خوخ‌خوت

Hohhot

呼和浩特市ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ
مع عقارب الساعة من أعلى: صرح جنگيز خان، حاكم سوي‌يوان، معبد الخمس پاگودات، مقبرة ژاوجون.
مع عقارب الساعة من أعلى: صرح جنگيز خان، حاكم سوي‌يوان، معبد الخمس پاگودات، مقبرة ژاوجون.
خوخ‌خوت (بالأحمر) في منغوليا الداخلية (بالبرتقالي)
خوخ‌خوت (بالأحمر) في منغوليا الداخلية (بالبرتقالي)
Hohhot is located in منغوليا الداخلية
Hohhot
Hohhot
موقع وسط المدينة في منغوليا الداخلية
Hohhot is located in الصين
Hohhot
Hohhot
Hohhot (الصين)
الإحداثيات (Gongzhufu Park (公主府公园)): 40°50′05″N 111°39′23″E / 40.8346°N 111.6565°E / 40.8346; 111.6565
البلدالصين
المنطقةمنغوليا الداخلية
التقسيمات بمستوى الناحية10
تقسيمات البلدات116
Established1580
الحكومة
 • النوعPrefecture-level city
 • الكيانHohhot Municipal People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryWang Lixia
 • Congress ChairmanChang Peizhong
 • MayorHe Haidong
 • CPPCC ChairmanBai Yongping
المساحة
 • مدينة بمستوى محافظة17٬186٫1 كم² (6٬635٫6 ميل²)
 • الحضر
 [1]
2٬065٫1 كم² (797٫3 ميل²)
 • العمران
4٬830٫1 كم² (1٬864٫9 ميل²)
المنسوب
1٬065 m (3٬494 ft)
التعداد
 (2020 census)[2]
 • مدينة بمستوى محافظة3٬446٬100
 • الكثافة200/km2 (520/sq mi)
 • Urban
2٬681٬758
 • الكثافة الحضرية1٬300/km2 (3٬400/sq mi)
 • العمرانية
2٬944٬889
 • الكثافة العمرانية610/km2 (1٬600/sq mi)
 • Major ethnic groups
منطقة التوقيتUTC+08:00 (China Standard)
Postal code
010000
مفتاح الهاتف471
ISO 3166 codeCN-NM-01
License plate prefixes蒙A
GDP (2015)[3]CNY 309.05 billion
(US$49.62 billion)[4]
GDP per capitaCNY 101,492
(US$16,295)
Local DialectJin: Zhangjiakou-Hohhot dialect; Southern Mongolian
Administrative division code150100
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.huhhot.gov.cn
خوخ‌خوت
HHHTM.svg
Hohhot as written in Mongolian
HHHT name.svg
The Chinese name of Hohhot: Hūhéhàotè
Chinese name
الصينية呼和浩特
Hanyu PinyinHūhéhàotè
المعنى الحرفي"Blue City" (in Mongolian)
Abbreviation
الصينية
Hanyu PinyinHūshì
المعنى الحرفيHo[hhot] City
Kweisui
الصينية التقليدية歸綏
الصينية المبسطة归绥
Hanyu PinyinPRC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuí
ROC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuī
Mongolian name
الكيريلية المنغوليةХөх хот
Mongolian scriptᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Russian name
RussianХух-Хото
RomanizationChuch-Choto

خوخ‌خوت (بالصينية: 呼和浩特پن‌ين: Hūhéhàotè؛ بالمنغولية: Kökeqota.svg Kökeqota؛ بالخالخا: Хөх хот Höh hot، /xɵxˈxɔtʰ/)، وتُختصر هوشي Hushi ‏(بالصينية: 呼市پن‌ين: Hūshì؛ بالإنگليزية: Hohhot)، وكانت تُعرف سابقاً بإسم Kweisui (الصينية المبسطة: 归绥الصينية التقليدية: 歸綏پن‌ين: Guīsuí)، هي عاصمة منغوليا الداخلية في شمال الصين،[5][6] وهي مركز المنطقة الاداري والاقتصادي والثقافي.[7]

بلغ عدد سكانها 2,866,615 نسمة في تعداد 2010 منهم 1,980,774 يعيشون في المنطقة المبنية (أو مترو) المكونة من 4 أحياء سكنية.[8]

اسم المدينة في اللغة المنغولية يعني "المدينة الزرقاء"—Kuku-Khoto بالمنغولية—بالرغم من أنها يشار إليها بشكل خاطئ بإسم "المدينة الخضراء."[9] واللون الأزرق في الثقافة المنغولية يقترن بالسماء والخلود والنقاء؛ بالصينية، الاسم يمكن ترجمته Qīng Chéng (بالصينية: 青城)، حرفياً، "المدينة الزرقاء/الخضراء."[10] الاسم تمت رَوْمنته بأشكال مختلفة منها Kokotan, Kokutan, Kuku-hoton, Huhohaot'e, Huhehot, Huhehot, Huhhot و Köke qota.[6]

The city is a seat of the Inner Mongolia University, the largest regional comprehensive university and the only 211 Project University in Inner Mongolia.

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التاريخ

التاريخ المبكر

Yunzhong Commandery (صينية: 雲中郡) was a historical commandery of China. Its territories were between the Great Wall and Yin Mountains, and correspond to part of modern-day Hohhot, Baotou and Ulanqab prefectures in Inner Mongolia. The central city of Yunzhong was in the suburbs of today's Hohhot.

The commandery was created during King Wuling of Zhao's reign after a successful campaign against the Linhu (林胡) and Loufan (樓煩) peoples.[11] After the establishment of Qin and Han dynasty, the commandery became the frontier between Han and the Xiongnu. In early Han dynasty, the region saw frequent Xiongnu raids. However, from Emperor Wu's reign onwards, it became an important base of military operations in the wars against the Xiongnu.[12] In 127 BC, it was from Yunzhong that General Wei Qing led a 40,000-men strong cavalry force and conquered the modern Hetao and Ordos regions. In 2 AD, the commandery administered 11 counties, namely Yunzhong (雲中), Xianyang (咸陽), Taolin (陶林), Zhenling (楨陵), Duhe (犢和), Shaling (沙陵), Yuanyang (原陽), Shanan (沙南), Beiyu (北輿), Wuquan (武泉) and Yangshou (陽壽). The population totaled 38,303 households, or 173,270 people.[13] During Eastern Han, 3 counties were abolished, while 3 new counties were added from Dingxiang Commandery. In 140 AD, the population was 5,351 households, or a population of 26,430.[14] Toward the late Han dynasty, the area's population decreased sharply as residents fled from invading northern nomadic peoples, and the commandery was dissolved.[15]

The Tuoba chieftain Gui (called Tuoba Gui) was able to refound the Dai empire in 386. From his capital at Shengle (near modern Helingeer). His descendants would, step by step, conquer the north of China, divide the Later Yan realm into two parts, and subdue the Xia (407–431), the Later Qin (384–417) and the many Liang and Yan empires.[16]

عهدا مينگ وتشينگ

In 1557, the Tümed Mongol leader Altan Khan began building the Da Zhao Temple on the Tümed plain in order to convince the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) government of his leadership of the southern Mongol tribes.[17] The town that grew up around this temple was called the "Blue Town" (Kokegota in Mongolian). The Ming had been blockading the Mongols' access to Chinese iron, cotton, and crop seeds, in order to dissuade them from attacking the North China plain. In 1570, Altan Khan successfully negotiated the end of the blockade by establishing a vassal-tributary relationship with the Ming, who changed Kokegota's name to Guihua (الصينية التقليدية: 歸化الصينية المبسطة: 归化پن‌ين: Guīhuà; postal: Kweihua; حرفياً "Return to Civilization") in 1575. The population of Guihua grew to over 150,000 in the early 1630s as local Mongol princes encouraged the settlement of Han Chinese merchants. There were occasional attacks on Guihua by Mongol armies, such as the total razing of the city by Ligdan Khan in 1631. Altan Khan and his successors constructed temples and fortresses in 1579, 1602 and 1727. The Tümed Mongols of the area had long since adopted a semiagricultural way of life. Hui merchants gathered north of the gate of the city's fortress, building a mosque in 1693.[18] Their descendants formed the nucleus of the modern Huimin district.

After the Manchus founded the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Kangxi Emperor (reigned 1661–1722) sent troops to control the region,[9] which was of interest to the Qing as a center of study of Tibetan Buddhism. Just northeast of Guihua the Qing built the strong garrison town of Suiyuan (الصينية التقليدية: 綏遠الصينية المبسطة: 绥远پن‌ين: PRC Standard Mandarin: Suíyuǎn, ROC Standard Mandarin: Suīyuǎn), from which they supervised the defense of southwestern Inner Mongolia against Mongol attacks from the north in 1735–39.[19]:13[20] Guihua and Suiyuan was merged into Shanxi province and became Guihua County (الصينية التقليدية: 歸化縣الصينية المبسطة: 归化县پن‌ين: Guīhuà Xiàn) of Qing China. French missionaries established a Catholic church in Guihua in 1874, but the Christians were forced to flee to Beijing during the antiforeign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901.

العهد الجمهوري

 
Wanbu Huayanjing Pagoda (Baita Pagoda) in Hohhot, 1942

In 1913, the government of the new Republic of China united the garrison town of Suiyuan and the old town of Guihua as Guisui (الصينية التقليدية: 歸綏الصينية المبسطة: 归绥پن‌ين: PRC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuí, ROC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuī; postal: Kweisui). Guisui town was the center of Guisui County (الصينية التقليدية: 歸綏縣الصينية المبسطة: 归绥县پن‌ين: PRC: Guīsuí Xiàn, ROC: Guīsuī Xiàn) and the capital of Suiyuan Province in northern China. A bubonic plague outbreak in 1917 and the connection of Guisui to railway links in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Hebei, and Beijing helped renew the economy of Guisui town by forming links with eastern China and western China's Xinjiang province.[19]:15 In 1918, the American specialist on Inner Asia Owen Lattimore noted Guisui's ethnic composition as "a town purely Han Chinese except for the Lama monasteries ... the Tümeds are now practically nonexistent and the nearest Mongolians are to be sought at 50 or 60 ميلs [80 or 100 kiloمترs] distance on the plateau."[19]:15 During the progressive Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s, the Japanese created the puppet state of Mengjiang headed by Prince De, who renamed Guisui "Blue City" (Hohhot; (بالصينية: 厚和市پن‌ين: Hòuhé shì).[21] After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China changed the name back to Guisui.[19]:16 The Communist Party of China's forces drove out General Fu Zuoyi, the Republic's commander in Suiyuan, during the Chinese Civil War, and after the Chinese Revolution in 1949, Guisui was renamed Hohhot.[19]:16

عهد الجمهورية الشعبية

 
China 10th Anniversary Parade in خوخ‌خوت

During the Civil War, seeking the support of separatist Mongols, the Communists established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in Mongol-minority areas of the Republic's provinces of Suiyuan, Xing'an, Chahar, and Rehe. Guisui was chosen as the region's administrative centre in 1952, replacing Zhangjiakou. In 1954, after the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the city was renamed from Guisui to Hohhot, though with a different Chinese pronunciation of Huhehaote.[19]:16

The city has seen significant development since China's reform and opening began. The city's far east side began development around 2000 and is now home to the municipal government, most of the Autonomous Region's administrative buildings,[22] an artificial lake called Ruyi He,[23] and a large number of condominiums, mostly built by the local real estate company Gold Horse International Inc. The Hohhot City Stadium, built on the city's north side, was finished in 2007.[24]

A city with a rich cultural background, Hohhot is known for its historical sites and temples and is one of the major tourist destinations of Inner Mongolia. It is also nationally known as the home of China's dairy giants Mengniu and Yili,[25][26] and was declared "Dairy Capital of China" by the China Dairy Industry Association and the Dairy Association of China in 2005.

الجغرافيا

 
Huhhot and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, 2005-07-12

خوخ‌خوت تقع في جنوب الجزء الأوسط من منغوليا الجنوبية، ويحيط بها داچينگ شان (大青山, التي تعني الجبال الزرقاء الكبرى) من الشمال و هضبة هتاو من الجنوب.[27]

المناخ

بيانات مناخ خوخ‌خوت (1971–2000)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 8.0
(46.4)
17.0
(62.6)
19.4
(66.9)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95)
35.7
(96.3)
38.5
(101.3)
36.8
(98.2)
32.4
(90.3)
26.5
(79.7)
20.4
(68.7)
11.6
(52.9)
38٫9
(102)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) −5.0
(23)
−0.4
(31.3)
7.0
(44.6)
16.3
(61.3)
23.2
(73.8)
27.3
(81.1)
28.5
(83.3)
26.4
(79.5)
21.2
(70.2)
14.1
(57.4)
4.4
(39.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
13٫3
(55٫9)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) -11.6
(11.1)
-7.2
(19)
0.3
(32.5)
9.0
(48.2)
16.1
(61)
20.7
(69.3)
22.6
(72.7)
20.6
(69.1)
14.6
(58.3)
7.0
(44.6)
-2.1
(28.2)
-9.4
(15.1)
6٫7
(44٫1)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) −16.8
(1.8)
−12.8
(9)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.6
(34.9)
8.2
(46.8)
13.3
(55.9)
16.4
(61.5)
14.8
(58.6)
8.3
(46.9)
1.0
(33.8)
−7.0
(19)
−14.2
(6.4)
0٫6
(33٫1)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -30.5
(-22.9)
-29.4
(-20.9)
-19.4
(-2.9)
-11.5
(11.3)
-3.5
(25.7)
2.3
(36.1)
8.3
(46.9)
4.6
(40.3)
-2.0
(28.4)
-10.1
(13.8)
-20.2
(-4.4)
-26.4
(-15.5)
−32٫8
(−27)
هطول mm (inches) 2.6
(0.102)
5.2
(0.205)
10.2
(0.402)
13.5
(0.531)
27.6
(1.087)
47.2
(1.858)
106.5
(4.193)
109.1
(4.295)
47.4
(1.866)
20.7
(0.815)
6.2
(0.244)
1.8
(0.071)
398٫0
(15٫669)
Humidity 58 52 46 37 39 47 61 66 62 59 59 59 53٫8
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.5 2.8 3.4 3.7 6.0 8.9 12.9 12.7 8.3 4.5 2.4 1.8 69٫9
Sunshine hours 180.7 198.3 245.5 268.6 294.5 291.3 264.9 255.2 252.1 244.8 195.3 171.0 2٬862٫2
Source #1: China Meteorological Administration[28]
Source #2: Weather China[29]


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التقسيمات الادارية

The city is administratively at the prefecture-level, meaning that it administers both its urban area and the rural regions in its vicinity. The administrative area includes 4 counties, 4 districts, and a county-level banner; they are further divided into 20 urban sub-districts, and 96 townships. The data here represented is in km² and uses data from 2010 Census.

الخريطة
الاسم بالإنگليزية بالمنغولية الصينية المبسطة پن‌ين المساحة التعداد الكثافة
المدينة نفسها
Huimin District ᠬᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Qotoŋ Arad-un toɣoriɣ)
回民区 Huímín Qū 194.4 394,555 2,030
Xincheng District ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sin-e Qota toɣoriɣ)
新城区 Xīnchéng Qū 660.6 567,255 859
Yuquan District ᠢᠤᠢ ᠴᠢᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Iui čiuvan toɣoriɣ)
玉泉区 Yùquán Qū 207.2 383,365 1,850
Saihan District ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sayiqan toɣoriɣ)
赛罕区 Sàihǎn Qū 1,002.9 635,599 634
Rural
Togtoh County ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Toɣtaqu siyan)
托克托县 Tuōkètuō Xiàn 1,407.8 200,840 143
Wuchuan County ᠦᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Üčuvan siyan)
武川县 Wǔchuān Xiàn 4,682.3 108,726 23
Horinger County ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Qorin Ger siyan)
和林格尔县 Hélíngé'ěr Xiàn 3,447.8 169,856 49
Qingshuihe County ᠴᠢᠩ ᠱᠦᠢ ᠾᠧ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Čiŋ šüi hė siyan)
清水河县 Qīngshuǐhé Xiàn 2,859 93,887 33
Tumed Left Banner ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Tümed Jegün qosiɣu)
土默特左旗 Tǔmòtè Zuǒ Qí 2,765 312,532 113

الديمغرافيا

التعداد التاريخي
السنةتعداد±%
1953792٬600—    
19641٬118٬600+41.1%
19821٬645٬200+47.1%
19901٬911٬600+16.2%
20002٬437٬900+27.5%
20102٬866٬600+17.6%
حجم التعداد قد يتأثر بالتغييرات في التقسيمات الادارية.

الجماعات العرقية في خوخ‌خوت، حسب إحصاء 2000، كانت:

العرق التعداد النسبة
خان 2,115,888 88.42%
منغول 204,846 8.56%
خوي (مسلمون) 38,417 1.61%
مانشو 26,439 1.10%
داعور 2,663 0.11%
كوريون 1,246 0.05%
مياو 443 0.02%

الاقتصاد

Hohhot is a major industrial center within Inner Mongolia. Together with Baotou and Ordos, it accounts for more than 60 percent of the total industrial output of Inner Mongolia.[30] After Baotou and Ordos, it is the third-largest economy of the province, with GDP of RMB 247.56 billion in 2012, up 11.0 percent year on year.[4] Hohhot accounted for approximately 15.5 percent of the province's total GDP in 2012.[31] It is also the largest consumer center in the region, recording ¥102.2 billion retail sales of consumer goods in 2012, an increase of 14.9 percent from 2011.[4] The city has been a central developmental target for the China Western Development project being pursued by the Central Government. There are many famous enterprises located in Hohhot, including China's largest dairy producer by sales revenue, the Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group, and the China Mengniu Dairy Co.[32]

As the economic center of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot's urban area has expanded greatly since the 1990s. CBDs have grown rapidly in all the city's major districts. The completion of a new office tower for the Municipal Government in Eastern Hohhot marked a shift of the city center to the east. Hailiang Plaza (海亮广场), a 41-floor tower constructed in the city center, became one of the few notable department stores for luxury merchandise in the city.

مناطق التنمية الرئيسية

  • Hohhot Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Hohhot Export Processing Zone

الثقافة

 
A sign in Mongolian, Chinese, Tibetan, and Manchurian at the Dazhao temple in Hohhot.

Due to its relatively diverse cultural make-up, and despite its characteristics as a mid-sized Chinese industrial city, the Hohhot street scene has no shortage of ethnic minority elements. Tongdao Road, a major street in the old town area, is decorated with Islamic and Mongol exterior designs on all its buildings. A series of government initiatives in recent years have emphasized Hohhot's identity with ethnic minority groups, especially in increasing Mongol-themed architecture around the city. By regulation, all street signs and public transportation announcements are in both Chinese and Mongolian.[33]


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اللهجة

Older Hohhot residents mostly tend to converse in the Hohhot dialect, a branch of the Jin language from neighbouring Shanxi province. This spoken form can be difficult to understand for speakers of other Mandarin Chinese dialects. The newer residents, mostly concentrated in Xincheng and Saihan Districts, speak Hohhot-based Mandarin, the majority also with a noticeable accent and some unique vocabulary.

المطبخ

Food specialty in the area is mostly focused on Mongol cuisine and dairy products. Commercially, Hohhot is known for being the base of the nationally renowned dairy giants Yili and Mengniu. The Mongol drink suutei tsai (بالصينية: 奶茶پن‌ين: nǎichá; حرفياً "milk tea"), has become a typical breakfast selection for anyone living in or visiting the city.[34] The city also has rich traditions in the making of hot pot and shaomai, a type of traditional Chinese dumpling served as dim sum.[35]

النقل

المطار

Hohhot's Baita International Airport (IATA:HET) is located about 14.3 kم (47,000 قدم) east of the city centre by car. It has direct flights to larger domestic cities including Beijing, Tianjin,[36] Shanghai, Shenzhen, Chengdu, and others. It also has flights to Taichung,[37] Hong Kong, and Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Railway

Hohhot lies on the Jingbao Railway from Beijing to Baotou, and is served by two railway stations: Hohhot railway station and Hohhot East railway station.[38] The line began operation in 1921.[39] Trains to Beijing link to destinations to the south and the northeast. The most prominent rail link with Beijing is the overnight K90 train, which has served the Hohhot-Beijing line since the 1980s and is referred to colloquially as the "9-0". Westbound trains go through Baotou and Lanzhou. There are also rail links to most major Inner Mongolian cities and to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Because the quickest trip to Beijing takes around six and a half hours despite the relatively close proximity of the two cities, plans for high-speed rail were discussed extensively prior to the construction of a high-speed railway station beginning in 2008. The station was completed in 2011 and initially serviced only ordinary lines. In January 2015, CRH opened its first D-series (dongchezu) route in Inner Mongolia in the Baotou-Hohhot-Jining corridor, shortening travel time between Inner Mongolia's two largest cities to a mere 50 minutes.[40] This line reached a maximum speed of 200 كم/سا (124 ميل/سا) between Hohhot and Baotou. Another high-speed rail line linking Hohhot to Zhangjiakou and the planned Beijing-Zhangjiakou railway are due for completion in 2017, and are designed to operate at 250 كم/سا (155 ميل/سا). The section between Hohhot and Ulanqab (Jining) opened in August 2017; travel time between the two cities was shortened to 40 minutes.[41]

الطرق السريعة

An expressway built in 1997 (then known as the Hubao Expressway) links Hohhot with Baotou. In recent years this expressway has been expanded eastwards to Jining and Zhangjiakou, and on to Beijing as part of the G6 Beijing–Lhasa Expressway (Jingzang Expressway). The city is on the route of China National Highway 110, which runs from Yinchuan to Beijing. China National Highway 209 begins in Hohhot and carries traffic southbound towards southern China, with its terminus in Guangxi. Hohhot is connected to its northern counties by the Huwu Highway, which was completed in 2006. Previously, travel to the northern counties had required lengthy navigation through mountainous terrain.

Long-distance buses connect Hohhot to outlying counties, the cities of Baotou, Wuhai, and Ordos, and other areas in Inner Mongolia.

النقل العام

Hohhot's major north–south thoroughfares are called roads (Lu) and its east–west thoroughfares are called streets (Jie). The largest elevated interchange is near the site of the city's Drum Tower (Gulou), after which it is named. Several major streets are named after Inner Mongolian leagues and cities; among these, Hulun Buir, Jurim (now Tongliao), Juud (Now Chifeng), Xilin Gol, and Xing'an run north–south, while Bayannaoer, Hailar, Ulanqab, and Erdos run east–west.

The city's public transit system is composed of nearly one hundred bus routes and a large fleet of taxicabs, which are normally green or blue. Bus fare is 1 yuan; taxi fares begin at 8 yuan.

المترو

The Hohhot Metro is in operation. Line 1 opened on 29 December 2019.[42]

التعليم

Universities located in Hohhot include:

High Schools located in Hohhot include:

الرياضة

Hohhot lacked a professional soccer team until Shenyang Dongjin F.C. relocated to Hohhot, changing their name to Hohhot Dongjin, in 2012.[44] They played at Hohhot City Stadium, which was newly built in 2007.[24] The club finished in the bottom of the league in the 2012 season and was and relegated to League Two. After playing half a season at Hohhot in 2013, the team relocated to Liaoning and chose Benxi City Stadium as their new home court.[45]

On 14 January 2015, Taiyuan Zhongyou Jiayi F.C. moved to Hohhot and changed their name to Nei Mongu Zhongyou F.C.[46] The team play in China League One and chose Hohhot City Stadium as their home in 2015. The team had been first established as Shanxi Jiayi F.C. on 8 October 2011.[47]

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الهامش

Explanatory notes
Citations
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  19. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Jank
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  22. ^ Wasserman, Adam. "Gold Horse International, Inc. Updates Status of Key Real Estate Development Projects for 2009". Gale, Cengage Learning. PR Newswire Association LLC. Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  23. ^ "Guggenheim S&P High Income Infrastructure ETF". realpennies. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
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  26. ^ "Profile of Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Company Limited". Archived from the original on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
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  28. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2009-03-17.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
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  30. ^ 鄂尔多斯人均GDP超北京 房产业面临何种机遇 (in الصينية). Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  31. ^ "hktdc.com – Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks". Tdctrade.com. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  32. ^ "Programa Conjunto FAO/OMS Sobre Normas Alimentarias" (Archive). Food and Agriculture Organization. p. 30. Retrieved on 10 July 2014. "Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co. Ltd. No. 8, Jinsi Road, Jinchun Developing Zone 010080 Hohhot P.R. China"
  33. ^ 呼和浩特市社会市面蒙汉两种文字并用管理办法. National Ethnic Affairs Commission of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
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  37. ^ 台湾远东航空看好内蒙古下月开通呼和浩特航线. Sina News (in الصينية). 28 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
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  40. ^ "Archived copy" 呼和浩特正式跨入"动车"时代. Inner Mongolia Xinhua. 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  42. ^ 官宣!呼和浩特地铁1号线12月29日开始初期运营. Hohhot News. 2019-12-27.
  43. ^ "Inner Mongolia University: A survey of the university". Inner Mongolia University. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
  44. ^ 东进更名主场落户呼和浩特 老总:只是换了个名字. 163.com Sports. 2012-02-29.
  45. ^ 呼和浩特东进终于返乡 未来中乙主场设辽宁本溪. 沈阳晚报. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  46. ^ "Archived copy" 关于太原中优嘉怡足球俱乐部有限公司工商迁移并更名的公示. fa.org.cn (in الصينية). 2015-01-14. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  47. ^ "Archived copy" 山西嘉怡足球俱乐部在并成立. Shanxi News (in الصينية). Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  48. ^ 大召寺(صينية)
  49. ^ 记忆中的呼市人民公园 (in Chinese). Hohhot News. 2014-02-24. Retrieved 2014-05-02. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

ببليوگرافيا

  • Perkins (1999). Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. Dorothy Perkins. 1st paperback edition: 2000. A Roundtable Press Book, New York, N.Y. ISBN 0-8160-4374-4 (pbk).

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Inner Mongolia

الكلمات الدالة: