist Thought in Twentieth-Century America Transaction Publishers, 2004 (p. 51).
  172. ^ Buttenheim, Harold S. (March 1934). "The Relation of Housing to Taxation". Law and Contemporary Problems. 1, No. 2 (Low-Cost Housing and Slum Clearance: A Symposium): pp. 198–205. doi:10.2307/1189565. Retrieved 23 October 2013.CS1 maint: extra text (link)
  173. ^ Butler, Nicholas. "Progress and Poverty" (PDF). Commencement Speech, Columbia University (1931). Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  174. ^ Daly, Herman (1994). For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future. Beacon Press. pp. 258–259, 328–329.
  175. ^ http://www.wealthandwant.com/HG/PP/Dewey_Appreciation_HG.html
  176. ^ Onken, Werner. "The Political Economy of Silvio Gesell: A Century of Activism." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.4 (2000): 609-22. Web. 16 Aug. 2014.
  177. ^ "The Life of Leon MacLaren". Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  178. ^ "The School of Economic Science". Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  179. ^ Mace, Elisabeth. "The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America". Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  180. ^ Hudson, Michael. "Speech to the Communist Party of Cuba". Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  181. ^ Van Parijs, Philippe (1992). Introduction to Arguing for Basic Income (PDF). London: Verso. pp. 3–43.
  182. ^ Sterba, James P. (2013). From Rationality to Equality. Oxford University Press. p. 193.
  183. ^ Bertrand Russell (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell, 1903–1959. Psychology Press. p. 492.
  184. ^ Bertrand Russell (1962). Freedom versus Organization. W. W. Norton & Company.
  185. ^ http://www.cooperativeindividualism.org/russell-bertrand_admiration-for-henry-george-1960.jpg Letter addressed to a Mr. Krumreig
  186. ^ Vallentyne, Peter. Left-libertarianism: A Primer. In Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel (2000). "Left-libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate". Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Publishers Ltd. "Georgist libertarians—such as eponymous George (1879, 1892), Steiner (1977, 1980, 1981, 1992, 1994), and Tideman (1991, 1997, 1998)—hold that agents may appropriate unappropriated natural resources as long as they pay for the competitive value of the rights they claim."
  187. ^ Babson, Roger (Aug 20, 1943). "Roger Babson Sees Many Changes To Come After the War Has Ended". The Evening Independent. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  188. ^ Two lettrs written in 1934 to Henry George's daughter, Anna George De Mille. In one letter Einstein writes, "The spreading of these works is a really deserving cause, for our generation especially has many and important things to learn from Henry George."
  189. ^ Elazar, Daniel (February 4, 1955). "Earth Is the Lord's". http://www.newspapers.com/. The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 23 November 2014. External link in |publisher= (help)
  190. ^ Wilhelm, Donald (September 5, 1942). "Henry Ford Talks About War and Your Future". Liberty Magazine. Retrieved 23 November 2014. Henry Ford says, "[. . .]every American family can have a piece of land. We ought to tax all idle land the way Henry George said — tax it heavily, so that its owners would have to make it productive"
  191. ^ MacCallum, Spencer H. (Summer–Fall 1997). "The Alternative Georgist Tradition" (PDF). FRAGMENTS. 35. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  192. ^ Foldvary, Fred E. (April 2004). "Heath: Estranged Georgist". American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 63 (2): pages 411–431. doi:10.1111/j.0002-9246.2004.00295.x. Retrieved 30 October 2014.CS1 maint: extra text (link)
  193. ^ Justice for Mumia Abu-Jamal[dead link]
  194. ^ http://schalkenbach.org/the-georgist-news/all/GN2/GN2-2.htm. Retrieved 1 October 2013. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  195. ^ Kennedy, Margrit. "Money & The Land Grab". YouTube. Share the Rents. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  196. ^ Lincoln, John. "Fighting For Fundamentals". Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  197. ^ Magie invented The Landlord's Game, predecessor to Monopoly
  198. ^ Dodson, Edward J. "How Henry George's Principles Were Corrupted Into the Game Called Monopoly". Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  199. ^ Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George Dr. Edward McGlynn & Pope Leo XIII" (PDF). Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  200. ^ "OFFERS $250,000 FOR SINGLE TAX CAMPAIGN; Joseph Fels Pledges That Sum for Five Years Here and in England. IF THERE IS AN EQUAL FUND Commission of Single Taxers Formed to Raise the Fund -- Roosevelt, Taft, and Hughes Said to be Friendly". New York Times. May 8, 1909. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  201. ^ Thomas B. Buell (1974). The Quiet Warrior. Boston: Little, Brown.
  202. ^ Mills, Allen. "Single Tax, Socialism and the Independent Labour Party of Manitoba: The Political Ideas of F.J. Dixon and S.J. Farmer." Labour / Le Travail 5 (1980): 33-56. JSTOR. Web. 04 Dec. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/25139947?ref=no-x-route:ace15c2e1d6b230b7bafc46e82f39f89>
  203. ^ "American Single Taxers Invade Tiny Andorra; Fiske Warren Carries Their Gospel to the Republic Hidden for Twelve Centuries in the Pyrenees Between France and Spain". New York Times. April 16, 1916. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  204. ^ Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  205. ^ Stanley, Buder (1990). Visionaries and Planners: The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community. Oxford University Press. Wallace described Progress and Poverty as “Undoubtedly the most remarkable and important book of the present century.”
  206. ^ Dudden, Arthur (1971). Joseph Fels and the single tax movement. Temple University Press.

وصلات خارجية