اُكوما شيگى‌نوبو

(تم التحويل من Ōkuma Shigenobu)

الماركيز اُكوما شيگى‌نوبو (大隈 重信, 11 مارس 183810 يناير 1922) كان رجل دولة ياباني وعضواً بارزاً في Meiji oligarchy. عمل رئيساً لوزراء امبراطورية اليابان في 1898 ومن 1914 إلى 1916. كما كان أُكوما من أوائل المنادين باعتماد العلوم اوالثقافة الغربية في اليابان، ومؤسس جامعة واسيدا. ويعتبر وسطياً.


اُكوما شيگى‌نوبو
Shigenobu Okuma 5.jpg
رئيس وزراء اليابان
في المنصب
16 أبريل 1914 – 9 أكتوبر 1916
العاهلتاي‌شو
سبقهYamamoto Gonnohyōe
خلـَفهTerauchi Masatake
في المنصب
30 يونيو 1898 – 8 نوفمبر 1898
العاهلمـِيْ‌جي
سبقهItō Hirobumi
خلـَفهYamagata Aritomo
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد(1838-03-11)مارس 11, 1838
ساگا، اليابان
توفييناير 10, 1922(1922-01-10) (عن عمر 83 عاماً)
طوكيو، اليابان
الحزبRikken Kaishintō (1882–1896)
Shimpotō (1896–1898)
Kensei Hontō (1898–1908)
مستقل (1908–1914)
Rikken Dōshikai (1914–1922)
الزوجŌkuma Ayako
التوقيع
Japanese name
Kanji大隈 重信
Hiraganaおおくま しげのぶ
Katakanaオオクマ シゲノブ

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النشأة

Ōkuma Hachitarō was born on March 11, 1838, in Saga, Hizen Province (modern day Saga Prefecture),[1] the first son of Ōkuma Nobuyasu and Miiko.[2] His father was a samurai-class artillery officer of the Saga Domain,[1][3] and the family were a high-ranking samurai family who had a 300 koku territory.[2]

At the age of seven, he entered the domain school Kōdōkan and studied mainly Confucian literature, the teachings of Cheng–Zhu school in particular. In 1854, he rebelled against the education of the school with his fellow students. He was expelled the next year for rioting.[2] At this point, he had moved to a Dutch studies institution.[1]

The Dutch school was merged with the provincial school in 1861, and Ōkuma took up a lecturing position there shortly afterward. Ōkuma sympathized with the sonnō jōi movement, which aimed at expelling the Europeans who had started to arrive in Japan. However, he also advocated mediation between the rebels in Chōshū and the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo.[بحاجة لمصدر]

During a trip to Nagasaki, Ōkuma met a Dutch missionary named Guido Verbeck, who taught him the English language and provided him with copies of the New Testament and the American Declaration of Independence.[4] These works are often said[من؟] to have affected his political thinking profoundly,[بحاجة لمصدر] and encouraged him to support efforts to abolish the existing feudal system and work toward the establishment of a constitutional government.

Ōkuma frequently traveled between Nagasaki and Kyoto in the following years and became active in the Meiji Restoration. In 1867, together with Soejima Taneomi, he planned to recommend resignation to the shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu.[1] Leaving Saga Domain without permission, they went to Kyoto, where the shōgun then resided.[5] However, Ōkuma and his companions were arrested and sent back to Saga. They were subsequently sentenced to one month imprisonment.


السيرة السياسية في عهد مـِيْ‌جي

 
اُكوما شيگى‌نوبو شاباً.

Following the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Okuma was placed in charge of foreign affairs for the new Meiji government. At this time, he negotiated with British diplomat, Sir Harry Smith Parkes on the ban of Christianity and insisted on maintaining the government's persecution on Catholics in Nagasaki.[بحاجة لمصدر]

في 1873، رفعت الحكومة اليابانية الحظر المفروض على المسيحية.

He was soon given an additional post as head of Japan's monetary reform program. He made use of his close contacts with Inoue Kaoru to secure a position in the central government in Tokyo. He was elected to the first Diet of Japan in 1870 and soon became Minister of Finance, in which capacity he instituted property and taxation reforms that aided Japan's early industrial development.[6]

He also unified the nation's currency, created the national mint, and a separate Minister of Industry; however, he was dismissed in 1881 after a long series of disagreements with members of the Satsuma and Chōshū clique in the Meiji oligarchy, most notably Itō Hirobumi, over his efforts to secure foreign loans, to establish a constitution, and especially over his exposure of illicit property dealings involving Prime Minister Kuroda Kiyotaka and others from Satsuma.

In 1882, Ōkuma co-founded the Constitutional Progressive Party (Rikken Kaishintō) which soon attracted a number of other leaders, including Ozaki Yukio and Inukai Tsuyoshi. That same year, Ōkuma founded the Tokyo Senmon Gakkō (東京専門学校) in the Waseda district of Tokyo. The school later became Waseda University, one of the country's most prominent institutions of higher education.[7]

Despite their continuing animosity, Itō again appointed Ōkuma to the post of Foreign Minister in February 1888 to deal with the difficult issue of negotiation revisions to the "unequal treaties" with the Western powers. The treaty he negotiated was perceived by the public as too conciliatory to the Western powers, and created considerable controversy. Ōkuma was attacked by a member of the Gen'yōsha in 1889, and his right leg was blown off by a bomb.[8] He retired from politics at that time.

However, he returned to politics in 1896 by reorganizing the Rikken Kaishintō into the Shimpotō (Progressive Party). In 1897, Matsukata Masayoshi convinced Ōkuma to participate in his second administration as Foreign Minister and Agriculture and Commerce Minister, but again, he remained in office for only one year before resigning.

In June 1898, Ōkuma co-founded the Kenseitō (Constitutional Government Party), by merging his Shimpotō with Itagaki Taisuke's Jiyūtō, and was appointed by the Emperor to form the first partisan cabinet in Japanese history. The new cabinet survived for only four months before it fell apart due to internal dissension. Ōkuma remained in charge of the party until 1908, when he retired from politics.

After his political retirement, Ōkuma became president of Waseda University and chairman of the Japan Civilization Society, from which scholars' many translations of European and American texts were published. He also gathered support for Japan's first expedition to Antarctica.

السيرة السياسية في عهد تاي‌شو

 
الماركيز Ōkuma Shigenobu في العام السابق لوفاته

At the request of the Emperor,[9] Ōkuma returned to politics during the constitutional crisis of 1914, when the government of Yamamoto Gonnohyōe was forced to resign in the wake of the Siemens scandal. Ōkuma organized his supporters, together with the Rikken Dōshikai and Chūseikai organizations, into a coalition cabinet. The 2nd Ōkuma administration was noted for its active foreign policy. Later that year, Japan declared war on the German Empire, thus entering World War I on the Allied side. In 1915, Ōkuma and Katō Takaaki drafted the Twenty-One Demands on China.

However, Ōkuma's second administration was also short-lived. Following the Ōura scandal, Ōkuma's cabinet lost popular support, and its members held mass resignation in October 1915. In 1916, after a long argument with the Genrō, Ōkuma resigned as well, and retired from politics permanently, although he remained a member of the Upper House of the Diet of Japan until 1922. He was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum in 1916, and was elevated to the title of kōshaku (侯爵) (marquis) in the kazoku peerage system the same year.

Ōkuma returned to Waseda, and died there in 1922.[10] An estimated 300,000 people attended his funeral in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. He was posthumously conferred with the Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum, the nation's highest honour. He was buried at the temple of Gokoku-ji in Tokyo.

التكريم

Fمن المقالة المناظرة في ويكيبيديا اليابانية

النبالة

  • كونت (9 مايو 1887)
  • ماركيز (14 يوليو 1916)

التكريم

Court order of precedence

  • Fifth rank, junior grade (1867)
  • Fourth rank, junior grade (1868)
  • Senior fourth rank (1870)
  • Third rank (July 22, 1871)
  • Senior third rank (December 26, 1887)
  • Second rank (February 17, 1888)
  • Senior second rank (June 20, 1898)
  • First rank (January 10, 1922 – posthumous)

ملاحظات

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث Borton, p. 91.
  2. ^ أ ب ت Itō, Yukio; 伊藤之雄 (2019). Ōkuma Shigenobu. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-4-12-102550-0. OCLC 1201259749.
  3. ^ "大隈重信 | 近代日本人の肖像". National Diet Library (in اليابانية). Retrieved 2021-12-10.
  4. ^ Brownas, heading "A Wider Window on the West"
  5. ^ Tokugawa, p. 161. Unlike all 14 previous Tokugawa shōguns, Yoshinobu never set foot in Edo during his tenure.
  6. ^ Borton, p. 78.
  7. ^ Beasley, p. 105.
  8. ^ Beasley, p. 159.
  9. ^ قالب:Cite EB1922
  10. ^ Beasley, p. 220.

المراجع

  • Beasley, W.G. (1963). The Making of Modern Japan. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Borton, Hugh (1955). Japan's Modern Century. New York: The Ronald Press Company.
  • Idditti, Smimasa. Life of Marquis Shigenobu Okuma: A Maker of New Japan. Kegan Paul International Ltd. (2006). ISBN 0-7103-1186-9
  • Idditti, Junesay. Marquis Shigenobu Okuma – A Biographical Study in the Rise of Democratic Japan. Hokuseido Press (1956). ASIN: B000IPQ4VQ
  • Lebra-Chapman, Joyce. Okuma Shigenobu: statesman of Meiji Japan. Australian National University Press (1973). ISBN 0-7081-0400-2
  • Oka Yoshitake, et al. Five Political Leaders of Modern Japan: Ito Hirobumi, Okuma Shigenobu, Hara Takashi, Inukai Tsuyoshi, and Saionji Kimmochi. University of Tokyo Press (1984). ISBN 0-86008-379-9
  • Tokugawa Munefusa (2005). Tokugawa yonhyakunen no naisho-banashi: raibaru bushō-hen Tokyo: Bungei-shunju
  • Brownas, Sidney DeVere. Nagasaki in the Meiji Restoration: Choshu Loyalists and British Arms Merchants. http://www.uwosh.edu/home_pages/faculty_staff/earns/meiji.html Retrieved on August 7, 2008.

وصلات خارجية

مناصب سياسية
سبقه
Itō Hirobumi
وزير الشئون الخارجية
1888–1889
تبعه
Aoki Shūzō
سبقه
Saionji Kinmochi
وزير الشئون الخارجية
1896–1897
تبعه
Nishi Tokujirō
سبقه
Nishi Tokujirō
وزير الشئون الخارجية
1898
تبعه
Aoki Shūzō
سبقه
Katō Takaaki
وزير الشئون الخارجية
1915
تبعه
Ishii Kikujirō
سبقه
Hara Takashi
Minister of Home Affairs
1914–1915
تبعه
Ōura Kanetake
سبقه
Ōura Kanetake
وزير الداخلية
1915
تبعه
Ichiki Kitokurō
سبقه
Enomoto Takeaki
وزير الزراعة والتجارة
1897
تبعه
Yamada Nobumichi
سبقه
Itō Hirobumi
رئيس وزراء اليابان
1898
تبعه
Yamagata Aritomo
سبقه
Yamamoto Gonnohyōe
رئيس وزراء اليابان
1914–1916
تبعه
Terauchi Masatake
مناصب أكاديمية
منصب حديث رئيس جامعة واسيدا
1907–1922
تبعه
Masasada Shiozawa