آرْهوس ( Aarhus أو Århus ؛ ( /ˈɔːrhs/, /USalsoˈɑːrʔ/,[3][4][5][6] الدنماركية: [ˈɒːˌhuˀs] ( استمع); officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 1 January 2011)[7][note 1] هي ثاني أكبر مدن الدنمارك. وهي ميناء بحري على ساحل يوتلاند الشرقي، في بحر كاتگات، تقع على بعد 187 كم شمال غرب كوبنهاگن. وهي مركز تجاري وصناعي. وعدد سكانها 204,139 نسمة. وفي أرهوس كاتدرائية، بُنيت في القرن الثاني عشر الميلادي، وجامعة أسست عام 1928.

Aarhus
From top and left to right: Aarhus skyline, Aarhus City Hall, Isbjerget, Park Allé
From top and left to right: Aarhus skyline, Aarhus City Hall, Isbjerget, Park Allé
Aarhus city seal from 1421
Seal
Aarhus coat of arms
Coat of arms
الكنية: 
Smilets by (City of smiles)
Aarhus is located in الدنمارك
Aarhus
Aarhus
Location within Denmark
Aarhus is located in Scandinavia
Aarhus
Aarhus
Location within Scandinavia
Aarhus is located in أوروپا
Aarhus
Aarhus
Location within Europe
الإحداثيات: 56°09′N 10°13′E / 56.150°N 10.217°E / 56.150; 10.217
CountryDenmark
RegionCentral Denmark Region (Midtjylland)
MunicipalityAarhus
Established8th century
City Status15th century
السمِيْAarhus River mouth
الحكومة
 • النوعMagistrate
 • MayorJacob Bundsgaard (S)
المساحة
 • الحضر
98٫4 كم² (38�0 ميل²)
 • Municipal468 كم² (181 ميل²)
أعلى منسوب
105 m (344 ft)
أوطى منسوب
0 m (0 ft)
التعداد
 (1 January 2021)[2]
 • الترتيبDenmark: 2nd
 • Urban
282٬910
 • الكثافة الحضرية2٬854/km2 (7٬390/sq mi)
 • Municipal
352٬751
 • كثافة Municipal745/km2 (1٬930/sq mi)
صفة المواطنAarhusianer
منطقة التوقيتUTC+1 (CET)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
8000, 8200, 8210, 8220, 8230
مفتاح الهاتف(+45) 8
الموقع الإلكترونيOfficial website

The largest city in Jutland, Aarhus anchors the Central Denmark Region and the statistical region Landsdel Østjylland (LØ) (lit.: Province East Jutland). The LØ is the second most populous statistical region in Denmark with an estimated population of 903,974 (اعتبارا من 1 يناير 2021 (2021-01-01)). Aarhus Municipality defines the greater Aarhus area as itself and 8 adjacent municipalities totalling 952,824 inhabitants (اعتبارا من 1 يناير 2021 (2021-01-01)) which is roughly analogous to the municipal and commercial collaboration Business Region Aarhus.[8][9] The city proper, with an estimated population of 282,910 inhabitants (as of 2021), ranks as the 2nd-largest city in Denmark.

Aarhus dates back to at least the late 8th century and is among the oldest cities in Denmark. It was founded as a harbour settlement at the mouth of the Aarhus River and quickly became a trade hub. The first Christian church was built here around the year 900 and later in the Viking Age the town was fortified with defensive ramparts. The Viking Age was turbulent and violent, also for Aros, as the town was called back then, but in spite of the difficulties, the bishopric of Aarhus grew steadily stronger and more prosperous, building several religious institutions in the town during the early Middle Ages. Trade continued to improve, although it was not until 1441 that Aarhus was granted Market town privileges, and the population of Aarhus remained relatively stable until the 19th century. The 1600s, in particular, was a difficult time for Aarhus as the town suffered from several wars and the plague, and trade was also dampened by the state in favour of the royal seat of Copenhagen. Nevertheless, Aarhus grew to become the second biggest town in Denmark during that time, and in the middle of the 1700s, the once prosperous trade growth returned. The industrial revolution became an inflection point in the 19th century, as industry drove a rapid population growth, outpacing regional rivals, and the first railway line in Jutland was built here in 1862. In 1928, the first university in Jutland was founded in Aarhus and today it is a university city and the largest centre for trade, services, industry, and tourism in Jutland.

Designated as a "Sufficiency" global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network,[10] the city's major cultural institutions include Den Gamle By, ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum, Moesgård Museum, Kvindemuseet, Musikhuset and Aarhus Theatre. Known as Smilets By (lit. City of Smiles) it is the Danish city with the youngest and fastest growing demographics and home to Scandinavia's largest university, Aarhus University.[2][11] Commercially, the city is the principal container port in the country and major Danish companies are headquartered here such as Vestas, Arla Foods, Salling Group, and Jysk.

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Spelling

The spelling "Aarhus" is first found in 1406 and gradually became the norm in the 17th century.[12] With the Danish spelling reform of 1948, "Aa" was changed to "Å". Some Danish cities resisted the change but Aarhus city council opted to change the name.[13] In 2010, the city council voted to change the name back from Århus to Aarhus again with effect from 1 January 2011.


التاريخ

Early history

Founded in the early Viking Age, Aarhus is one of the oldest cities in Denmark, along with Ribe and Hedeby.[14] The original Aros settlement was situated on the northern shores of a fjord by the mouth of the Aarhus River, right where the city center is today. It quickly became a hub for sea-going trade due to its position on intersecting trade routes in the Danish straits and the fertile countryside. The trade, however, was not nearly as prominent as that in Ribe and Hedeby during the Viking Age, and it was primarily linked to Norway as evidenced by archaeological finds. A shipbuilding yard from the Viking Age was uncovered upriver in 2002 by archaeologists. It was located at a place formerly known as Snekkeeng, or Snekke Meadow in English ('Snekke' is a type of longship), east of the Brabrand Lake close to Viby, and it was in use for more than 400 years from the late 700s till around the mid-1200s.[15]

 
Model of the fortified Viking town Aros (late 900s), north is up

Archaeological evidence indicate Aarhus was a town as early as the last quarter of the 8th century.[16][17] Discoveries after a 2003 archaeological dig, includes half-buried longhouses, firepits, glass pearls and a road dated to the late 700s.[18] Several excavations in the inner city since the 1960s, has revealed wells, streets, homes and workshops, and inside the buildings and adjoining archaeological layers, everyday utensils like combs, jewellery and basic multi-purpose tools from approximately the year 900 has been unearthed.[19] The early town was fortified with defensive earthen ramparts in the first part of the 900s, possibly in the year 934 on order from king Gorm the Old. The fortifications were later improved and expanded by his son Harald Bluetooth, encircling the settlement much like the defence structures found at Viking ring fortresses elsewhere.[16] Together with the town's geographical placement, this suggests that Aros became an important military centre in the Viking Age. There are also strong indications of a former royal residence from the same period in Viby, a few kilometres south of the Aarhus city centre.[20][21]

Industrialisation

 
View of Aarhus, 1850

Following the Napoleonic wars, Denmark lost Norway and was excluded from international trade for some years which caused a recession for Aarhus's trade-based economy that lasted until the 1830s. The economy turned around as the industrial revolution reached the city and factories with steam-driven machinery became more productive.


 
Interlacing knotwork designs and stylized dragon ridge plates on a reconstruction of an early church at Moesgaard Museum

تطورت أورهوس من قرية صغيرة أنشئت في القرن التاسع الميلادي.

 
Aarhus Cathedral; rebuilt to its current size in 1500, with the longest nave in Denmark

قرية ڤايكنگ وما قبلها

 
بلدة الڤايكنگ الحصينة آروس (آرهوس) 950 م
 
بلدة الڤايكنگ الحصينة آروس


الجغرافيا

 
Aerial view of the bay and city

Aarhus is located at the Bay of Aarhus facing the Kattegat sea in the east with the peninsulas of Mols and Helgenæs across the bay to the northeast. Mols and Helgenæs are both part of the larger regional peninsula of Djursland. A number of larger cities and towns is within easy reach from Aarhus by road and rail, including Randers (38.5 kiloمترs (126,000 قدم) by road north), Grenå (northeast), Horsens (50 kiloمترs (160,000 قدم) south) and Silkeborg (44 kiloمترs (144,000 قدم) east).[22]

المناخ

شرق يوتلاند
جدول طقس (التفسير)
يفمأمييأسأند
 
 
60
 
2
−3
 
 
41
 
3
−3
 
 
48
 
5
−1
 
 
42
 
11
1
 
 
50
 
16
6
 
 
55
 
19
9
 
 
67
 
21
11
 
 
65
 
21
11
 
 
72
 
16
8
 
 
77
 
12
5
 
 
80
 
7
2
 
 
68
 
4
−1
متوسطات درجات الحرارة القصوى والدنيا - °س
إجمالي الهطل - مم
المصدر: Dansk Meteorologisk Institut[23]


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السكان

Main immigrant groups, 2017[24]
Nationality التعداد
  لبنان 5,030
  الصومال 4,554
  تركيا 4,370
  العراق 3,688
  إيران 2,577
  ڤيتنام 2,551
  ألمانيا 2,261
  پولندا 2,235
  أفغانستان 2,092
  رومانيا 1,983

الاقتصاد

 
Headquarters of Bestseller

The economy of Aarhus is predominantly knowledge- and service-based, strongly influenced by the University of Aarhus and the large healthcare industry. The service sector dominates the economy and is growing as the city transitions away from manufacturing. Trade and transportation remain important sectors, benefiting from the large port and central position on the rail network. Manufacturing has been in slow but steady decline since the 1960s while agriculture has long been a marginal sector within the municipality.[25] The municipality is home to 175,000 jobs with some 100,000 in the private sector and the rest split between state, region and municipality.[26] The region is a major agricultural producer, with many large farms in the outlying districts.[27] People commute to Aarhus from as far away as Randers, Silkeborg and Skanderborg and almost a third of those employed within the Aarhus municipality commute from neighbouring communities.[28][29][30] Aarhus is a centre for retail in the Nordic and Baltic countries, with expansive shopping centres, the busiest commercial street in the country and a dense urban core with many speciality shops.[31][32]

The job market is knowledge- and service-based, and the largest employment sectors are healthcare and social services, trade, education, consulting, research, industry and telecommunications.[26] The municipality has more high- and middle-income jobs, and fewer low-income jobs, than the national average.[26] Today, te majority of the largest companies in the municipality are in the sectors of trade, transport and media.[33] The wind power industry has strong roots in Aarhus and the larger region of Central Jutland, and nationally, most of the revenue in the industry is generated by companies in the greater Aarhus area. The wind industry employs about a thousand people within the municipality, making it a central component in the local economy.[34] The biotech industry is well-established in the city, with many small- and medium-sized companies mainly focused on research and development.[35]

Several major companies are headquartered in Aarhus, including four of the ten largest in the country. These include Arla Foods, one of the largest dairy groups in Europe, Salling Group, Denmark's largest retailer, Jysk, a worldwide retailer of household goods, Vestas, a global wind turbine manufacturer,[36] Terma A/S, a major defence and aerospace manufacturer, Per Aarsleff, a civil engineering company and several large retail companies.[37][38] Other large employers of note include Krifa, Systematic A/S,[39]), and Bestseller A/S. Since the early 2000s, the city has experienced an influx of larger companies moving from other parts of the Jutland peninsula.[40][41]

ميناء آرهوس

 
ميناء الحاويات بآرهوس

The Port of Aarhus is one of the largest industrial ports in northern Europe with the largest container terminal in Denmark, processing more than 50% of Denmark's container traffic and accommodating the largest container vessels in the world.[42][43] It is a municipal self-governing port with independent finances. The facilities handle some 9.5 million tonnes of cargo a year (2012). Grain is the principal export, while feedstuffs, stone, cement and coal are among the chief imports.[44] Since 2012 the port has faced increasing competition from the Port of Hamburg and freight volumes have decreased somewhat from the peak in 2008.[43]

The ferry terminal presents the only alternative to the Great Belt Link for passenger transport between Jutland and Zealand. It has served different ferry companies since the first steamship route to Copenhagen opened in 1830. Currently, Mols-Linien operates the route and annually transports some two million passengers and a million vehicles. Additional roll-on/roll-off cargo ferries serve Finland and Kalundborg on a weekly basis and smaller outlying Danish ports at irregular intervals. Since the early 2000s the port has increasingly become a destination for cruise lines operating in the Baltic Sea.[45]

السياحة

 
Costa Pacifica in the harbour

The ARoS Art Museum, the Old Town Museum and Tivoli Friheden are among Denmark's top tourist attractions.[46] With a combined total of almost 1.4 million visitors they represent the driving force behind tourism but other venues such as Moesgård Museum and Kvindemuseet are also popular. The city's extensive shopping facilities are also said to be a major attraction for tourists, as are festivals, especially NorthSide and SPOT.[47][48] Many visitors arrive on cruise ships: in 2012, 18 vessels visited the port with over 38,000 passengers.[49]

In the 2010s, there was a significant expansion of tourist facilities, culminating in the opening of the 240-room Comwell Hotel in July 2014, which increased the number of hotel rooms in the city by 25%. Some estimates put the number of visitors spending at least one night as high as 750,000 a year, most of them Danes from other regions, with the remainder coming mainly from Norway, Sweden, northern Germany and the United Kingdom. Overall, they spend roughly DKK 3 billion (€402 million) in the city each year.[50] The primary motivation for tourists choosing Aarhus as a destination is experiencing the city and culture, family and couples vacation or as a part of a round trip in Denmark. The average stay is little more than three days on average.[50]

There are more than 30 tourist information spots across the city. Some of them are staffed, while others are online, publicly accessible touchscreens. The official tourist information service in Aarhus is organised under VisitAarhus, a corporate foundation initiated in 1994 by Aarhus Municipality and local commercial interest organisations.[51][52][53]

مراكز الأبحاث

 
Navitas Park, a department of INCUBA Science Park

The largest research park in Aarhus is INCUBA Science Park, focused on IT and biomedical research, It is based on Denmark's first research park, Forskerpark Aarhus (Research Park Aarhus), founded in 1986, which in 2007 merged with another research park to form INCUBA Science Park. The organisation is owned partly by Aarhus University and private investors and aims to foster close relationships between public institutions and startup companies.[54] It is physically divided across 4 locations after a new department was inaugurated in Navitas Park in 2015, which it will share with the Aarhus School of Marine and Technical Engineering and AU Engineering. Another major centre for knowledge is Agro Food Park in Skejby, established to facilitate co-operation between companies and public institutions working within food science and agriculture. In January 2017 Arla Foods will open the global innovation centre Arla Nativa in Agro Food Park and in 2018 Aarhus University is moving the Danish Centre for Food and Agriculture there as well.[55][56] In 2016, some 1000 people worked at Agro Food Park, spread across 50 companies and institutions and in August 2016 Agro Food Park management published plans to expand facilities from 92,000 m2 to 325,000 متر مربعs (3,500,000 قدم2).[56]

In addition, Aarhus is home to the Aarhus School of Architecture, one of two Danish Ministry of Education institutions that provide degree programs in architecture, and some of the largest architecture firms in the Nordic countries such as Schmidt Hammer Lassen Architects, Arkitema Architects and C. F. Møller Architects.[57] Taken together these organisations form a unique concentration of expertise and knowledge in architecture outside Copenhagen, which the Danish Ministry of Business and Growth refers to as arkitekturklyngen (the architecture cluster). To promote the "cluster", the School of Architecture will be given new school buildings centrally in the new Freight Station Neighborhood, planned for development in the 2020s. In the interim, the city council supports a culture, business and education centre in the area, which may continue in the future neighbourhood in some form. The future occupants of the neighbourhood will be businesses and organisations selected for their ability to be involved in the local community, and it is hoped that the area will evolve into a hotspot for creativity and design.[58][59][60]


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أفق المدينة

Panoramic view of the Aarhus skyline, seen from the top of ARoS (2012)

Aarhus has developed in stages, from the Viking Age to modern times, all visible in the city today. Many architectural styles are represented in different parts of the city such as Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, National Romantic, Nordic Classicism, Neoclassical, Empire and Functionalism.[61] The city has developed around the main transport hubs - the river, the harbour, and later the railway station -, and as a result, the oldest parts are also the most central and busiest today.

The streets of Volden (The Rampart) and Graven (The Moat) testify to the defences of the initial Viking town, and Allégaderingen in Midtbyen roughly follows the boundaries of that settlement. The street network in the inner city formed during the Middle Ages with narrow, curved streets and low, dense housing by the river and the coast. Vesterport (Westward Gate) still bears the name of the medieval city gate and the narrow alleyways Posthussmøgen and Telefonsmøgen are remnants of toll stations from that time.[62] The inner city has the oldest preserved buildings, especially the Latin Quarter, with houses dating back to the early 17th century in Mejlgade and Skolegade.[63] Medieval merchants' mansions with courtyards can be seen in Klostergade, Studsgade and Skolegade. By far, the largest part of the present-day city was built during and after the industrialization of the late 1800s, and the most represented architectural styles today are historicism and modernism, especially the subgenre of Danish functionalism of which there are many fine examples. The building boom of the 2000s has imprinted itself on Aarhus with a redeveloped harbourfront, many new neighbourhoods (also in the inner city), and a revitalized public space. It is also beginning to change the skyline with several dominating high-rises.

التطوير

In recent years, Aarhus has experienced a large demand in housing and offices, spurring a construction boom in some parts of the city. The newly built city district of Aarhus Ø, formerly docklands where shipping houses major housing developments, mostly consisting of privately owned apartments, designed by architects such as, CEBRA, and JDS Architects.

 
Newly finished apartments in Aarhus Ø

In the 2nd quarter of 2012, the population of the area stood at only 5, however that number had risen to 3,940 by October 2019.[64]

The main public transportation service is bus line 23, as well as train station Østbanetorvet. In addition to this, the area will be serviced by the light rail line, Aarhus Letbane.

المعالم

 
Åboulevarden, 2016 and 1945, opening of the river
 
Bispetorv in the historic centre

Aarhus Cathedral (Århus Domkirke) in the centre of Aarhus, is the longest and tallest church in Denmark at 93 م (305 قدم) and 96 م (315 قدم) in length and height respectively. Originally built as a Romanesque basilica in the 13th century, it was rebuilt and enlarged as a Gothic cathedral in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.[65] Even though the cathedral stood finished around 1300, it took more than a century to build; the associated cathedral school of Aarhus Katedralskole was already founded in 1195 and ranks as the 44th oldest school in the world.[66] Another important and historic landmark in the inner city, is the Church of Our Lady (Vor Frue Kirke) also from the 13th century in Romanesque and Gothic style. It is smaller and less impressive, but it was the first cathedral of Aarhus and founded on an even older church constructed in 1060; the oldest stone church in Scandinavia.[67][68][69][70] Langelandsgade Kaserne in National Romantic Style from 1889 is the oldest former military barracks left in the country; home to the university Department of Aesthetics and Communication since 1989. [71][72][73] Marselisborg Palace (Marselisborg Slot), designed by Hack Kampmann in Neoclassical and Art Nouveau styles, was donated by the city to Prince Christian and Princess Alexandrine as a wedding present in 1898.[74][75] The Aarhus Custom House (Toldkammeret) from 1898, is said to be Hack Kampmann's finest work.[76]

Tivoli Friheden (Tivoli Freedom) opened in 1903 and has since been the largest amusement park in the city and a tourist attraction. Aarhus Theatre from 1916 in the Art Nouveau style is the largest provincial theatre in Denmark.[77][78] The early buildings of Aarhus University, especially the main building completed in 1932, designed by Kay Fisker, Povl Stegmann and by C.F. Møller have gained an international reputation for their contribution to functionalist architecture.[79] The City Hall (Aarhus Rådhus) from 1941 with an iconic 60 م (200 قدم) tower clad in marble, was designed by Arne Jacobsen and Erik Møller in a modern Functionalist style.


الثقافة

 
The Old Town open air museum; one of two museums in the area, and four in Denmark, with open air displays of period architecture. See The Old Town, Aarhus
 
The iconic late Viking Age Mask Stone found in Aarhus, housed at the Moesgård Museum.

صور

العلاقات الدولية

Aarhus is home to 32 consulates:[80]

Aarhus practices twinning on the municipal level. For the twin towns, see twin towns of Aarhus Municipality.

المصادر

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  12. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Salmonsen
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  14. ^ "Byhistoriske hovedtræk – Byens grundlæggelse" (in الدانمركية). Aarhus Municipality. Archived from the original on 14 September 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  15. ^ Hans Skov (2008). "Det ældste Århus – ca. 770–1200". UBAS Nordisk (in Danish). Bergen University. 5: 215–226. Retrieved 2 April 2021.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  16. ^ أ ب Grymer, Claus (1 June 2005). "Vikingernes Aros mellem land og hav". Kristeligt Dagblad (in الدانمركية). Retrieved 16 July 2014.
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  24. ^ "FOLK1C: FOLKETAL DEN 1. I KVARTALET EFTER OMRÅDE, KØN, ALDER (5-ÅRS INTERVALLER), HERKOMST OG OPRINDELSESLAND". Statistics Denmark.
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  26. ^ أ ب ت "Erhvervsstrukturen i Aarhus Kommune 2012" (PDF) (in الدانمركية). Aarhus Kommune. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
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وصلات خارجية

Coordinates: 56°09′26″N 10°12′39″E / 56.1572°N 10.2107°E / 56.1572; 10.2107

مواقع رسمية

مواقع تجارية

قالب:Aarhus


خطأ استشهاد: وسوم <ref> موجودة لمجموعة اسمها "note"، ولكن لم يتم العثور على وسم <references group="note"/>

الكلمات الدالة: