افتح القائمة الرئيسية

ثورة العصر الحجري الحديث

(تم التحويل من الثورة النيوليثية)
منجل حصاد من سومر يعود إلى سنة 3000 ق.م.

ثورة العصر الحجري الحديث Neolithic Revolution أو الانتقال الديمغرافي في العصر الحجري الحديث، وأحياناً تسمى الثورة الزراعية, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, allowing the ability to handle an increasingly larger population.[1] These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants to learn how they grew and developed.[2] This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants.[2]


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فهرست

الانتقال الزراعي

 
Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP).[3]
 
Knap of Howar farmstead on a site occupied from 3,700 BC to 2,800 BC

The term Neolithic Revolution was coined in 1923 by V. Gordon Childe to describe the first in a series of agricultural revolutions in Middle Eastern history. The period is described as a "revolution" to denote its importance, and the great significance and degree of change affecting the communities in which new agricultural practices were gradually adopted and refined.


استئناس النباتات

 
Neolithic grindstone for processing grain

Once agriculture started gaining momentum, human activity resulted in the selective breeding of cereal grasses (beginning with emmer, einkorn and barley), and not simply of those that would favour greater caloric returns through larger seeds. Plants that possessed traits such as small seeds or bitter taste would have been seen as undesirable. Plants that rapidly shed their seeds on maturity tended not to be gathered at harvest, therefore not stored and not seeded the following season; years of harvesting selected for strains that retained their edible seeds longer.

 
An "Orange slice" sickle blade element with inverse, discontinuous retouch on each side, not denticulated. Found in large quantities at Qaraoun II and often with Heavy Neolithic tools in the flint workshops of the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon. Suggested by James Mellaart to be older than the Pottery Neolithic of Byblos (around 8,400 cal. BP).

الزراعة في الهلال الخصيب

الزراعة في الصين

الزراعة في أوروبا

 
Szentgyörgyvölgy cow - 4500 BC
 
Tilling with Hungarian Grey cattles

The fertile Carpathian Basin was the place where Europeans survived the Ice Age. The territory between the Danube and the Tisza rivers was the powerhouse of the agricultural knowledge.

الزراعة في أفريقيا

وادي النيل، مصر


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الزراعة في الأمريكتين

الزراعة في غينيا الجديدة

استئناس الحيوانات

استئناس الحيوانات في الشرق الأوسط

 
Dromedary camel caravan in Algeria


العواقب

التغير الاجتماعي

الثورات اللاحقة

 
Domesticated cow being milked في مصر القديمة.


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الأمراض

 
Llama overlooking the ruins of the Inca city of Machu Picchu.

التكنولوجيا

علم الجينات الأثري

الهامش والملاحظات

  1. ^ Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel (July 29, 2011). "When the World's Population Took Off: The Springboard of the Neolithic Demographic Transition". Science. 333 (6042): 560–561. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..560B. doi:10.1126/science.1208880. PMID 21798934. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  2. ^ أ ب Pollard, Rosenberg, and Tigor (2015). Worlds together, worlds apart concise edition vol.1. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. p. 23. ISBN 9780393250930.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Diamond, J.; Bellwood, P. (2003). "Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions". Science. 300 (5619): 597–603. Bibcode:2003Sci...300..597D. doi:10.1126/science.1078208. PMID 12714734.

ببليوگرافيا

  • Bailey, Douglass. (2001). Balkan Prehistory: Exclusions, Incorporation and Identity. Routledge Publishers. ISBN 0-415-21598-6.
  • Bailey, Douglass. (2005). Prehistoric Figurines: Representation and Corporeality in the Neolithic. Routledge Publishers. ISBN 0-415-33152-8.
  • Balter, Michael (2005). The Goddess and the Bull: Catalhoyuk, An Archaeological Journey to the Dawn of Civilization. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-4360-9.
  • Bellwood, Peter. (2004). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-20566-7
  • Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre, editor and Ofer Bar-Yosef, editor, The Neolithic Demographic Transition and its Consequences, Springer (October 21, 2008), hardcover, 544 pages, ISBN 978-1402085383, trade paperback and Kindle editions are also available.
  • Cohen, Mark Nathan (1977)The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02016-3.
  • Jared Diamond, Guns, germs and steel. A short history of everybody for the last 13'000 years, 1997.
  • Diamond, Jared (2002). "Evolution, Consequences and Future of Plant and Animal Domestication". Nature, Vol 418.
  • Harlan, Jack R. (1992). Crops & Man: Views on Agricultural Origins ASA, CSA, Madison, WI. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture03/r_3-1.html
  • Wright, Gary A. (1971). "Origins of Food Production in Southwestern Asia: A Survey of Ideas" Current Anthropology, Vol. 12, No. 4/5 (Oct.–Dec., 1971), pp. 447–477
  • Bartmen, Jeff M. (2008). Disease.
  • Evidence for food storage and predomestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley [1].
  • Co-Creators How our ancestors used Artificial Selection during the Neolithic Revolution

انظر ايضاً

وصلات خارجية