الامبراطور تاي‌شو

(تم التحويل من Emperor Taishō)

الامبراطور تاي‌شو (大正天皇, Taishō-tennō, 31 August 1879 – 25 December 1926) was the 123rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, and the second ruler of the Empire of Japan from 30 July 1912 until his death in 1926.

الامبراطور تاي‌شو
大正天皇
Emperor Taishō(cropped).jpg
الپورتريه الرسمي، 1912
امبراطور اليابان
العهد30 يوليو 1912 – 25 ديسمبر 1926
التتويج10 نوفمبر 1915
سبقهMeiji
تبعهShōwa
الوصيهيروهيتو (1921–1926)
رؤساء الوزراء
وُلِدYoshihito (嘉仁)
(1879-08-31)31 أغسطس 1879
Tōgū Palace, Akasaka, Tokyo, Japan
توفي25 ديسمبر 1926(1926-12-25) (عن عمر 47 عاماً)
Imperial Villa, Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan
الدفن8 February 1927
الزوجSadako Kujō (ز. خطأ: زمن غير صحيح)
الأنجال
العهد الاسم والتواريخ
Taishō: 30 July 1912 – 25 December 1926
البيتImperial House of Japan
الأبEmperor Meiji
الأمYanagiwara Naruko
الديانةShinto
التوقيعTaisho shomei-svgver.svg

The Emperor's personal name was Yoshihito (嘉仁). According to Japanese custom, while reigning the Emperor is simply called "the Emperor". After death, he is known by a posthumous name, which is the name of the era coinciding with his reign. Having ruled during the Taishō period, he is known as the "Emperor Taishō".

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النشأة

Prince Yoshihito was born at the Tōgū Palace in Akasaka, Tokyo to Emperor Meiji and Yanagiwara Naruko, a concubine with the official title of gon-no-tenji (imperial concubine). As was common practice at the time, Emperor Meiji's consort, Empress Shōken, was officially regarded as his mother. He received the personal name of Yoshihito Shinnō and the title Haru-no-miya from the Emperor on 6 September 1879. His two older siblings had died in infancy, and he too was born sickly.[1]

Prince Yoshihito contracted cerebral meningitis within three weeks of his birth.[2] (It has also been rumoured that he suffered from lead poisoning, supposedly contracted from the lead-based makeup his wet nurse used.)[بحاجة لمصدر]

As was the practice at the time, Prince Yoshihito was entrusted to the care of his great-grandfather, Marquess Nakayama Tadayasu, in whose house he lived from infancy until the age of seven. Prince Nakayama had also raised his grandson, Emperor Meiji, as a child.[3]

From March 1885, Prince Yoshihito moved to the Aoyama Detached Palace, where he was tutored in the mornings on reading, writing, arithmetic, and morals, and in the afternoons on sports, but progress was slow due to his poor health and frequent fevers.[4] From 1886, he was taught together with 15–20 selected classmates from the ōke and higher ranking kazoku peerage at a special school, the Gogakumonsho, within the Aoyama Palace.[4]

Yoshihito was officially declared heir on 31 August 1887, and had his formal investiture as crown prince on 3 November 1888. While crown prince, he was often referred to simply as Tōgu (東宮) (Or 'Eastern Palace', a metonymy for heir to the throne originated from China's Han dynasty).

 
Crown Prince Tōgu with his father and mother strolling in Asukayama Park accompanied by ladies of the court. Colour woodblock print by Yōshū Chikanobu, 1890


التعليم والتدريب

In September 1887, Yoshihito entered the elementary department of the Gakushūin; but, due to his health problems, he was often unable to continue his studies.[بحاجة لمصدر] For health reasons, he spent much of his youth at the Imperial villas at Hayama and Numazu, both of which are located at the sea. Although the prince showed skill in some areas, such as horse riding, he proved to be poor in areas requiring higher-level thought.[بحاجة لمصدر] He was finally withdrawn from Gakushuin before finishing the middle school course in 1894. However, he did appear to have an aptitude for languages and continued to receive extensive tutoring in French, Chinese, and history from private tutors at the Akasaka Palace;[بحاجة لمصدر] Emperor Meiji gave Prince Takehito responsibility for taking care of Prince Yoshihito, and the two princes became friends.

From 1898, largely at the insistence of Itō Hirobumi, the Prince began to attend sessions of the House of Peers of the Diet of Japan as a way of learning about the political and military concerns of the country. In the same year, he gave his first official receptions to foreign diplomats, with whom he was able to shake hands and converse graciously.[5] His infatuation with western culture and tendency to sprinkle French words into his conversations was a source of irritation for Emperor Meiji.[6]

In October 1898, the Prince also traveled from the Numazu Imperial Villa to Kobe, Hiroshima, and Etajima, visiting sites connected with the Imperial Japanese Navy. He made another tour in 1899 to Kyūshū, visiting government offices, schools and factories (such as Yawata Iron and Steel in Fukuoka and the Mitsubishi shipyards in Nagasaki).[7]

الزواج

 
Emperor Taishō's four sons in 1921: Hirohito, Takahito, Nobuhito and Yasuhito

On 10 May 1900, Crown Prince Yoshihito married the then 15-year-old Kujō Sadako, daughter of Prince Kujō Michitaka, the head of the five senior branches of the Fujiwara clan. She had been carefully selected by Emperor Meiji for her intelligence, articulation, and pleasant disposition and dignity – to complement Prince Yoshihito in the areas where he was lacking.[2] The Akasaka Palace was constructed from 1899 to 1909 in a lavish European rococo style, to serve as the Crown Prince's official residence. The Prince and Princess had the following children:

الاسم الميلاد الوفاة الزواج الأنجال
Hirohito, Emperor Shōwa (裕仁, 昭和天皇) 29 April 1901 7 January 1989 26 January 1924 Princess Nagako Kuni
Yasuhito, Prince Chichibu (秩父宮雍仁親王) 25 June 1902 4 January 1953 28 September 1928 Setsuko Matsudaira none
Nobuhito, Prince Takamatsu (高松宮宣仁親王) 3 January 1905 3 February 1987 4 February 1930 Kikuko Tokugawa none
Takahito, Prince Mikasa (三笠宮崇仁親王) 2 December 1915 27 October 2016 22 October 1941 Yuriko Takagi

In 1902, Yoshihito continued his tours to observe the customs and geography of Japan, this time of central Honshū, where he visited the noted Buddhist temple of Zenkō-ji in Nagano.[8] With tensions rising between Japan and Russia, Yoshihito was promoted in 1903 to the rank of colonel in the Imperial Japanese Army and captain in the Imperial Japanese Navy. His military duties were only ceremonial, but he traveled to inspect military facilities in Wakayama, Ehime, Kagawa and Okayama that year.[9]

In October 1907, the Crown Prince toured Korea, accompanied by Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, General Katsura Tarō[بحاجة لمصدر], and Prince Arisugawa Taruhito. It was the first time an heir apparent to the throne had ever left Japan.[10] During this period, he began studying the Korean language, although he never became proficient at it.[بحاجة لمصدر]

كإمبراطور

 
الامبراطور تاي‌شو في طريقه إلى حفل افتتاح الدايت الامبراطوري في 1917، أثناء الحرب العالمية الأولى

On 30 July 1912, upon the death of his father, Emperor Meiji, Prince Yoshihito ascended the throne. The new emperor was kept out of view of the public as much as possible, having suffered from various neurological problems. At the 1913 opening of the Imperial Diet of Japan, one of the rare occasions he was seen in public, he is famously reported to have rolled his prepared speech into a cylinder and stared at the assembly through it, as if through a spyglass.[11] Although rumors attributed this to poor mental condition, others, including those who knew him well, believed that he may have been checking to make sure the speech was rolled up properly, as his manual dexterity was also handicapped.[12]

His lack of articulation and charisma, his disabilities and his eccentricities, led to an increase in incidents of lèse majesté. As his condition deteriorated, he had less and less interest in daily political affairs, and the ability of the genrō, Keeper of the Privy Seal, and Imperial Household Minister to manipulate his decisions came to be a matter of common knowledge.[13] The two-party political system that had been developing in Japan since the turn of the century came of age after World War I, giving rise to the nickname for the period, "Taishō Democracy", prompting a shift in political power to the Imperial Diet of Japan and the democratic parties.[14]

After 1918, the emperor no longer was able to attend Army or Navy maneuvers, appear at the graduation ceremonies of the military academies, perform the annual Shinto ritual ceremonies, or even attend the official opening of sessions of the Diet of Japan.[15]

After 1919, he undertook no official duties, and Crown Prince Hirohito was named prince regent (sesshō) on 25 November 1921.[16]

The emperor's reclusive life was unaffected by the Great Kantō Earthquake of 1923. Fortuitously, he had moved by imperial train to Tamozawa Imperial Villa at Nikko the week before the disaster; but his son, Crown Prince Hirohito, remained at the Imperial Palace where he was at the heart of the event.[17] Carrier pigeons kept the Emperor informed as information about the extent of the devastation became known.[18]

الوفاة

 
جنازة الامبراطور تاي‌شو في طوكيو

In early December 1926, it was announced that the emperor had pneumonia. He died of a heart attack at 1:25 a.m. in the early morning of 25 December 1926, at the Hayama Imperial Villa at Hayama, on Sagami Bay south of Tokyo (in Kanagawa Prefecture).[19] He was 47 years old.

The funeral was held at night (February 7 to February 8, 1927) and consisted of a 4-mile-long procession in which 20,000 mourners followed a herd of sacred bulls and an ox-drawn cart containing the imperial coffin. The funeral route was lit with wood fires in iron lanterns. The emperor's coffin was then transported to his mausoleum in the western suburbs of Tokyo.[20]

Emperor Taishō has been called the first Tokyo Emperor because he was the first to live his entire life in or near Tokyo. His father was born and reared in Kyoto; and although he later lived and died in Tokyo, Emperor Meiji's mausoleum is located on the outskirts of Kyoto, near the tombs of his imperial forebears; but Emperor Taishō's grave is in Tokyo, in the Musashi Imperial Graveyard in Hachiōji.[21] His son, the Emperor Shōwa, is buried near him.

التكريمات

التكريمات الوطنية

 
Emperor Taishō in the robes of the Order of the Garter


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التكريمات الأجنبية

النسب


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النسب الأبوي

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

الهامش

  1. ^ Keene, Emperor of Japan:Meiji and His World. page 320-321.
  2. ^ أ ب Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Page 22
  3. ^ Donald Calman, Nature and Origins of Japanese Imperialism (2013), pp. 92–93
  4. ^ أ ب Keene, Emperor of Japan:Meiji and His World. page 397-398.
  5. ^ Keene, Emperor of Japan:Meiji and His World. page 547.
  6. ^ Keene, Emperor of Japan:Meiji and His World. page 552.
  7. ^ Keene, Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World. page 554.
  8. ^ Keene, Emperor of Japan:Meiji and His World. page 581.
  9. ^ Keene, Emperor of Japan:Meiji and His World. page 599.
  10. ^ Keene, Emperor of Japan:Meiji and His World. page 652.
  11. ^ See Asahi Shimbun, March 14, 2011, among many other reports.
  12. ^ Nagataka Kuroda. "Higeki no Teiou - Taisho Tennou". Bungeishunjū, February 1959
  13. ^ Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Page 129
  14. ^ Hoffman, Michael (July 29, 2012), "The Taisho Era: When modernity ruled Japan's masses", Japan Times: 7, http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/fl20120729x1.html, retrieved on December 1, 2017 
  15. ^ Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Page 53
  16. ^ Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Page 123
  17. ^ Hammer, Joshua. (2006). Yokohama Burning, p. 44.
  18. ^ Hammer, p. 194; citing "Carrier Pigeons Take News of Disaster:Wing Their Way from the Flaming City," Japan Times & Mail (Earthquake Edition). 6 September 1923, p. 1.
  19. ^ Seidensticker, Edward. (1990). Tokyo Rising, p. 18.
  20. ^ Ronald E. Yates, World Leaders Bid Hirohito Farewell, Chicago T, February 24, 1989 (online), accessed 13 Oct 2015
  21. ^ Seidensticker, p. 20.
  22. ^ "官報. 1889年11月03日 - 国立国会図書館デジタルコレクション".
  23. ^ "官報. 1900年05月10日 - 国立国会図書館デジタルコレクション".
  24. ^ "官報. 1906年12月30日 - 国立国会図書館デジタルコレクション".
  25. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د 刑部芳則 (2017). 明治時代の勲章外交儀礼 (PDF) (in اليابانية). 明治聖徳記念学会紀要. p. 152.
  26. ^ "Liste des Membres de l'Ordre de Léopold" (in French), Almanach Royale Belgique, Bruxelles, 1899, p. 72 
  27. ^ Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in الدانمركية). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 466. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
  28. ^ Italy. Ministero dell'interno (1920). Calendario generale del regno d'Italia. p. 57.
  29. ^ Royal Thai Government Gazette (9 December 1900). "ข้อความในใบบอกพระยาฤทธิรงค์รณเฉท อรรคราชทูตสยามกรุงญี่ปุ่น เรื่อง พระราชทานเครื่องราชอิศริยาภรณ์ มหาจักรีบรมราชวงษ์แก่มกุฎราชกุมาร กรุงญี่ปุ่น" (PDF) (in التايلاندية). Retrieved 2019-05-08. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  30. ^ "Caballeros de la insigne orden del toisón de oro". Guía Oficial de España (in الإسبانية). 1911. p. 160. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  31. ^ (in sv)Sveriges Statskalender, 1909, p. 613, http://runeberg.org/rikskal/1909/0697.html, retrieved on 2018-01-06 
  32. ^ "List of the Knights of the Garter=François Velde, Heraldica.org". Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  33. ^ "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv (in اليابانية). Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  34. ^ "Genealogy of the Emperors of Japan" (PDF). Imperial Household Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.

المصادر

وصلات خارجية


الامبراطور تاي‌شو
وُلِد: 31 أغسطس 1879 توفي: 25 ديسمبر 1926
ألقاب ملكية
سبقه
Emperor Meiji
(موتسوشيتو)
Emperor of Japan
30 July 1912 – 25 December 1926
تبعه
Emperor Shōwa
(Hirohito)
  أباطرة اليابان  
الأباطرة الأسطوريون
1 جيمو
神武
2 سوي‌زيْ
綏靖
3 安寧 4 懿徳 5 孝昭 6 孝安 7 孝霊 8 孝元 9 開化 10 崇神
11 垂仁 12 景行 13 成務 14 仲哀  
حقبة يـَمـاتـو 大和時代 (كـُفون)، الفترة (250538)
15 اوجين
応神
16 نين تـُكو
仁徳
17 履中 18 反正 19 允恭 20 安康 21 雄略 22 清寧 23 顕宗 24 仁賢
25 武烈 26 継体 27 安閑 28 宣化  
حقبة أسـوكـا 飛鳥時代، الفترة (538710)
29 كيم مـِيْ
欽明
30 بيداتسو
敏達
31 يومـِيْ
用明
32 سوشون
崇峻
33 سويكو
推古
34 جومـِيْ
舒明
35 كوگيوكو
皇極
36 كوتـُكو
孝徳
37 كوگيوكو
斉明
38 تنجي
天智
39 كـُبون
弘文
40 تمـّو
天武
41 جيتو
持統
42 مـُمـّو
文武
43 گـِم مـِيْ
元明
 
حقبة نـارا 奈良時代، الفترة (710 - 794)
44 گـِنشو
元正
45 شومو 聖武 46 كوكـِن
孝謙
47 جون نين 淳仁 48 شوتـُكو
称徳
49 كونين
光仁
 
حقبة هـِيْ آن 平安時代، الفترة (794 - 1185)
50 كـَمـّو
桓武
51 平城 52 嵯峨 53 淳和 54 仁明 55 文徳 56 清和 57 陽成 58 光孝 59 اودا
宇多
60 دايگو
醍醐
61 سوزاكو
朱雀
62 موراكامي
村上
63 ريْ‌زيْ
冷泉
64 إن‌يو
円融
65 كازان
花山
66 一条 67 三条 68 後一条 69 後朱雀
70 後冷泉 71 後三条 72 白河 73 堀河 74 鳥羽 75 崇徳 76 近衛 77 後白河 78 二条 79 六条
80 高倉 81 أن تـُكو
安徳
82 گو توبا
後鳥羽
 
حقبة كـَماكورا 鎌倉時代، الفترة (1185 - 1333)
83 تسوتشي ميكادو
土御門
84 جون تـُكو
順徳
85 仲恭 86 後堀河 87 四条 88 後嵯峨 89 後深草 90 亀山 91 後宇多 92 伏見
93 後伏見 94 後二条 95 花園 96 گو دايگو
後醍醐
 
حقبة مورُماتشي 室町時代، الفترة (1336 - 1573)
97 گو موراكامي
後村上
98 تشو كـِيْ
長慶
99 گو كامـِياما
後亀山
100 گو كوماتسو
後小松
البلاط الشمالي 北朝 "هـُكوچو" 1 كوگـُن
光厳
2 كومـْيو
光明
3 崇光 4 後光厳 5 後円融 6 後小松  
101 称光 102 後花園 103 後土御門 104 後柏原 105 後奈良 106 正親町 107 後陽成  
حقبة إدو 江戸時代، الفترة (16031868)
108 گو ميزونو 後水尾 109 مـِيـْشو
明正
110 گو كوميو
後光明
111 گو ساي
後西
112 ريـْگـِن
霊元
113 هيگاشي ياما
東山
114 ناكا ميكادو
中御門
115 ساكورا ماتشي
桜町
116 موموزونو
桃園
117 گو ساكورا ماتشي
後桜町
118 گو موموزونو
後桃園
119 كوكاكو
光格
120 نين كو
仁孝
121 كومـِيْ
孝明
 
اليابان المعاصرة (عهد مـِيـْجي 明治時代 ف. 18681912)
122 ميـْجي
明治
123 تايشو
大正
124 هيروهيتو
昭和
125 أكيهيتو
今上
ولي العهد الامبراطورات النساء (باللون الأحمر)

قالب:Japanese princes