كولومبيا البريطانية

(تم التحويل من بريتش كلومبيا)

كولومبيا البريطانية British Columbia ‏(BC) هي أقصى المقاطعات الكندية إلى الغرب، بين المحيط الهادي وجبال روكي. With an estimated population of 5.1 million اعتبارا من 2020, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The capital of British Columbia is Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, and the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371 (about 2.5 million of whom were in Greater Vancouver).[8] The province is currently governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan with a majority government.

كولومبيا البريطانية

Colombie-Britannique  (فرنسية)[1][2]
الشعار: 
باللاتينية: Splendor sine occasu
(بالإنگليزية: Splendour without diminishment)
الإحداثيات: 54°00′00″N 125°00′00″W / 54.00000°N 125.00000°W / 54.00000; -125.00000Coordinates: 54°00′00″N 125°00′00″W / 54.00000°N 125.00000°W / 54.00000; -125.00000
البلدكندا
ConfederationJuly 20, 1871 (7th)
العاصمةVictoria
Largest cityڤانكوڤر
Largest metroڤانكوڤر الكبرى
الحكومة
 • النوعملكية دستورية
 • Lieutenant GovernorJanet Austin
 • PremierJohn Horgan (NDP)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of British Columbia
التمثيل الاتحاديParliament of Canada
المقاعد بمجلس العموم42 of 338 (12.4%)
المقاعد بمجلس الشيوخ6 of 105 (5.7%)
المساحة
 • الإجمالي944٬735 كم² (364٬764 ميل²)
 • البر925٬186 كم² (357٬216 ميل²)
 • الماء19٬548٫9 كم² (7٬547٫9 ميل²)  2.1%
ترتيب المساحةRanked 5th
 9.5% of Canada
التعداد
 (2016)
 • الإجمالي4٬648٬055 [3]
 • Estimate 
(2020 Q3)
5٬147٬712 [4]
 • الترتيبRanked 3rd
 • الكثافة5٫02/km2 (13�0/sq mi)
صفة المواطنBritish Columbian[5]
Official languagesNone
GDP
 • Rank4th
 • Total (2015)قالب:CAD[6]
 • Per capitaقالب:CAD (8th)
HDI
 • HDI (2018)0.930[7]Very high (2nd)
منطقة التوقيت
most of provinceUTC−08:00 (Pacific)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC−07:00 (Pacific DST)
far easternUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (Mountain DST)
Postal abbr.
BC
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 codeCA-BC
FlowerPacific dogwood
TreeWestern red cedar
BirdSteller's jay
Rankings include all provinces and territories

The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866) was founded by Richard Clement Moody[9] and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west",[10] and "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific".[11] Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park,[12] and designed the first version of the coat of arms of British Columbia.[13] Port Moody is named after him.[14]

In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu ("Splendour without Diminishment"). British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871. First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, and the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia.

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أصل الاسم

The province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866), i.e., "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858.[15] It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, which was the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States ("American Columbia" or "Southern Columbia"), which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.[16]

Ultimately, the Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and later the wider region;[17] the Columbia in the name Columbia Rediviva came from the name Columbia for the New World or parts thereof, a reference to Christopher Columbus.


الجغرافيا

 
British Columbia's geography is epitomized by the variety and intensity of its physical relief, which has defined patterns of settlement and industry since colonization.

التاريخ

بدأ احتلال جزيرة فانكوفر في سنة (1266 هـ -1849 م ) ، ثم اندمجت أرضها الجبلية في سنة (1283 هـ - 1866 م) في مستعمرة كولومبيا ، وأصبحت مستعمرة في سنة (1288 هـ - 1871 م ) ، تبلغ مساحتها ( 948,596 ) كيلو متراً مربعاً ، وسكانها في سنة (1401 هـ - 1981 ) ، 2,744,467 نسمة ، وعاصمتها مدينة فكتوريا ، وأهم مدنها مدينة فنكوفر وبرنس جورج .

 
Kwakwaka'wakw house pole, second half of the 19th century


قبل الإتحاد

النمو السريع والتنمية

التحالف والأزدهار في فترة ما بعد الحرب

الحكومة والنمو في الأقتصاد

 
Premier W.A.C. Bennett and his wife accompany Princess Margaret in Victoria, August 1958. Bennett governed the province for an unprecedented twenty years


الجغرافيا


الموقع

يحدها المحيط الأطلسي وألاسكا من الغرب والشمال الغربي ، وفي الشمال المقاطعات الشمالية ، ومن الشرق ولاية ألبرتا ، ومن الجنوب الولايات المتحدة ، وأمام سواحلها جزر فكوفر .


الأرض

يغلب على أرض الولاية المظهر الجبلي المضرس ، فتبدأ من الغرب بسلسلة جبال الساحل على شكل جزر جبلية أمام شواطىء كولومبيا ، ويلي الشاطىء مباشرة سلاسل جبلية هي امتداد لسلاسل كاسكيد في الولايات المتحدة ، وتقطع هذه السلاسل الساحلية لتعبر من خلال الأنهار ، ويلي الجبال الساحلية هضبة ضيقة ثم سلاسل جبال الروكي في شرق هذه الهضبة ، ثم تنحدر الروكي شرقاً نحو إقليم البراري .

المناخ

يتنوع المناخ نتيجة تنوع السطح ، وتقع المنطقة في مهب الرياح الغربية الدافئة ، وهذا قلل من قسوة برودتها ، ويقل المدى الحراري في المناطق الساحلية ، فالشتاء معتدل والصيف دافىء ، ثم يزداد المدى الحراري فوق المرتفعات فيظهر الشتاء البارد الطويل ، وتهبط الحرارة إلى ما دون درجة التجمد ، والصيف قصير دافىء ، والأمطار غزيرة على السواحل وتقل نحو الداخل ، والصورة النباتية متنوعة فعلى السواحل تنمو الغابات الصنوبرية ، وتقل الأشجار نحو الداخل .

التوزيع السكاني

سكان كولومبيا البريطانية منذ 1851

الدين

Religious groups in BC (1991 & 2001) & Canada (2001)
1991 BC % 2001 BC % 2001 Canada % BC 2001 number
Total population 100% 100% 100% 3,868,875
Total Christian 64.3% 55.7% 77% 2,124,615
Protestant 41.9% 31.4% 29% 1,213,295
Catholic 18.3% 17.2% 44% 675,320 includes Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic .
Christian Orthodox 0.7% 0.9% 2% 35,655
Christian n. i. e. 2.7% 5.2% 3% 200,345 Includes mostly answers of 'Christian', not otherwise stated
Sikh 2.3% 3.5% 6% 450,310
Buddhist 1.1% 2.2% 1% 85,540
Muslim 0.8% 1.5% 2% 56,220
Hindu 0.6% 0.8% 1% 31,500
Jewish 0.5% 0.5% 1% 21,230
Eastern religions 0.3% 0.1% 9,970 includes Baha'i, Eckankar, Jains, Shinto, Taoist, Zoroastrian and Eastern religions, not identified elsewhere
Other religions 0.4% 0.2% 16,205 includes Aboriginal spirituality, Pagan, Wicca, Unity - New Thought - Pantheist, Scientology, Rastafarian, New Age, Gnostic, Satanist, etc.
No religious affiliation 30.0% 35.9% 17% 1,388,300 includes Agnostic, Atheist, Humanist, and No religion, and other responses, such as Darwinism, etc.

[18][19]


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المجموعات العرقية

Ethnic Origin Population Percent
English 1,144,335 29.6%
Canadian / Canadien 939,460 24.3%
Scottish 748,905 19.4%
Irish 562,895 14.5%
German 500,675 12.9%
Chinese 373,830 9.7%
French 331,535 8.6%
East Indian 183,650 4.75%
Dutch (Netherlands) 180,635 4.7%
Ukrainian 178,880 4.6%
North American Indian 175,085 4.5%
Italian 126,420 3.3%
Norwegian 112,045 2.9%
Polish 107,340 2.8%
Swedish 89,630 2.3%
Welsh 86,710 2.2%
Russian 86,110 2.2%
Filipino 69,345 1.8%
American (USA) 59,075 1.5%
Danish 49,685 1.3%
Ethnic Origin Population Percent
Métis 45,455 1.2%
Hungarian 43,515 1.1%
Japanese 37,385 1.0%
Austrian 36,850 1.0%
Spanish 33,945 0.9%
Korean 32,200 0.8%
Jewish 31,280 0.8%
British 30,630 0.8%
Portuguese 30,085 0.8%
Finnish 27,270 0.7%
Vietnamese 27,190 0.7%
Swiss 23,895 0.6%
Iranian 21,910 0.6%
Romanian 19,910 0.5%
Icelandic 19,155 0.5%
Czech 17,865 0.5%
Greek 17,705 0.5%
Punjabi 16,565 0.4%
Croatian 16,285 0.4%
Belgian 14,555 0.4%

اللغات

Language عدد
المتكلمين أصلاً
كنسبة من
الردود الأحادية الاختيار
الإنگليزية 2,875,770 71.5%
Chinese languages 342,920 8.5%
Punjabi 158,750 4.0%
German 86,690 2.2%
French 54,745 1.4%
Tagalog (Filipino/Philipino) 50,425 1.3%
Korean 46,500 1.2%
Spanish 34,075 0.9%
Persian (Farsi) 28,150 0.7%
Italian 27,020 0.7%
Dutch (Nederlands) 26,355 0.7%
Vietnamese 24,560 0.7%
Hindi 23,240 0.6%
Japanese 20,040 0.5%
Russian 19,320 0.5%
Polish 17,565 0.4%
Portuguese 14,385 0.4%
Ukrainian 12,285 0.3%
Hungarian (Magyar) 10,670 0.3%
Croatian 8,505 0.2%
Language Number of
native speakers
Percentage of
singular responses
العربية 8,440 0.2%
Urdu 7,025 0.2%
Danish 6,720 0.5
Greek 6,620 0.2%
Gujarati 6,565 0.2%
Romanian 6,335 0.2%
Serbian 6,180 0.2%
Czech 6,000 0.1%
Finnish 4,770 0.1%
Athabaskan languages 3,500 0.1%
Slovak 3,490 0.1%
Norwegian 3,275 0.1%
Tamil 3,200 0.1%
Salish languages 3,190 0.1%
Ilocano 3,100 0.1%
Malay 3,100 0.1%
Bisayan languages 3,035 0.1%
Swedish 2,875 0.1%
Turkish 2,255 0.1%
Tsimshian languages 2,125 0.1%


السياسة

 
The Parliament buildings in Victoria
 
The chamber of the provincial legislature


الاقتصاد

 
Vancouver is the business capital of British Columbia


النقل

النقل البرى

 
Alex Fraser Bridge on Highway 91 in Richmond/Delta


سطح النقل العام

السكك الحديدية

 
CPR train traversing the Stoney Creek Bridge


النقل البحرى

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النقل الجوى

الحدائق والمناطق المحمية

 
Yoho National Park


الترفيه

خرائط

المناطق الاقليمية

 
A crop of Cannabis Sativa, or "BC Bud"

المدن

 
The flag of British Columbia flying aboard the BC Ferries vessel MV Queen of Oak Bay
Other municipalities

الحياة البرية

الانواع المهددة بالانقراض

أنظر أيضا

وصلات خارجية

المصادر

  1. ^ Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada. "Place names - British Columbia / Colombie-Britannique". www4.rncan.gc.ca. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  2. ^ "BC Geographical Names". apps.gov.bc.ca. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  3. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011censuses". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
  4. ^ "Population by year of Canada of Canada and territories". Statistics Canada. June 14, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  5. ^ According to the Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage (ISBN 0-19-541619-8; p. 335), BCer(s) is an informal demonym that is sometimes used for residents of BC
  6. ^ Statistics Canada. Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2015); November 9, 2016 [cited January 26, 2017].
  7. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  8. ^ "Population Estimates, British Columbia and Sub-Provincial". BC Stats. December 2012. Archived from the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  9. ^ Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Volume 90, Issue 1887, 1887, pp. 453–455, Obituary. Major-General Richard Clement Moody, R.E., 1813–1887.
  10. ^ Donald J. Hauka, McGowan's War, Vancouver: 2003, New Star Books, p.146.
  11. ^ Jean Barman, The West Beyond the West: A History of British Columbia, (Toronto: University of Toronto), p.71
  12. ^ "Col. Richard Clement Moody – Postscript". Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  13. ^ Margaret Ormsby, Richard Clement Moody, in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  14. ^ "Heraldic Science Héraldique, Arms and Devices of Provinces and Territories, British Columbia". Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  15. ^ Martin, Ged (1978). "The Naming of British Columbia". Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies. 10 (3): 257–263. doi:10.2307/4048132. JSTOR 4048132.
  16. ^ Akrigg, Helen B.; G.P.V. (1977). British Columbia Chronicle, 1847–1871: Gold & Colonists (illustrated ed.). Discovery Press. ISBN 9780919624030.
  17. ^ "Why is the Western Region of Canada Called British Columbia?". Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  18. ^ Statistics Canada.
  19. ^ Statistics Canada.
  20. ^ Statistics Canada (2002). StatsCan "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 2007-04-26.

المراجع

  • الأقليات المسلمة في الأمريكتين والبحر الكاريبي – سيد عبد المجيد بكر .

Coordinates: 54°54′N 124°30′W / 54.900°N 124.500°W / 54.900; -124.500 (British Columbia){{#coordinates:}}: لا يمكن أن يكون هناك أكثر من وسم أساسي واحد لكل صفحة