رسائل تل العمارنة

(تم التحويل من رسائل العمارنة)

رسائل العمارنة أو أرشيف العمارنة، عبارة عن مجموعة كبيرة من الرُقم الطينية المكتوبة باللغة الأكادية (البابلية) والخط المسماري التي وجدت في أرشيف قصر الملك المصري إخناتون (امنحوتب الرابع) في مقر حكمه (أخت أتون) تل العمارنة في مصر تبلغ وثائق العمارنة ٣٨٢ وثيقةً، منها ٣٥٠ رسالةً، أرسل معظمها ملـوك الممالـك الكبرى في الشرق القديم (الميتانية، البابلية، الحثية) وعدد كبير من ملوك ممالك بـلاد الشام (الصغرى) وحكامها وزعماؤها، وملك ألاشيا (قبرص) إلى ملوك من الأسـرة الثامنة عشرة الحاكمة في مصر وممثليهم الكبار. كما أنها مدونة بالكتابة المسمارية، واللغة الأكّدية (اللهجة البابلية الوسـيطة)، وقـد كانتـا، الأكثر انتشاراً واستخداماً في شرقي المتوسط، بل إن اللغة الأكّدية كانت بمنـزلة اللغة الدولية، تُحرر بها جميع المراسلات الدولية، كما كان الكتّاب والرسل الـذين ينقلـون الكلام ويترجمون المدون أهم عناصر التواصل والتراسل بين الممالك. تغطي وثائق العمارنة حقبة قصيرة، تبلغ نحو ربع قرن (نحـو ١٣٦٠-١٣٣٥ ق.م)، وهي محفوظة في متاحف عالمية عدة، أبرزها متحف برلين، والمتحف المصري فـي القاهرة ، والمتحف البريطاني بلندن. وقد نشرت استنـساخات لهـا فـي ١٨٨٩-١٨٩٠م، ثم نشرها النرويجي كنودتسن Knudtzon بشكل كامل، ثم تتالت بعـد ذلـك جهود الباحثين فيها، وصدرت ترجمات لها إلى عدد من اللغات الأوربية. وتجـدر الإشارة إلى الاهتمام المتزايد للباحثين الإسرائيليين وذوي الميول التوراتية بهـا، فـي العقود الأخيرة.[1]

EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet.

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الرسائل

 
One of the Amarna Letters.


 
Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.


ملخص الرسائل

رسائل العمارنة مرتبة سياسياً بالتقريب عكس عقارب الساعة:

  • 001-014 بابل
  • 015-016 آشور
  • 017-030 ميتاني
  • 031-032 أرزاوا
  • 033-040 ألاسيا
  • 041-044 حتي
  • 045-380+ سوريا/لبنان/كنعان

رسائل العمارنة من سوريا/لبنان/كنعان موزعون كالتالي:

  • 045-067 سوريا
  • 068-227 لبنان (حيث 68-140 هم من گوبلا التي تـُعرف باسم بيبلوس وجبيل)
  • 227-380 كنعان

قائمة رسائل العمارنة

Note: Many assignments are tentative; spellings vary widely. This is just a guide.

EA# Letter author to recipient
EA# 1 Amenhotep III to Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil
EA# 2 Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep III
EA# 3 Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep III
EA# 4 Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep II
EA# 5 Amenhotep III to Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil
EA# 6 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep III
EA# 7 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep IV
EA# 8 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep IV
EA# 9 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep IV
EA# 10 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep IV
EA# 11 Babylonian king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep IV
EA# 12 princess to her lord
EA# 13 Babylon
EA# 14 Amenhotep IV to Babylonian king Burna-Buriash II
EA# 15 Assyrian king Ashur-Uballit I to Amenhotep IV
EA# 16 Assyrian king Ashur-Uballit I to Amenhotep IV
EA# 17 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 18 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 19 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 20 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 21 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 22 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 23 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 24 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 25 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep III
EA# 26 Mitanni king Tushratta to widow Tiy
EA# 27 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep IV
EA# 28 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep IV
EA# 29 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep IV
EA# 30 Mitanni king to Palestine kings
EA# 31 Amenhotep III to Arzawa king Tarhundaraba
EA# 32 Arzawa king Tarhundaraba to Amenhotep III(?)
EA# 33 Alashiya king to pharaoh #1
EA# 34 Alashiya king to pharaoh #2
EA# 35 Alashiya king to pharaoh #3
EA# 36 Alashiya king to pharaoh #4
EA# 37 Alashiya king to pharaoh #5
EA# 38 Alashiya king to pharaoh #6
EA# 39 Alashiya king to pharaoh #7
EA# 40 Alashiya minister to Egypt minister
EA# 41 Hittite king Suppiluliuma to Huri[a]
EA# 42 Hittite king to pharaoh
EA# 43 Hittite king to pharaoh
EA# 44 Hittite prince Zi[k]ar to pharaoh
EA# 45 Ugarit king [M]istu ... to pharaoh
EA# 46 Ugarit king ... to king
EA# 47 Ugarit king ... to king
EA# 48 Ugarit queen ..[h]epa to pharaohs queen
EA# 49 Ugarit king Niqm-Adda II to pharaoh
EA# 50 woman to her mistress B[i]...
EA# 51 Nuhasse king Addunirari to pharaoh
EA# 52 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep III #1
EA# 53 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep III #2
EA# 54 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep III #3
EA# 55 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep III #4
EA# 56 ... to king
EA# 57 ...
EA# 58
EA# 58 [Qat]ihutisupa to king(?) obverse
EA# 59 Tunip peoples to pharaoh
EA# 60 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #1
EA# 61 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #2
EA# 62 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to Pahanate
EA# 63 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #3
EA# 64 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #4
EA# 65 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #5
EA# 66 --- to king
EA# 67 --- to king
EA# 68 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #1
EA# 69 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official
EA# 70 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #2
EA# 71 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Haia(?)
EA# 72 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #3
EA# 73 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #1
EA# 74 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #4
EA# 75 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #5
EA# 76 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #6
EA# 77 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #2
EA# 78 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #7
EA# 79 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #8
EA# 80 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #9
EA# 81 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #10
EA# 82 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #3
EA# 83 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #11
EA# 84 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #12
EA# 85 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #13
EA# 86 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #4
EA# 87 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #5
EA# 88 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #14
EA# 89 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #15
EA# 90 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #16
EA# 91 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #17
EA# 92 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #18
EA# 93 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #6
EA# 94 Gubla man to pharaoh
EA# 95 Gubal king Rib-Addi to chief
EA# 96 chief to Rib-Addi
EA# 97 Iapah-Addi to Sumu-Hadi
EA# 98 Iapah-Addi to Ianhamu
EA# 99 pharaoh to Ammia prince(?)
EA#100 Irqata peoples
EA#100 Tagi to Lab-Aya
EA#101 Gubla man to Egypt official
EA#102 Gubal king Rib-Addi to [Ianha]m[u]
EA#103 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #19
EA#104 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #20
EA#105 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #21
EA#106 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #22
EA#107 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #23
EA#108 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #24
EA#109 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #25
EA#110 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #26
EA#111 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #27
EA#112 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #28
EA#113 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official
EA#114 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #29
EA#115 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #30
EA#116 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #31
EA#117 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #32
EA#118 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #33
EA#119 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #34
EA#120 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #35
EA#121 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #36
EA#122 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #37
EA#123 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #38
EA#124 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #39
EA#125 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #40
EA#126 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #41
EA#127 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #42
EA#128 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #43
EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #44
EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #45
EA#130 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #46
EA#131 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #47
EA#132 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #48
EA#133 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #49
EA#134 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #50
EA#135 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #51
EA#136 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #52
EA#137 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #53
EA#138 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #54
EA#139 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #1
EA#140 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #2
EA#141 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #1
EA#142 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #2
EA#143 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #3
EA#144 Zidon king Zimriddi to pharaoh
EA#145 [Z]imrid[a] to an official
EA#146 Tyre king Abi-Milki to pharaoh #1
EA#147 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #2
EA#148 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #3
EA#149 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #4
EA#150 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #5
EA#151 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #6
EA#152 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #7
EA#153 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #8
EA#154 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #9
EA#155 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #10
EA#156 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #1
EA#157 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #2
EA#158 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #1
EA#159 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #3
EA#160 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #4
EA#161 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #5
EA#162 pharaoh to Amurra prince
EA#163 pharaoh to ...
EA#164 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #2
EA#165 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #6
EA#166 Amurru king Aziri to Hai
EA#167 Amurru king Aziri to (Hai #2?)
EA#168 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #7
EA#169 Amurru son of Aziri to an Egypt official
EA#170 Ba-Aluia & Battiilu
EA#171 Amurru son of Aziri to pharaoh
EA#172 ---
EA#173 ... to king
EA#174 Bieri of Hasabu
EA#175 Ildaja of Hazi to king
EA#176 Abdi-Risa
EA#177 Guddasuna king Jamiuta
EA#178 Hibija to a chief
EA#179 ... to king
EA#180 ... to king
EA#181 ... to king
EA#182 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #1
EA#183 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #2
EA#184 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #3
EA#185 Hazi king Majarzana to king
EA#186 Majarzana of Hazi to king #2
EA#187 Satija of ... to king
EA#188 ... to king
EA#189 Qadesh mayor Etakkama
EA#190 pharaoh to Qadesh mayor Etakkama(?)
EA#191 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king
EA#192 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king #2
EA#193 Dijate to king
EA#194 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #1
EA#195 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #2
EA#196 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #3
EA#197 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #4
EA#198 Ara[ha]ttu of Kumidi to king
EA#199 ... the king
EA#200 servant to king
EA#2001 Sealants
EA#2002 Sealants
EA#201 Artemanja of Ziribasani to king
EA#202 Amajase to king
EA#203 Abdi-Milki of Sashimi
EA#204 prince of Qanu to king
EA#205 Gubbu prince to king
EA#206 prince of Naziba to king
EA#207 Ipteh ... to king
EA#208 ... to Egypt official or king
EA#209 Zisamimi to king
EA#210 Zisami[mi] to Amenhotep IV
EA#2100 Carchemish king to Ugarit king Asukwari
EA#211 Zitrijara to king #1
EA#2110 Ewiri-Shar to Plsy
EA#212 Zitrijara to king #2
EA#213 Zitrijara to king #3
EA#214 ... to king
EA#215 Baiawa to king #1
EA#216 Baiawa to king #2
EA#217 A[h]... to king
EA#218 ... to king
EA#219 ... to king
EA#220 Nukurtuwa of (?) [Z]unu to king
EA#221 Wiktazu to king #1
EA#222 pharaoh to Intaruda
EA#222 Wik[tazu] to king #2
EA#223 En[g]u[t]a to king
EA#224 Sum-Add[a] to king
EA#225 Sum-Adda of Samhuna to king
EA#226 Sipturi_ to king
EA#227 Hazor king
EA#228 Hazor king Abdi-Tirsi
EA#229 Abdi-na-... to king
EA#230 Iama to king
EA#231 ... to king
EA#232 Acco king Zurata to pharaoh
EA#233 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #1
EA#234 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #2
EA#235 Zitatna/(Zatatna) to king
EA#236 ... to king
EA#237 Bajadi to king
EA#238 Bajadi
EA#239 Baduzana
EA#240 ... to king
EA#241 Rusmania to king
EA#242 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #1
EA#243 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #2
EA#244 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #3
EA#245 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #4
EA#246 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #5
EA#247 Megiddo king Biridija or Jasdata
EA#248 Ja[sd]ata to king
EA#248 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh
EA#249
EA#249 Addu-Ur-sag to king
EA#250 Addu-Ur-sag to king
EA#2500 Shechem
EA#251 ... to Egypt official
EA#252 Labaja to king
EA#253 Labaja to king
EA#254 Labaja to king
EA#255 Mut-Balu or Mut-Bahlum to king
EA#256 Mut-Balu to Ianhamu
EA#257 Balu-Mihir to king #1
EA#258 Balu-Mihir to king #2
EA#259 Balu-Mihir to king #3
EA#260 Balu-Mihir to king #4
EA#261 Dasru to king #1
EA#262 Dasru to king #2
EA#263 ... to lord
EA#264 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #1
EA#265 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #2
EA#266 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #3
EA#267 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #1
EA#268 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #2
EA#269 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #3
EA#270 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #4
EA#271 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #5
EA#272 Sum. .. to king
EA#273 Ba-Lat-Nese to king
EA#274 Ba-Lat-Nese to king #2
EA#275 Iahazibada to king #1
EA#276 Iahazibada to king #2
EA#277 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #1
EA#278 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #2
EA#279 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
EA#280 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
EA#281 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #4
EA#282 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #5
EA#283 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #6
EA#284 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #7
EA#285 Jerusalem king Abdi-Hiba to pharaoh
EA#286 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#287 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#288 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#289 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#290 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#290 Qiltu king Suwardata to king
EA#291 ... to ...
EA#292 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #1
EA#293 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #2
EA#294 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #3
EA#295 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #4
EA#296 Gaza king Iahtiri
EA#297 Gezer mayor Iapah[i] to pharaoh #1
EA#298 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #2
EA#299 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #3
EA#300 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #4
EA#301 Subandu to king #1
EA#302 Subandu to king #2
EA#303 Subandu to king #3
EA#304 Subandu to king #4
EA#305 Subandu to king #5
EA#306 Subandu to king #6
EA#307 ... to king
EA#308 ... to king
EA#309 ... to king
EA#310 ... to king
EA#311 ... to king
EA#312 ... to king
EA#313 ... to king
EA#314 Jursa king Pu-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1
EA#315 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #2
EA#316 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh
EA#317 Dagantakala to king #1
EA#318 Dagantakala to king #2
EA#319 A[h]tirumna king Zurasar to king
EA#320 Asqalon king Yidia to pharaoh #1
EA#321 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #2
EA#322 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #3
EA#323 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #4
EA#324 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #5
EA#325 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #6
EA#326 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #7
EA#327 ... the king
EA#328 Lakis mayor Iabniilu to pharaoh
EA#329 Lakis king Zimridi to pharaoh
EA#330 Lakis mayor Sipti-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1
EA#331 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #2
EA#332 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #3
EA#333 Ebi to a prince
EA#334 ---dih of Zuhra [-?] to king
EA#335 --- [of Z]uhr[u] to king
EA#336 Hiziri to king #1
EA#337 Hiziri to king #2
EA#338 Zi. .. to king
EA#339 ... to king
EA#340 ...
EA#341 ...
EA#342 ...
EA#356 myth of Adapa and the South Wind
EA#357 myth the Ereskigal and Nergal
EA#358 myth fragments
EA#359 myth Epic of King of Battle
EA#360 ...
EA#361 ...
EA#362 ...
EA#364 Ayyab to king
EA#365 Megiddo king Biridiya to pharaoh
EA#366 ...
EA#367 pharaoh to Endaruta of Akshapa
EA#369 ...
EA#xxx Amenhotep III to Milkili
H#3100 Tell el-Hesi
P#3200 Pella prince Mut-Balu to Yanhamu
P#3210 Lion Woman to king
T#3002 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
T#3005 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
T#3006 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
U#4001 Ugarit king Niqmaddu


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التأريخ

William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows:

Despite a long history of inquiry, the chronology of the Amarna letters, both relative and absolute, presents many problems, some of bewildering complexity, that still elude definitive solution. Consensus obtains only about what is obvious, certain established facts, and these provide only a broad framework within which many and often quite different reconstructions of the course of events reflected in the Amarna letters are possible and have been defended. ...The Amarna archive, it is now generally agreed, spans at most about thirty years, perhaps only fifteen or so.[2]

From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 to 1351 BC (or 1391 to 1353 BC), possibly as early as this king's 30th regnal year; the latest date any of these letters were written is the desertion of the city of Amarna, commonly believed to have happened in the second year of the reign of Tutankhamun later in the same century in 1332 BC. Moran notes that some scholars believe one tablet, EA 16, may have been addressed to Tutankhamun's successor Ay.[3] However, this speculation appears improbable because the Amarna archives were closed by Year 2 of Tutankhamun, when this king transferred Egypt's capital from Amarna to Thebes.

قصة الاكتشاف

في العام 1885 م قامت إحدى النسوة بالحفر في تلة العمارنة (التل الآثري لأخت أتون العتيقة) لاستخراج التربة من أجل صناعة الأجر الطيني، وخلال الحفر استخرجت بالصدفة بعض الرُقم المسمارية، لقد اعتقد الباحثون في البداية أن كسر هذه الرقم مزورة، لكنه تبين فيما بعد أنها حقيقية وعبارة عن مراسلات دبلوماسية من عدة ملوك موجهة للملك اخناتون، كثير من هذه المراسلات مصدرها ملوك قليلوا الأهمية خاضعين لسياسة اخناتون

التنقيب

 
أحد رسائل العمارنة أرسلها توش‌راتـّا إلى أمنحوتپ الثالث، تتعلق بزواج ابنته تادوهـِپا.

خلال العامين 1891- 1892 م تمكن فلندرز پتري (Flinders Petrie) من كشف الأرشيف الملكي في مدينة أخت أتون واكتشف المزيد من الرُقم، حيث وصل عددها المعروف منها 379 حتى اليوم. ويقدمون معلومات عن الحلفاء الآسويين للقصر الملكي. حيث أن اقدم الرسائل يعود لزمن أمنحوتب الثالث (1388- 1351 ق.م). والحديثة تعود لزمن أخناتون (1351- 1334 ق.م)، وكون الرٌقم كانت مغلفة ومصنفة بصناديق خشبية نجد أن أغلبها بلا تاريخ بعد زوال (إهتراء) المغلف الخشبي وبالتلي يصعب سلسلتها زمنياً. كل الرسائل مكتوبة باللغة الأكادية -عدا ثلاث رسائل- وأحياناً تظهر لهجة (لكنة) محلية لكتابها، فقد كانت اللغة الأكادية (البابلية) لغة التواصل في بلاد الشام كما أضحت عليه الآرامية بعدها.

استنتاجات

يمكن من خلال هذه الرسائل معرفة السياسة الخارجية لمصر في حينها، فكما تحوي رسائل الملوك الآسيوين، كذلك تحتوي نسخاً من الرسائل المرسة من البلاط الملكي ، بعض الرسائل بسيطة وسطحية عبارة عن ترجي للملك ليرسل ذهباً يشير بعض الباحثين حول غرابة كون ارشيف القصر الملكي يتكون في معظمه من رسائل ملوك أغراب عن مصر وأمراء تابعين لها خارج حدودها، ويستنتج بعضهم مثل آلدرِد (Cyril Aldred) ان الملك المصري مارس سياسة خارجية بوعي مكنه من السيطرة على تلك المالك والإمارات من خلال دعمه للملوك الضعفاء وإضعافه للملوك الاقوياء

انظر ايضاً

قائمة رسائل تل العمارنة

ملفات

 
كتاب مراسلات تل العمارنة الدولية، للقراءة والتحميل انقر الصورة

لمطالعة نص الكتاب، انظر s:مراسلات تل العمارنة الدولية.

بيبليوجرافيا

المصادر

  1. ^ فاروق اسماعيل، مملكة نُخشي في العصور الأكادية والمصرية القديمة، مجلة الدراسات التاريخية، كانون الأول 2011: http://www.damascusuniversity.edu.sy/mag/history/FCKBIH/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%AD%D8%AB%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%8A(17).pdf
  2. ^ Moran, p.xxxiv
  3. ^ Moran, p.xxxv, n.123

أبحاث وتحليلات

  • Goren, Y., Finkelstein, I. & Na'aman, N., Inscribed in Clay - Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets and Other Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Tel Aviv: Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 2004. ISBN 965-266-020-5

وصلات خارجية

  • Encyclopedia of el-Amarna Contains summaries of the letters.
  • Mineralogical and Chemical Study of the Amarna Tablets - Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets – University of Tel Aviv web page
  • All 6 views on 1--Sample letter(Mesopotamian)
  • Article explanation of 6 views of a Tablet-letter.
  •   [[wikisource:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/The Tell el-Amarna Tablets "|The Tell el-Amarna Tablets]"] Check |url= value (help). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)