افتح القائمة الرئيسية

البنغال الغربية

البنغال الغربية (بالإنگليزية: West Bengal؛ بالبنغالي: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo, أص‌د[poʃtʃim bɔŋɡo]) هي ولاية تقع في شمالي الهند، وتبلغ مساحتها 87,853 كم². يقطن الولاية 69,982,732 نسمة. يدين 75% منهم بالهندوسية، و20% بالإسلام، والبقية بوذيُّون، ونصارى، ويانيون، وسيخ. يتكلم 85% من السكان اللغة البنغالية، والآخرون يتكلمون اللغة الهندية، والأوردو، وبعض اللهجات القبلية. نسبة التعليم 40%. ويعيش 30% من السكان في المراكز الحضرية. أهم المدن كَلكتا العاصمة، وأسانسول ودرغابور.

البنغال الغربية

Paschim Banga

West Bengal
Howrah Pano 3.jpg
Bishnupur Ras Mancha.jpg
Bengal Tiger yawning in Sundarban.jpg
Malda ~ Adina Mosque 5.JPG
Cooch Behar Palace in Cooch Behar.JPG
Sunrise @ Digha.jpg
Hazarduari Palace West Bengal.JPG
Darjeeling.jpg
من أعلى: خط أفق كلكتا من Howrah,
Rasmancha, Bishnupur in Bankura district,
نمر بنغالي في Sundarbans National Park,
مسجد أدينا في Pandua of Maldah district, Cooch Behar Palace، الشروق في Digha، في قصر Hazarduari في مرشد آباد، منظر دارجيلنگ من Happy Valley Tea Estate
Official logo of البنغال الغربية
Emblem
موقع البنغال الغربية
موقع البنغال الغربية
Country الهند
Established26 January 1950
العاصمةكلكتا
  • أكبر مدينة
كلكتا
Districts
الحكم
 • الهيئةحكومة البنغال الغربية
 • الحاكمKeshari Nath Tripathi
 • Chief MinisterMamata Banerjee (AITC)
 • LegislatureLegislative Assembly (295)
 • High Courtمحكمة كلكتا العليا
المساحة
 • الإجمالية88٬752 كم² (34٬267 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة14th
التعداد(2011)[1]
 • الإجمالي91٬347٬736
 • الترتيب4th
 • الكثافة1٬029/km2 (2٬670/sq mi)
صفة المواطنبنغالي
ن.م.إ. (2018–19)[2][3]
 • الإجمالي13٫14 lakh crore (240 بليون US$)
 • للفرد108٬372 (US$2٬000)
اللغات
 • الرسمية
 • Additional officialNepali in two sub-divisions of Darjeeling[7]
منطقة التوقيتIST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+05:30)
ISO 3166 codeIN-WB
تسجيل السيارةWB
HDI (2017) 0.637 (medium) · 21st[8]
Literacy (2011)77.08%[9]
Sex ratio (2011)950 /1000 [10]
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.wb.gov.in
^  294 elected, 1 nominated

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

فهرست

أصل الاسم

The origin of the name Bengal (Bangla and Bongo in Bengali) is unknown. One theory suggests the word derives from "Bang", the name of a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE.[11] The Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga (or Banga). Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure.[12]

In 1947, at the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent the Bengal Legislative Council and the Bengal Legislative Assembly voted on the Partition of Bengal along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state, and East Bengal, a province of Pakistan, which came to be known be as East Pakistan and later became the independent Bangladesh.[13][14]

In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga (بالبنغالية: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Pôshchimbônggô).[15] This is the native name of the state, literally meaning "western Bengal" in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, and "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, and the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution.[16] However, the central government has turned down the proposal maintaining the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three, and it should not be the same as that of any other territory (pointing out that the name 'Bangla' may create confusion with neighboring Bangladesh).[16][17][18]


التاريخ

الفترة القديمة والكلاسيكية

 
عملة الملك شاشانكا، الذي خلق أول كيان سياسي منفصل في البنغال، باسم مملكة گاودا.

عـُثـِر على أدوات من العصر الحجري تعود إلى 20,000 سنة مضت في حفريات بالولاية، تبين أن الاستيطان البشري كان متواجداً قبل 8,000 سنة من تقديرات الدارسين.[19] وحسب الملحمة الهندية مهابهاراتا فإن المنطقة كانت جزءاً من مملكة ڤانگا.[20] وكان تواجد عدد من الأملاك الڤيدية في منطقة البنغال، بما في ذلك ڤانگا، رار، و پوندراڤردانا، ومملكة سوهما. أحد أقدم الإشارات الأجنبية إلى البنغال كان من اليونانيين القدماء حوالي 100 ق.م. لأرض تُدعى گانگاريداي وتقع في مصب الگانج.[21] وكان للبنغال تجارة وراء البحار مع سوڤارنابومي (بورما وتايلند السفلى وأسفل شبه جزيرة الملايو، وسومطرة).[22] وحسب التأريخ السريلانكي مهاڤامسا، فإن الأمير ڤيجايا (ح. 543-505 ق.م.)، من مملكة ڤانگا، هزم لانكا (سري لانكا الحالية) وأسمى البلد مملكة سنهالا.[23]

   
امبراطورية پالا في عهد دڤاپالا

تُعدّ سلالة الدراڤيديين أولى السلالات التي سكنت الهند، وهم جماعات صغيرة، كانت تمارس جمع الثمار والصيد. حوالي عام 200 ق.م، كانت البنغال جزءًا من إمبراطورية موريا.

دخلها الإسلام في مطلع القرن السابع الهجري، الثالث عشر الميلادي، في عهد الدولة العباسية.[24] وإثر الفتوحات المبكرة التي قام بها محمد بن بختيار خلجي وتأسيس سلطنة دلهي، انتشر الإسلام في منطقة البنغال. ولاحقاً بين الفينة والأخرى، دعم غزاة مسلمون عملية اعتناق السكان الإسلام ببنائهم المساجد والمدارس والخانقاوات. وفي عهد سلطنة البنغال الإسلامية، التي تأسست في 1352، أصبحت البنغال أمة تجارية كبرى على مستوى العالم وكثيراً ما كان الأوروپيون يشيرون إليها بأنها أغنى بلد يمكنهم التجارة معه.[25] ومن بعدهم جاء الأفغان، ثم استطاع الإمبراطور المغولي، أكبر، بسط نفوذه على البنغال الغربية، في 1576، فامتص سلطنة البنغال في سلطنة المغل.[26]

الفترات القروسطية والحديثة المبكرة

 
فيروز منار في گاودا بُني أثناء سلطنة البنغال.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الفترة الاستعمارية

 
خريطة للبنغال من سنة 1880

أثار المد الإسلامي الأوروبيين فتوجهت أنظارهم إليها. وفي عام 1700، أصبحت البنغال دولة مستقلة، ولكن تحت سيطرة فعلية لشركة الهند الشرقية البريطانية، التي احتكرت إمكانات الولاية الاقتصادية.

في القرن التاسع عشر الميلادي، أصبحت البنغال المركز السياسي والاقتصادي للهند البريطانية واتسعت رقعتها، بعد دارجيلنگ، وما حولها. أدّى تقسيم اللورد كرزون للبنغال إلى ولايتين جديدتين هما: البنغال الغربية، وآسام وولاية البنغال الشرقية وأوريسا وبيهار إلى:

  1. ظهور معارضة قوية للحكم البريطاني وسط البنغاليين.
  2. وضع بذور الشقاق بين المسلمين، والهندوس الذي انتهى إلى انفصال باكستان بقسميها الشرقي والغربي عن الهند.
  3. حدوث هجرات ضخمة للمسلمين إلى باكستان، والهندوس إلى الهند. وقد صاحب تلك الهجرات الكثير من إراقة الدماء.

من أعلام البنغال الشاعر والروائي طاغور، الذي حاز جائزة نوبل للآداب عام 1913.

استقلال الهند وما بعده

 
Darjeeling Himalayan Railway أختيرت موقع تراث عالمي لليونسكو في 1999.


الجغرافيا

 
خريطة البنغال الغربية
 
Many areas remain flooded during the heavy rains brought by monsoon.
 
National Highway 31A winds along the banks of the Teesta River near Kalimpong, in the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region.

ولاية البنغال الغربية في معظمها سهول دلتاوية تنتشر فيها الرواسب الفيضانية والمستنقعات الطينية. الجزء الشمالي من الولاية به سفوح جبال الهملايا، التي ترتفع إلى 4,000م. أما الجزء الغربي، فيتكون من مرتفعات تنحدر تدريجيًا، نحو هضبة شوتاناجبور في ولاية بيهار.

هنالك ثلاثة فصول مناخية في الولاية هي: فصل حار جاف، يمتد من مارس إلى منتصف يونيو، فصل حار ممطر، يشمل الفترة من يونيو إلى سبتمبر، فصل بارد جاف، من أكتوبر إلى فبراير.

بالبنغال الغربية ثلاثة أنهار هي: نهر الگنج، ونهر هوگلي، ونهر دمادار.

دارجيلنگ، تقع فوق تلال البنغال الغربية، وتعتبر مركزًا لإنتاج الشاي. يزرع ربع محصول الشاي الهندي في هذه المنطقة، يلتقط العمال حوالي 18كجم من ورق الشاي يوميًا.


الاقتصاد

 
كلكتا هي المركز الاقتصادي للبنغال الغربية
Gross State Domestic Product at Current Prices (93–94 Base)[27]

الأرقام بالكرورى روپية هندية

السنة الناتج المحلي الإجمالي للولاية
1999–2000 135,182
2000–2001 143,532
2001–2002 157,136
2002–2003 168,047
2003–2004 189,099
2004–2005 208,578
2005–2006 236,044

المجتمع في البنغال الغربية زراعي، ويُمثِّل الأرز 80% من مساحة الأراضي المزروعة. أما المحاصيل الأخرى فتشمل: الجوت، والذرة، والحبوب الزيتية، والتبغ والخضراوات، وتسهم الولاية بنحو 25% من إنتاج الشاي في الهند، وتتركز زراعته حول دارجيلنگ.

تُسهم البنغال الغربية بربع إنتاج الهند من المعادن، وأهمها الفحم، والحديد.

مازالت الصناعات اليدوية مهمة، خاصة صناعة الحرير الطبيعي والفخار. أما الصناعات الحديثة فتشمل: الصناعات الهندسية، وصناعة الجوت، اللتين بدأتا في القرن التاسع عشر الميلادي. هذا بجانب صناعة الورق والنسيج، والصناعات الإلكترونيَّة والكيميائية وغيرها.

ترتبط البنغال الغربية بالسكك الحديدية والطرق مع بقية الهند، وتصدر فيها عدة صحف، كما تحتل المرتبة الثانية من حيث توزيع الصحف اليومية في الهند؛ فيوزع فيها مليونان من النسخ يوميًا.



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

النبيت والوحيش

رموز ولاية البنغال الغربية
العنوان الرمز الصورة
حيوان الولاية Fishing cat[28]  
طائر الولاية White-throated kingfisher  
زهرة الولاية Night-flowering jasmine[28]  
شجرة الولاية Devil tree[28]  


الحكومة والسياسة

Main offices in West Bengal
Raj Bhavan, the residence of the governor of the state
المحكمة العليا في كلكتا هي أعلى محكمة في البنغال الغربية.
Writers' Building, West Bengal Government Secretariat


 
A Left Front حشد سياسي في كلكتا.


التقسيم الإداري - الأضلع

 
أضلع البنغال الغربية

As of 2017, West Bengal is divided into 23 districts.[29]

District Population Growth rate Sex ratio Literacy Density per square Kilometer
North 24 Parganas 10,009,781 12.04 955 84.06 2445
South 24 Parganas 8,161,961 18.17 956 77.51 819
Purba Bardhaman[أ]  –  –  –  –  –
Paschim Bardhaman[أ] 2,882,031  – 922 78.75 1,800
Murshidabad 7,103,807 21.09 958 66.59 1334
West Midnapore 5,913,457 13.86 966 78.00 631
Hooghly 5,519,145 9.46 961 81.80 1753
Nadia 5,167,600 12.22 947 74.97 1316
East Midnapore 5,095,875 15.36 938 87.02 1081
Howrah 4,850,029 13.50 939 83.31 3306
Kolkata 4,496,69 −1.67 908 86.31 24306
Maldah 3,988,845 21.22 944 61.73 1069
Jalpaiguri 3,872,846 13.87 953 73.25 622
Alipurduar[ب] 1,700,000  –  –  – 400
Bankura 3,596,292 12.64 954 70.95 523
Birbhum 3,502,404 16.15 956 70.68 771
North Dinajpur 3,007,134 23.15 939 59.07 958
Purulia 2,930,115 15.52 957 64.48 468
Cooch Behar 2,819,086 13.71 942 74.78 832
Darjeeling 1,846,823 14.77 970 79.56 586
Dakshin Dinajpur 1,676,276 11.52 956 72.82 755
Kalimpong[ب] 202,239  –  –  –  –
Jhargram[ب] 1,136,548  –  –  –  –
  1. ^ أ ب Bardhaman was bifurcated into Purba Bardhaman and Paschim Bardhaman in 2017. Thus, no demographic information was available as of January 2018
  2. ^ أ ب ت Was created after the 2011 Census

Each district is governed by a district collector or district magistrate, appointed by either the Indian Administrative Service or the West Bengal Civil Service.[30] Each district is subdivided into sub-divisions, governed by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate, and again into blocks. Blocks consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.[31]

The capital and largest city of the state is Kolkata—the third-largest urban agglomeration[32] and the seventh-largest city[33] in India. Asansol is the second-largest city and urban agglomeration in West Bengal.[32] Siliguri is an economically important city, strategically located in the northeastern Siliguri Corridor (Chicken's Neck) of India.[34] Other larger cities and towns in West Bengal are: Durgapur, Howrah, Bardhaman, Baharampur, Jalpaiguri, Kharagpur, and Chandannagar.[35]

الديمغرافيا

 
مشهد قروي في غرب ميدناپور. 72% من سكان الولاية يعيشون في الريف.


الثقافة

الأدب

Rabindranath Tagore is Asia's first Nobel laureate and the composer of India's national anthem.
Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga to Europe and the US,[37] raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.[38]

The Bengali language boasts a rich literary heritage it shares with neighbouring Bangladesh. West Bengal has a long tradition of folk literature, evidenced by the Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist mystic songs dating back to the 10th and 11th centuries; Mangalkavya, a collection of Hindu narrative poetry composed around the 13th century; Shreekrishna Kirtana, a pastoral Vaishnava drama in verse composed by Boru Chandidas; Thakurmar Jhuli, a collection of Bengali folk and fairy tales compiled by Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder; and stories of Gopal Bhar, a court jester in medieval Bengal. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Bengali literature was modernised in the works of authors such as Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, whose works marked a departure from the traditional verse-oriented writings prevalent in that period;[39] Michael Madhusudan Dutt, a pioneer in Bengali drama who introduced the use of blank verse;[40] and Rabindranath Tagore, who reshaped Bengali literature and music. Indian art saw the introduction of Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[41] Other notable figures include Kazi Nazrul Islam, whose compositions form the avant-garde genre of Nazrul Sangeet,[42] Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, whose works on contemporary social practices in Bengal are widely acclaimed,[43] and Manik Bandyopadhyay, who is considered one of the leading lights of modern Bengali fiction.[44] In modern times, Jibanananda Das has been acknowledged as "the premier poet of the post-Tagore era in India".[45] Other writers include: Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay, best known for his work Pather Panchali; Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, well known for his portrayal of the lower strata of society;[46] Manik Bandopadhyay, a pioneering novelist; and Ashapurna Devi, Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay, Saradindu Bandopadhyay, Buddhadeb Guha, Mahashweta Devi, Samaresh Majumdar, Sanjeev Chattopadhyay, Shakti Chattopadhyay, Buddhadeb Basu,[47] Joy Goswami, and Sunil Gangopadhyay.[48][49]

الموسيقى والرقص


الأفلام

 
Satyajit Ray, a pioneer in Bengali cinema along with Ravi Sankar.


الفنون الجميلة

 
Panchchura Temple in Bishnupur, one of the older examples of the terracotta arts of India.

التراث الإصلاحي

The capital, Kolkata, was the workplace of several social reformers, including Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, and Swami Vivekananda. Their social reforms eventually led to a cultural atmosphere that made it possible for practices like sati, dowry, and caste-based discrimination, or untouchability, to be abolished.[50] The region was also home to several religious teachers, such as Chaitanya, Ramakrishna, Prabhupada, and Paramahansa Yogananda.[50]

المطبخ

Assorted food eaten in West Bengal: Patisapta, a kind of pitha; Shorshe Ilish (Hilsha with Mustard Sauce) and Rasgullas in sugar syrup

Rice and fish are traditional favourite foods, leading to a saying in Bengali, "machhe bhate bangali", that translates as "fish and rice make a Bengali".[51] Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes hilsa preparations, a favourite among Bengalis. There are numerous ways of cooking fish depending on its texture, size, fat content, and bones.[52] Most of the people also consume eggs, chicken, mutton, and shrimp. Panta bhat (rice soaked overnight in water) with onion and green chili is a traditional dish consumed in rural areas.[53] Common spices found in a Bengali kitchen include cumin, ajmoda (radhuni), bay leaf, mustard, ginger, green chillies, and turmeric.[54] Sweets occupy an important place in the diet of Bengalis and at their social ceremonies. Bengalis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including Rôshogolla, Chômchôm, Kalojam, and several kinds of sondesh. Pitha, a kind of sweet cake, bread, or dim sum, are specialties of the winter season. Sweets such as narkol-naru, til-naru, moa, and payesh are prepared during festivals such as Lakshmi puja.[55] Popular street foods include Aloor Chop, Beguni, Kati roll, biryani, and phuchka.[56][57]

اللباس

 
Jamdani Sari of Bangladesh is very popular in West Bengal.


 
A Murti (representation) of Durga, shown riding her lion and attacking the demon Mahishasura.
 
An Indian pilgrim, in Gangasagar fair in Diamond Harbour, West Bengal, India.

الأعياد

Festivals of West Bengal: Durga Puja, Rath Yatra and Muharram procession in Kolkata.


التعليم

West Bengal schools are run by the state government or private organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is mainly in English or Bengali, though Urdu is also used, especially in Central Kolkata. Secondary schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), the National Institute of Open School (NIOS), West Bengal Board of Secondary Education, or the West Bengal Board of Madrasah Education.[58]

As of 2016 85% of children within the 6 to 17-year age group attend school (86% do so in urban areas and 84% in rural areas). School attendance is almost universal among the 6 to 14-year age group then drops to 70% with the 15 to 17-year age group. There is a gender disparity in school attendance in the 6 to 14-year age group, more girls than boys are attending school. In Bengal, 71% of women aged 15–49 years and 81% of men aged 15–49 years are literate. Only 14% of women aged 15–49 years in West Bengal have completed 12 or more years of schooling, compared with 22% of men. 22% of women and 14% of men age 15–49 years have never attended school.[59]

Some of the notable schools in the city are: La Martiniere Calcutta, Calcutta Boys' School, St. James' School (Kolkata), St. Xavier's Collegiate School, and Loreto House, Loreto Convent, Asansol some of which rank amongst the best schools in the country.[60] Many of the schools in Kolkata and Darjeeling are colonial-era establishments housed in buildings that are exemplars of neo-classical architecture. Darjeeling's schools include: St. Paul's, St. Joseph's North Point, Goethals Memorial School, and Dow Hill in Kurseong.[61]

West Bengal has eighteen universities.[62][63] Kolkata has played a pioneering role in the development of the modern education system in India. It was the gateway to the revolution of European education during the British Raj.[64] Sir William Jones established the Asiatic Society in 1794 to promote oriental studies. People such as Ram Mohan Roy, David Hare, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Alexander Duff and William Carey played leading roles in setting up modern schools and colleges in the city.[65]

The University of Calcutta, the oldest public university in India, has 136 affiliated colleges. Fort William College was established in 1810. The Hindu College was established in 1817. The Lady Brabourne College was established in 1939. The Scottish Church College, the oldest Christian liberal arts college in South Asia, started in 1830. In 1855 the Hindu College was renamed the Presidency College.[66] The state government granted it university status in 2010 and it was renamed Presidency University. Kazi Nazrul University was established in 2012. The University of Calcutta and Jadavpur University are prestigious technical universities.[67] Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan is a central university and an institution of national importance.[68]

Other higher education institutes of importance in West Bengal include: St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Indian Institute of Management Calcutta (the first IIM), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Indian Statistical Institute, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (the first IIT), Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (the first IIEST), Indian Institute of Information Technology, Kalyani, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, National Institute of Technical Teachers' Training and Research, Kolkata, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata, and West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences. In 2003 the state government supported the creation of West Bengal University of Technology, West Bengal University of Health Sciences, West Bengal State University, and Gour Banga University.[69]

Jadavpur University (Focus area—Mobile Computing and Communication and Nano-science), and the University of Calcutta (Modern Biology) are among two of the fifteen universities selected under the "University with Potential for Excellence" scheme. University of Calcutta (Focus Area—Electro-Physiological and Neuro-imaging studies including mathematical modeling) has also been selected under the "Centre with Potential for Excellence in a Particular Area" scheme.[70]

In addition, the state is home to Kalyani University, The University of Burdwan, Vidyasagar University, and North Bengal University all well as established and nationally renowned schools to cover education needs at the district level and the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata. Apart from this there is a Deemed university run by the Ramakrishna mission named Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University at Belur Math.[71]

There are several research institutes in Kolkata. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science is the first research institute in Asia. C. V. Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery (Raman Effect) done at the IACS. The Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute Durgapur, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibers, National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics (NIBMG), Kalyani, and the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre are the most prominent.[69]

Notable scholars who were born, worked, or studied in the geographic area of the state include physicists: Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Saha,[72] and Jagadish Chandra Bose;[73] chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy;[72] statisticians Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Anil Kumar Gain;[72] physician Upendranath Brahmachari;[72] educator Ashutosh Mukherjee;[74] and Nobel laureates Rabindranath Tagore,[75] C. V. Raman,[73] and Amartya Sen.[76]

انظر أيضًا

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

هذه المقالة تحتوي على Indic text. بدون دعم العرض المناصب، فقد ترى question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts بدلاً من Indic text.
  1. ^ "Area, population, decennial growth rate and density for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for West Bengal and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: West Bengal". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. ^ "West Bengal Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability, India. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  3. ^ "Medium term fiscal policy statement & fiscal policy stratergy statement for 2018–19" (PDF). Finance Department, Government of West Bengal. January 2018. p. 6. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  4. ^ "Fact and Figures". www.wb.gov.in. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  5. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Indiatoday:1
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Telegraph:1
  7. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة nclmanurep2010
  8. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database". Global Data Lab (in الإنجليزية). Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  9. ^ "Sex ratio, 0–6 age population, literates and literacy rate by sex for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for West Bengal and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: West Bengal". Government of India:Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. ^ "Sex Ratio in West Bengal". Census of India 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. ^ "Bangladesh: early history, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202". Bangladesh: A country study. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. September 1988. Archived from the original on 15 June 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2012. Historians believe that Bengal, the area comprising present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, was settled in about 1000 B.C. by Dravidian-speaking peoples who were later known as the Bang. Their homeland bore various titles that reflected earlier tribal names, such as Vanga, Banga, Bangala, Bangal, and Bengal.
  12. ^ Marshman, John Clark (1865). Outline of the History of Bengal. John Clark Marshman. p. 1. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017.
  13. ^ Mukherjee 1987, p. 230.
  14. ^ Chakrabarty 2004, p. 142.
  15. ^ "West Bengal may be renamed PaschimBanga". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 19 August 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  16. ^ أ ب "Assembly drops West, renames State as Bengal". The Hindu (in الإنجليزية). Special Correspondent. 29 August 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2018.CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ "Foreign ministry turns down Mamata Banerjee's 'Bangla' for West Bengal". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  18. ^ "West Bengal to send another proposal to Centre on changing its name". Hindustan Times (in الإنجليزية). 8 September 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  19. ^ Sarkar, Sebanti (28 March 2008). "History of Bengal just got a lot older". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2010. Humans walked on Bengal's soil 20,000 years ago, archaeologists have found out, pushing the state's pre-history back by some 8,000 years.
  20. ^ Sen, S. N. (1999). Ancient Indian History And Civilization. New Age International. pp. 273–274. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
  21. ^ Chakrabarti, Dilip K. (2001). Archaeological Geography of the Ganga Plain: The Lower and the Middle Ganga. Delhi: Permanent Black. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-81-7824-016-9.
  22. ^ Prasad, Prakash Chandra (2003). Foreign trade and commerce in ancient India. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 28. ISBN 978-81-7017-053-2.
  23. ^ Geiger, Wilhelm; Haynes Bode, Mabel (2003) [1908]. "Chapter VI: The Coming of Vijaya". Mahavamsa: Great Chronicle of Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 51–54. ISBN 978-81-206-0218-2.
  24. ^ Raj Kumar (2003). Essays on Ancient India. Discovery Publishing House. p. 199. ISBN 978-81-7141-682-0.
  25. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  26. ^ Banu, U. A. B. Razia Akter (January 1992). Islam in Bangladesh. BRILL. pp. 2, 17. ISBN 978-90-04-09497-0. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014.
  27. ^ "Gross State Domestic Product at Current Prices (93–94 Bae". National Accounts Division: Press release & Statements. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. Retrieved 2008-03-29. External link in |publisher= (help)
  28. ^ أ ب ت "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
  29. ^ "District Profiles". Archived from the original on 22 April 2017.
  30. ^ "Section 2 of West Bengal Panchayat Act, 1973 – West Bengal Judicial Academy" (PDF). West Bengal Judicial Academy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  31. ^ "Directory of district, sub division, panchayat samiti/ block and gram panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal Electronics Industry Development Corporation Limited, Government of West Bengal. March 2008. p. 1. Archived from the original (DOC) on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  32. ^ أ ب "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). Provisional population totals, census of India 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  33. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, census 2011" (PDF). Provisional population totals, census of India 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India]]. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  34. ^ Diplomat, Ankit Panda, The. "Geography's Curse: India's Vulnerable 'Chicken's Neck'". The Diplomat (in الإنجليزية). Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  35. ^ "2011 Census of India" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 July 2013.
  36. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
  37. ^ Georg, Feuerstein (2002). The Yoga Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 600. ISBN 978-3-935001-06-9.
  38. ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006). New Religions in Global Perspective. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-7007-1185-7.
  39. ^ "Bankim Chandra: The First Prominent Bengali Novelist". The Daily Star (in الإنجليزية). 30 June 2011. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  40. ^ Buckland, C. E. (1999). Dictionary of Indian Biography (in الإنجليزية). Cosmo Publication. ISBN 9788170208976.
  41. ^ "TagoreWeb". tagoreweb.in. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  42. ^ "Islam, Kazi Nazrul – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org (in الإنجليزية). Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  43. ^ "Remembering Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, the 'Awara Masiha'". The Indian Express (in الإنجليزية). 15 September 2015. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  44. ^ "Manik Bandopadhyay Taking the road less travelled". The Daily Star (in الإنجليزية). 22 May 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  45. ^ Mookerjea-Leonard, Debali (2008). R. Victoria Arana (ed.). The Facts on File Companion to World poetry, 1900 to the Present. New York City: Facts on File, Inc. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-8160-6457-1.
  46. ^ Sen, Sukumar (1979) [1960]. History of Bengali Literature (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 345. ISBN 978-81-7201-107-9.
  47. ^ Datta 1988, p. 1213
  48. ^ Datta 1988, p. 1367
  49. ^ Bardhan 2010
  50. ^ أ ب History of the Bengali-speaking People by Nitish Sengupta, p 211, UBS Publishers' Distributors Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7476-355-4.
  51. ^ Gertjan de Graaf, Abdul Latif. "Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: A case study from Bangladesh" (PDF). Aqua KE Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  52. ^ "Bengalis relish hilsa fish as imports of the Bangladeshi delicacy grow". Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  53. ^ "Ferment rice for a healthy morsel". www.telegraphindia.com. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  54. ^ Banerji, Chitrita (December 2006). Bengali Cooking: Seasons and Festivals (in الإنجليزية). Serif. ISBN 978-1-897959-50-3.
  55. ^ "Sweet Items | Bengal Cuisine". bengalcuisine.in (in الإنجليزية). Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  56. ^ Saha, S (18 January 2006). "Resurrected, the kathi roll – Face-off resolved, Nizam's set to open with food court". The Telegraph (Kolkata). Calcutta, India. Archived from the original on 28 February 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  57. ^ "Mobile food stalls". Bangalinet.com. Archived from the original on 21 October 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  58. ^ "Boards of secondary & senior secondary education in India". Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  59. ^ "National Family Health Survey". rchiips.org. Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.(Select West Bengal to view the pdf format)
  60. ^ "India's Best Schools, 2014". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015.
  61. ^ "Educational Institute". darjeeling.gov.in. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  62. ^ "UGC recognised Universities in West Bengal with NAAC accreditation status". Education Observer. Archived from the original on 9 January 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  63. ^ "West Bengal University of Health Sciences". West Bengal University of Health Sciences. Archived from the original on 21 December 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  64. ^ Sridhar, M.; Mishra, Sunita (5 August 2016). Language Policy and Education in India: Documents, Contexts and Debates (in الإنجليزية). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-87824-6.
  65. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة :1
  66. ^ "List of Affiliated Colleges". University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
  67. ^ Mitra, P (31 August 2005). "Waning interest". Careergraph. Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 5 January 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  68. ^ "Visva-Bharati: Facts and Figures at a Glance". Visva-Bharati Computer Centre. Archived from the original on 23 May 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  69. ^ أ ب NAAC. "NAAC accredited higher educational institution s in West Bengal" (PDF). www.naac.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  70. ^ "University Grants commission ::Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area". ugc.ac.in. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  71. ^ "University". www.ugc.ac.in. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  72. ^ أ ب ت ث "Some of the distinguished alumni of the University of Calcutta". University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  73. ^ أ ب "Some of our distinguished teachers". University of Calcutta. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  74. ^ Petitjean, Patrick; Jami, Cathérine; Moulin, Anne Marie (1992). Science and empires: historical studies about scientific development and European expansion. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7923-1518-6.
  75. ^ Frenz, Horst, ed. (1999). Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901–1967. Amsterdam: World Scientific. p. 134. ISBN 978-981-02-3413-3. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  76. ^ "Professor Amartya Sen". President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard University. Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.

المصادر