افتح القائمة الرئيسية

أستراليا الغربية

(تم التحويل من غرب أستراليا)

أستراليا الغربية (بالإنجليزية: Western Australia) هي أكبر ولايات أستراليا. تغطي ولاية أستراليا الغربية الثلث الغربي من أستراليا. تبلغ مساحتها 2645615 كم2. تقارب الولاية جنوب أستراليا والمنطقة الشمالية. وعاصمتها هي مدينة بيرث. يسكنها 2003800 نسمة حسب إحصائية نهاية مارس 2005. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,527,013 kiloمتر مربعs (2.720054×1013 قدم2),[3] and the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic. The state has about 2.6 million inhabitants  – around 11 percent of the national total  – of whom the vast majority (92 percent) live in the south-west corner, 79 percent of the population living in the Perth area,[4] leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated.

أستراليا الغربية
Flag of Western Australia.svg Coat of arms of Western Australia.svg
Flag Coat of arms
Slogan or nicknameThe Wildflower State; The Golden State
Map of Australia with Western Australia highlighted
Other Australian states and territories
Capital cityPerth
DemonymWestern Australian, Sandgroper (colloquial)
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
 - GovernorKim Beazley
 - PremierMark McGowan (Labor)
Australian state 
 - Established (as the Swan River Colony)2 مايو 1829
 - Responsible government21 أكتوبر 1890
 - Federation1 يناير 1901
 - Australia Act3 مارس 1986
Area 
 - Total2٬642٬753 كم² (1st)
1٬020٬373 sq mi
 - Land2٬527٬013 كم²
975٬685 sq mi
 - المياه115٬740 طك² (4.38%)
44٬687 sq mi
السكان
(December 2019)[1]
 
 - السكان2٬639٬080 (4th)
 - Density1.04/km² (7th)
2٫7 /sq mi
Elevation 
 - Highest pointMount Meharry
1,249 م (4,098 قدم)
Gross state product
(2018–19)
 
 - Product ($m)$183٬919[2] (4th)
 - ن.م.إ. للفرد$98٬997 (2nd)
منطقة التوقيتUTC+08:00 (AWST) UTC+08:45 (ACWST)
التمثيل الفدرالي 
 - مقاعد مجلس النواب16/150
 - مقاعد مجلس الشيوخ12/76
Abbreviations 
 - الرمز البريديWA
 - ISO 3166-2AU-WA
Emblems 
 - الزهرةRed-and-green or Mangles kangaroo paw
(Anigozanthos manglesii)
 - الحيوانNumbat
(Myrmecobius fasciatus)
 - الطائرBlack swan
(Cygnus atratus)
 - السمكةWhale shark
 - FossilGogo fish
(Mcnamaraspis kaprios)
 - ColoursBlack and gold
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.wa.gov.au

The first Europeans to visit Western Australia belonged to the Dutch Dirk Hartog expedition, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616. The first permanent European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 ديسمبر 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government,[5] although Wiebbe Hayes Stone Fort—the oldest surviving European building in Australia—was built 197 years prior in 1629 on West Wallabi Island in Western Australia by survivors of the  Batavia shipwreck and massacre. Lockyer established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, and on 21 يناير 1827[5] formally took possession for the British Crown of the western part of the continent that was not already claimed by the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth.

York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kiloمترs (60 ميلs) east of Perth, it was settled on 16 سبتمبر 1831.[6]

Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy mainly relies on mining, oil and gas, services and construction. The state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports.[7] Western Australia is the largest iron ore producer in the world.[8]


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فهرست

التاريخ

 
Ngaanyatjarra children, from the desert regions of Western Australia

The first inhabitants of Australia arrived from the north about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Over thousands of years they eventually spread across the whole landmass. These Indigenous Australians were long established throughout Western Australia by the time European explorers began to arrive in the early 17th century.

 
Map first drawn in 1618 by Hessel Gerritsz showing the charted coast of Australia. Chartings after 1618, for example by François Thijssen in 1627, were added to the engraved plate between 1628 and 1632.[9]


الجغرافيا

Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, and bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean; in Australia it is officially gazetted as the Southern Ocean.[b][10][11]

The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 kم (6,108,924 قدم).[12] There are 20,781 kم (68,179,134 قدم) of coastline, including 7,892 kم (25,892,388 قدم) of island coastline.[13] The total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million kم2 (970 thousand ميل2).[14]

الجيولوجيا

The bulk of Western Australia consists of the extremely old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India, Madagascar and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth (3 – 3.2  billion years ago). In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits (often found around hot springs and geysers) uncovered in the Pilbara craton.[15][16]

Because the only mountain-building since then has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is extremely eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres (4,085 ft) AHD (at Mount Meharry in the Hamersley Range of the Pilbara region). Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres (1,200 ft), very low relief, and no surface runoff. This descends relatively sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment (as with the Darling Range/Darling Scarp near Perth).

 
Western Australian cities, towns, settlements and road network.


المناخ

 
Köppen climate types in Western Australia


بيانات مناخ Western Australia
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 49.8
(121.6)
50.5
(122.9)
48.1
(118.6)
45.0
(113)
40.6
(105.1)
37.8
(100)
38.3
(100.9)
40.0
(104)
43.1
(109.6)
46.9
(116.4)
48.0
(118.4)
49.4
(120.9)
50٫5
(122٫9)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) 0.9
(33.6)
0.5
(32.9)
-0.8
(30.6)
-2.2
(28)
-5.6
(21.9)
-6.0
(21.2)
-6.7
(19.9)
-7.2
(19)
-4.6
(23.7)
-5.0
(23)
-2.1
(28.2)
0.0
(32)
-7٫2
(19)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[17]


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الديمغرافيا

 
Western Australia's capital and largest city, Perth, from Kings Park. Its metropolitan area is home to 75% of the state's population.
 
WA population growth 1829–2010
 
Distribution of the Western Australian population

Ancestry and immigration

Country of birth (2016)[18][19]
Birthplace[N 1] Population
Australia 1,492,842
England 194,163
New Zealand 79,221
India 49,385
South Africa 41,008
Philippines 30,835
Malaysia 29,126
Mainland China 27,126
Italy 19,210
Ireland 18,036
Vietnam 15,845

أكبر المدن

ولايات شقيقة

Western Australia has four sister states:[20]

In 1981, a sister state agreement was drawn up between Western Australia and Hyōgo Prefecture in Japan that was aimed at improving cultural ties between the two states.[21][22] To commemorate the 10th anniversary of this agreement, the Hyōgo Prefectural Government Cultural Centre was established in Perth in 1992.[23] Prior to that, the Western Australian government opened an office in Kobe, the largest city in Hyōgo, to facilitate maintenance of the relationship in 1989.[22][24]

Following the Great Hanshin earthquake that devastated southern Hyōgo in January 1995, Western Australian groups and businesses raised funds and provided materials, whilst individuals travelled to Hyōgo to help with emergency relief and the subsequent reconstruction process.[25][26][27] The two governments signed a memorandum of understanding on the 20th anniversary in 2001 that aimed to improve the economic relationship between the two states.[22]

Further to the sister state relationship, the City of Rockingham in Western Australia and the City of Akō in Hyōgo signed a sister city agreement in 1997. It is one of nine sister city relationships between Western Australian and Japanese cities.[28]


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See also

Notes

  1. ^ In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, Mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately
 
"West Australia" on a 1902 stamp

a  "West Australia" and its related demonym "West Australian" are occasionally used, including in the names of the main daily newspaper, The West Australian, and the state-based West Australian Football League, but are rarely used in an official sense. The terms "Westralia" and "Westralian" were regularly used in the 19th and 20th century.[29][30] The terms are still found in the names of certain companies and buildings, e.g. Westralia House in Perth and Westralia Airports Corporation, which operates Perth Airport, as well as in the names of several ships.[31][32]
b  In Australia, the body of water south of the continent is officially gazetted as the Southern Ocean, whereas the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) designates it as part of the Indian Ocean.[33][34]

References

  1. ^ "Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2019". 18 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020. Estimated Resident Population – 31 December 2019
  2. ^ "5220.0 – Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2018–19". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 15 November 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  3. ^ "Area of Australia - States and Territories". Geoscience Australia. Geoscience Australia, Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 2020-07-26. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  4. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة ABSCapitalPop
  5. ^ أ ب "King George's Sound Settlement". State Records Authority of New South Wales. Retrieved 30 أغسطس 2016. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. ^ Knibbs, G.H. (1911). "The Creation of the Several Colonies". Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia. 4. Melbourne: Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics. p. 16.
  7. ^ Curran, Enda (21 February 2012). "Western Australia Plans Sovereign Wealth Fund". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  8. ^ "US Geological Survey" (PDF). Minerals.usgs.gov. 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  9. ^ Gerritsz, Hessel (1618–1638). "Chart of the Malay Archipelago and the Dutch discoveries in Australia". Octroy Vande H.M. Heeren de Staten Generael der Vereenichde Neerlanden. The discoveries after 1618 were added to the engraved plate between 1628 and 1632. Amsterdam: Hessel Gerritsz. Retrieved 2020-08-03 – via Trove.
  10. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 7 October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2019. Cite uses generic title (help)
  11. ^ "Canberra all at sea over position of Southern Ocean". The Age. 22 December 2003. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  12. ^ "State And Territory Borders". Geoscience Australia. 11 September 2007. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
  13. ^ "Coastline Lengths". Geoscience Australia. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  14. ^ "Area of States and Territories". Geoscience Australia. 31 August 2005. Archived from the original on 30 July 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
  15. ^ "Oldest evidence of life on land found in 3.48-billion-year-old Australian rocks". Phys.org. 9 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  16. ^ Djokic, Tara; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Campbell, Kathleen A.; Walter, Malcolm R.; Ward, Colin R. (9 May 2017). "Earliest signs of life on land preserved in ca. 3.5 Ga hot spring deposits". Nature Communications. 8: 15263. doi:10.1038/ncomms15263. PMC 5436104. PMID 28486437.
  17. ^ "Official records for Australia in January". Bureau of Meteorology. 1 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  18. ^ "2016 Census Community Profiles: Western Australia". quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au.
  19. ^ "2016 - Census Output". www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/.
  20. ^ Arts, Department of Culture and. "Sister State Relationships ~ DCA". Dca.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  21. ^ "Hyogo-WA Sister State Relationship". Hyogo Prefectural Government Cultural Centre. 10 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  22. ^ أ ب ت "WA-Hyogo Sister State". Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  23. ^ "About the centre". Hyogo Prefectural Government Cultural Centre. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  24. ^ "Japanese garden a tribute to Sister State relationship with Hyogo prefecture". Government of Western Australia. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  25. ^ "About Us". Australia Japan Society of WA. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  26. ^ "Memorial service pays tribute to Japanese earthquake victims". City of Perth. January 2016. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  27. ^ "Hansard, Western Australian Legislative Assembly". Parliament of Western Australia. 21 October 1997. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  28. ^ "WA-Japan Sister City Relationships". Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  29. ^ "SLWA Online Catalogue /Entire Sta". Henrietta.liswa.wa.gov.au. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  30. ^ "Search results for 'westralia' – Trove". Trove.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  31. ^ "SLWA Online Catalogue /Entire Sta". Henrietta.liswa.wa.gov.au. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  32. ^ "SLWA Online Catalogue /Entire Sta". Henrietta.liswa.wa.gov.au. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  33. ^ [1] Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ "Canberra all at sea over position of Southern Ocean". Theage.com.au. Retrieved 2 November 2012.

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