افتح القائمة الرئيسية

يديشية (لغة)

اللغة اليديشية (ייִדיש، يديش) لغة جرمانية يتحدثها ما يقارب 3 ملايين شخص حول العالم، وأغلبيتهم يهود اشكناز. الاسم يديش هو يديشية لكلمة "يهودية" وقد تكون تقصير لـ"يديش-تايتش" (דיש־טײַטש) أو ألمانية-يهودية.

Yiddish
ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש yidish/idish/yidish
النطق[ˈjɪdɪʃ] or [ˈɪdɪʃ]
موطنهاCentral, Eastern, and Western Europe; Israel; North America; other regions with Jewish populations[1]
الناطقون الأصليون
(1٫5 million cited 1986–1991 + half undated)e18
Hebrew alphabet (Yiddish orthography)
الوضع الرسمي
لغة أقلية
معترف بها في
ينظمهاno formal bodies;
YIVO de facto
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1yi
ISO 639-2yid
ISO 639-3yidinclusive code
Individual codes:
ydd – Eastern Yiddish
yih – Western Yiddish
Glottologyidd1255[2]
Linguasphere52-ACB-g = 52-ACB-ga (West) + 52-ACB-gb (East); totalling 11 varieties

أصل اللغة اليديشية ليس معروف بالتحديد ولكن بدأت هذه اللغة في حوالي القرن العاشر الميلادي بين اليهود في المانية ربما كلغة تجارية وبينما هرب اليهود إلى شرق أوروبا وخصوصاً بولندا بعد الحروب الصلبية أخذت اللغة كلمات وقوانين من اللغات السلافية.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

فهرست

التاريخ

اليديشية גוּט טַק אִים בְּטַגְֿא שְ וַיר דִּיש מַחֲזוֹר אִין בֵּיתֿ הַכְּנֶסֶתֿ טְרַגְֿא
Transliterated gut tak im betage se vaer dis makhazor in beis hakneses trage
Translated May a good day come to him who carries this prayer book into the synagogue.


Written evidence

 
The calligraphic segment in the Worms Mahzor


20th century

 
American World War I-era poster in Yiddish. Translated caption: "Food will win the war – You came here seeking freedom, now you must help to preserve it – We must supply the Allies with wheat – Let nothing go to waste". Colour lithograph, 1917. Digitally restored.

Numbers of speakers

 
Map of the Yiddish dialects between the 15th and the 19th centuries (Western dialects in orange / Eastern dialects in green).

On the eve of World War II, there were 11 to 13 million Yiddish speakers.[3] The Holocaust, however, led to a dramatic, sudden decline in the use of Yiddish, as the extensive Jewish communities, both secular and religious, that used Yiddish in their day-to-day life, were largely destroyed. Around five million of those killed — 85 percent of the Jews who died in the Holocaust — were speakers of Yiddish.[4] Although millions of Yiddish speakers survived the war (including nearly all Yiddish speakers in the Americas), further assimilation in countries such as the United States and the Soviet Union, along with the strictly monolingual stance of the Zionist movement, led to a decline in the use of Eastern Yiddish. However, the number of speakers within the widely dispersed Orthodox (mainly Hasidic) communities is now increasing. Although used in various countries, Yiddish has attained official recognition as a minority language only in Moldova, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Netherlands[5] and Sweden.

الوضع كلغة

Israel and Zionism

 
An example of graffiti in Yiddish, Tel Aviv, Washington Avenue (און איר זאלט ליב האבן דעם פרעמדען, ווארום פרעמדע זייט איר געווען אין לאנד מצרים Un ir zolt lib hobn dem fremdn varum fremde seit ir geven in land mitsrayim). "Ye shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt (Exodus 22:21) Amen?"


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Former Soviet Union

In the Soviet Union during the 1920s, Yiddish was promoted as the language of the Jewish proletariat.

 
State emblem of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic with the motto Workers of the world, unite! in Yiddish (lower left part of the ribbon)

روسيا

Jewish Autonomous Oblast

Sweden

 
Banner from the first issue of the Yidishe Folksshtime ("Yiddish People's Voice"), published in Stockholm, 12 January 1917.


United States

 
Yiddish distribution in the United States. ██ More than 100,000 speakers ██ More than 10,000 speakers ██ More than 5,000 speakers ██ More than 1,000 speakers ██ Fewer than 1,000 speakers
 
Women surrounded by posters in English and Yiddish supporting Franklin D. Roosevelt, Herbert H. Lehman, and the American Labor Party teach other women how to vote, 1936.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Modern Yiddish education

 
A road sign in Yiddish (except for the word "sidewalk") at an official construction site in the Monsey hamlet, a community with thousands of Yiddish speakers, in Ramapo, New York.

See also

 
A 2008 Election poster in front of a store in Village of New Square, Town of Ramapo, New York, entirely in Yiddish. The candidates' names are transliterated into Yiddish.
 
Rosh Hashanah greeting card, Montevideo, 1932. Inscription includes text in Hebrew (לשנה טובה תכתבו—LeShaná Tová Tikatevu) and Yiddish (מאנטעווידעא—Montevideo).

References

  1. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة e18
  2. ^ قالب:Glottolog
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة yivo-yiddish
  4. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Sprache 1984 p. 3
  5. ^ "Talen in Nederland | Erkende talen". Rijksoverheid.nl. 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2013-12-08.

Bibliography

  • Baumgarten, Jean (2005). Frakes, Jerold C. (ed.). Introduction to Old Yiddish Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-927633-1.
  • Birnbaum, Solomon (1979, 2nd edition 2016). Yiddish – A Survey and a Grammar. Toronto. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Dunphy, Graeme (2007). "The New Jewish Vernacular". In Reinhart, Max (ed.). Camden House History of German Literature, Volume 4: Early Modern German Literature 1350–1700. pp. 74–79. ISBN 1-57113-247-3.
  • Fishman, David E. (2005). The Rise of Modern Yiddish Culture. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-4272-0.
  • Fishman, Joshua A., ed. (1981). Never Say Die: A Thousand Years of Yiddish in Jewish Life and Letters (in Yiddish and English). The Hague: Mouton Publishers. ISBN 90-279-7978-2.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Frakes, Jerold C (2004). Early Yiddish Texts 1100–1750. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926614-X.
  • Herzog, Marvin; et al., eds. (1992–2000). The Language and Culture Atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry. Tübingen: Max-Niemeyer-Verlag in collaboration with YIVO. ISBN 3-484-73013-7.
  • Katz, Hirshe-Dovid (1992). Code of Yiddish spelling ratified in 1992 by the programmes in Yiddish language and literature at Bar Ilan University, Oxford University, Tel Aviv University, Vilnius University. Oxford: Oksforder Yiddish Press in cooperation with the Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. ISBN 1-897744-01-3.
  • Katz, Dovid (1987). Grammar of the Yiddish Language. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-2162-9.
  • Katz, Dovid (2007). Words on Fire: The Unfinished Story of Yiddish (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03730-5.
  • Kriwaczek, Paul (2005). Yiddish Civilization: The Rise and Fall of a Forgotten Nation. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-82941-6.
  • Lansky, Aaron (2004). Outwitting History: How a Young Man Rescued a Million Books and Saved a Vanishing Civilisation. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books. ISBN 1-56512-429-4.
  • Liptzin, Sol (1972). A History of Yiddish Literature. Middle Village, New York: Jonathan David Publishers. ISBN 0-8246-0124-6.
  • Margolis, Rebecca (2011). Basic Yiddish: A Grammar and Workbook. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-55522-7.
  • Rosten, Leo (2000). Joys of Yiddish. Pocket. ISBN 0-7434-0651-6.
  • Shandler, Jeffrey (2006). Adventures in Yiddishland: Postvernacular Language and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24416-8.
  • Shmeruk, Chone (1988). Prokim fun der Yidisher Literatur-Geshikhte [Chapters of Yiddish Literary History] (in Yiddish). Tel Aviv: Peretz.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Shternshis, Anna (2006). Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
  • Stutchkoff, Nahum (1950). Oytser fun der Yidisher Shprakh [Thesaurus of the Yiddish language] (in Yiddish). New York.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Weinreich, Uriel (1999). College Yiddish: An Introduction to the Yiddish language and to Jewish Life and Culture (in Yiddish and English) (6th rev. ed.). New York: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. ISBN 0-914512-26-9.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Weinstein, Miriam (2001). Yiddish: A Nation of Words. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-44730-1.
  • Wex, Michael (2005). Born to Kvetch: Yiddish Language and Culture in All Its Moods. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-30741-1.
  • Witriol, Joseph (1974). Mumme Loohshen: An Anatomy of Yiddish. London.

للاستزادة

وصلات خارجية

يديشية (لغة) edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
هناك كتاب ، Yiddish، في معرفة الكتب.


هناك كتاب ، Yiddish for Yeshivah Bachurim، في معرفة الكتب.


قالب:Wiktionary category

قالب:West Germanic languages

قالب:Languages of Israel