مزرعة


A farm (also called an agricultural holding) is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.[1] The name is used for specialized units such as arable farms, vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy, pig and poultry farms, and land used for the production of natural fiber, biofuel and other commodities. It includes ranches, feedlots, orchards, plantations and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, and includes the farmhouse and agricultural buildings as well as the land. In modern times the term has been extended so as to include such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms, both of which can operate on land or sea.

الأراضي الزراعية في الولايات المتحدة. تعود الحقول المستديرة إلى استخدام الري المحوري المركزي.
مخطط نموذجي لقصر إنگليزي من العصور الوسطى، تُظهر استخدام شرائط الحقل.

There are about 570 million farms in the world, with most of which are small and family-operated. Small farms with a land area of less than 2 hectares operate about 1% of the world's agricultural land, and family farms comprise about 75% of the world's agricultural land.[2]

Modern farms in developed countries are highly mechanized. In the United States, livestock may be raised on range, land and finished in feedlots and the mechanization of crop production has brought about a great decrease in the number of agricultural workers needed. In Europe, traditional family farms are giving way to larger production units. In Australia, some farms are very large because the land is unable to support a high stocking density of livestock because of climatic conditions. In less developed countries, small farms are the norm, and the majority of rural residents are subsistence farmers, feeding their families and selling any surplus products in the local market. Acres can hold the crops.

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التسمية

 
مزارع يحصد المحصول بمحراث تجره الثيران في العشرينيات، أيوا، الولايات المتحدة.



التاريخ

 
Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP), and the New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP).[3]




أنواع المزارع

 
An aerial photo of the Borgboda farm in Saltvik, Åland




المزارع المتخصصة

مزرعة الألبان

 
A milking machine in action



مزرعة الدواجن

 
مزرعة دواجن.


مزرعة الخنازير


الملكية

أشكال الملكية

الأعمال التجارية الزراعية

المزارع حول العالم


الأمريكتان

 
بيت مزرعة هولندي تقليدي.



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أوروپا

آسيا

 
Farmlands in Hebei province, China


پاكستان


نيپال

 
ماعز في نيپال.


أستراليا

 
أبقار ترعى في مزرعة، ڤكتوريا، أستراليا.
 
ماعز في أستراليا.



أفريقيا

 
مزرعة تقليدية في ناميبيا.


معدات المزارع


انظر أيضاً


المصادر

  1. ^ Gregor, 209; Adams, 454.
  2. ^ Lowder, Sarah K.; Skoet, Jakob; Raney, Terri (2016). "The Number, Size, and Distribution of Farms, Smallholder Farms, and Family Farms Worldwide". World Development. 87: 16–29. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.041.
  3. ^ Diamond, J.; Bellwood, P. (2003). "Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions" (PDF). Science. 300 (5619): 597–603. Bibcode:2003Sci...300..597D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1013.4523. doi:10.1126/science.1078208. PMID 12714734. S2CID 13350469.

المراجع

  • Adams, Jane H. (July 1988). "The Decoupling of Farm and Household: Differential Consequences of Capitalist Development on Southern Illinois and Third World Family Farms". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 30 (3): 453–482. doi:10.1017/S0010417500015334. S2CID 154381479.
  • Blackbourn, David (1998). The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany, 1780–1918. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Clark, Christopher (2006). Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • Gregor, Howard F. (July 1969). "Farm Structure in Regional Comparison: California and New Jersey Vegetable Farms". Economic Geography. 45 (3): 209–225. doi:10.2307/143091. JSTOR 143091.
  • Grigg, David (July 1966). "The Geography of Farm Size a Preliminary Survey". Economic Geography. 42 (3): 205–235. doi:10.2307/142007. JSTOR 142007.
  • Schmidt, Elizabeth (1992). Peasants, Traders, and Wives: Shona Women in the History of Zimbabwe, 1870–1939. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.


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وصلات خارجية