إدرنه

(تم التحويل من أدرنة)

إدرنه (الأمريكي /ˈdɪərnə,_ɛˈʔ/,[2][3] تركية: [eˈdiɾne]), historically known as Adrianople ( /ˌdriəˈnpəl/; باللاتينية: Hadrianopolis; founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama)[4] is a city in Turkey, in the northwestern province of Edirne and East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria (3.24 miles or 5.22 kilometers from the Greek border at the closest point).[5] Edirne was the capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453,[6] before Constantinople became the empire's capital. The estimated population in 2019 was 185,408.

Edirne
Selimiye Mosque and The Statue of Architect Sinan - panoramio.jpg
Meriç Köprüsü ve Nehri, Edirne.jpg
AliPaşaÇarşısıEdirne (4).JPG
TreatyOfLausanneMonumentEdirne (2).JPG
KaraağaçRailwayStation.JPG
Nagymecset - Edirne, 2014.10.22 (13).JPG
Edirne - 2014.10.22 (4).JPG
Orientexpresstrain.jpg
From top down, left to right: Selimiye Mosque, Meriç Bridge, Ali Pasha Bazaar, Treaty of Lausanne Monument and Museum, Trakya University (formerly Karaağaç railway station), Old Mosque, Town Hall, Historical Express
الشعار الرسمي لـ Edirne
Emblem of Edirne Metropolitan Municipality
Edirne is located in تركيا
Edirne
Edirne
Location in Turkey
Edirne is located in Marmara
Edirne
Edirne
Location in Turkey's Marmara Region
Edirne is located in أوروپا
Edirne
Edirne
Location in the Mediterranean Basin
الإحداثيات: 41°40′37″N 26°33′20″E / 41.67694°N 26.55556°E / 41.67694; 26.55556Coordinates: 41°40′37″N 26°33′20″E / 41.67694°N 26.55556°E / 41.67694; 26.55556
CountryFlag of Turkey.svg تركيا
المنطقةمرمرة
المحافظةإدرنه
الحكومة
 • MayorRecep Gürkan (CHP)
 • GovernorDursun Ali Şahin
المساحة
 • Province6,098 كم² (2٬354 ميل²)
 • City844 كم² (326 ميل²)
المنسوب
42 m (138 ft)
التعداد
 • الكثافة196٫7/km2 (509/sq mi)
 • Province
407٬763
 • City
165٬979
منطقة التوقيتUTC+3 (TRT)
Postal code
22000
مفتاح الهاتف(+90) 284
Licence plate22

أسس الرومان مدينة أدريانوپل في القرن الثاني الميلادي واحتلها العثمانيون في سنة 1362 م وصارت عاصمتهم من 1365 م إلى 1453 م والآن هي عاصمة المقاطعة التي تسمى أيضا بأسم أدرنة.

عدد سكانها -حسب إحصائية 2002- هو حوالي 124 ألف نسمة. من أشهر مبانيها المسجد الذي بناه السلطان سليم الثاني في 1575 م وكان قد صممه المعماري الشهير سنان ومناراته هي أعلى المنارات في تركيا وتبلغ من الإرتفاع 70.1 مترا.

جامع السلطان سليم الثاني

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الأسماء وأصولها

The city was founded as Hadrianopolis (Ἁδριανούπολις in Greek), named after the Roman emperor Hadrian. This name is still used in the modern Greek language (Αδριανούπολη, Adrianoúpoli). The Ottoman name Edrine (أدرنة) derives from the Greek name. The name Adrianople was used in English until the Turkish adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1928, upon which Edirne became the internationally recognized name. بالبلغارية: Одрин (تـُنطـَق [ˈɔdrin]), Romanian and أرومانية: Odrina, بالألبانية: Edrenë, بالسلوڤينية: Odrin and بالصربية: Једрене, are all adapted forms of the name Hadrianopolis.


التاريخ

 
Selimiye Mosque exterior. Sinan the Architect called the Şezade Mosque in Istanbul his apprentice work, the Süleymaniye his journeyman’s work, and the Selimiye his masterpiece. He was 85 when he finished it.
التعداد التاريخي
السنةتعداد±%
1400s70٬000—    
1500s105٬000+50.0%
1700s35٬000−66.7%
1800s33٬000−5.7%
1900s68٬661+108.1%
192734٬528−49.7%
196578٬161+126.4%
197084٬531+8.1%
197594٬449+11.7%
1980105٬503+11.7%
1985120٬663+14.4%
1990124٬361+3.1%
2000140٬830+13.2%
2010152٬993+8.6%
2014165٬979+8.5%

The area around Edirne has been the site of numerous major battles and sieges, from the days of the Roman Empire. The vagaries of the border region between Asia and Europe gives rise to Edirne's historic claim to be the most frequently contested spot on the globe.[7]

القِدم

The city was refounded by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskudama, Uskodama or Uscudama.[4] Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, and changed its name to Hadrianopolis (which would later be pronounced Adrianopolis, Anglicised as Adrianople). Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 324, and Emperor Valens was killed by the Goths there during the Battle of Adrianople in 378.

العصور الوسطى

 
Historical image of Cihannüma Kasrı (Panoramic Pavilion), part of Edirne Palace complex

In 813, the city was temporarily seized by Khan Krum of Bulgaria who moved its inhabitants to the Bulgarian lands north of the Danube.[8]

During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Crusaders were decisively defeated by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the Battle of Adrianople (1205). In 1206 Adrianople and its territory was given to the Byzantine aristocrat Theodore Branas as a hereditary fief by the Latin regime.[9] Theodore Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, but three years later was defeated at Klokotnitsa by Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria.

In 1362, the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad I invaded Thrace. Murad captured Adrianople, probably in 1369 (the date is disputed). The city became "Edirne" in Turkish, reflecting the Turkish pronunciation.[10] Murad moved the Ottoman capital to Adrianople. Mehmed the Conqueror (Sultan Mehmed II) was born in Adrianople, where he came under the influence of some Hurufis dismissed by Taşköprüzade in the Şakaiki Numaniye as "Certain accursed ones of no significance", who were burnt as heretics by Mahmud Pasha.[11]

The city remained the Ottoman capital for 84 years until 1453, when Mehmed II took Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and moved the capital there.

Edirne is famed for its many mosques, domes, minarets, and palaces from the Ottoman period.


شهدت أدرنة والمناطق المجاورة لها ما لا يقل عن 16 معركة حاسمة عبر العصور وتبادل حكمها عدة دول من ضمنها روسيا مرتين في القرن التاسع عشر وبلغاريا في 1912 م. ومن المعارك المهمة التي وقعت على مشارفها المعركة التي هُزِمت فيها القوات الرومانية على يد القوط الغربيين في عام 378م، مما أدى إلى فتح بلاد الإغريق للأجانب غير اليونانيين. ثم استولى العثمانيون على المدينة في عام 1360م. استولت عليها القوات الروسية من الأتــراك بـين عامي 1829 و1878م، واحتل البلغاريون المدينة خلال حرب البلقان الأولى.

السلطان محمد الثاني، فاتح القسطنطينية، وُلِد في إدرنه.

بهاء الله، مؤسس البهائية، عاش في إدرنه من 1863 حتى 1868. وكان منفياً هناك من قِبل الدولة العثمانية قبل أن تـُشدد عقوبته بالنفي إلى المنفى الجماعي العثماني في عكا.

 
بيمارستان (مستشفى) عثماني

العصر الحديث

 
Edirne in the first quarter of the 20th century.

Under Ottoman rule, Adrianople was the principal city of the administrative unit, the eponymous Eyalet of Adrianople, and after land reforms in 1867, the Vilayet of Adrianople.

Sultan Mehmed IV left the palace in Constantinople and died in Adrianople in 1693.

During his exile in the Ottoman Empire, the Swedish king Charles XII stayed in the city during most of 1713.[12]

Baháʼu'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, lived in Edirne from 1863 to 1868. He was exiled there by the Ottoman Empire before being banished further to the Ottoman penal colony in Akka. He referred to Adrianople in his writings as the "Land of Mystery".[13]

Adrianople was a sanjak centre during the Ottoman period and was bound to, successively, the Rumeli Eyalet and Silistre Eyalet before becoming a provincial capital of the Eyalet of Edirne at the beginning of the 19th century; until 1878, the Eyalet of Adrianople comprised the sanjaks of Edirne, Tekfurdağı, Gelibolu, Filibe, and İslimye.

Adrianople was briefly occupied by imperial Russian troops in 1829 during the Greek War of Independence and in 1878 during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The city suffered a fire in 1905. In 1905 it had about 80,000 inhabitants, of whom 30,000 were Turks; 22,000 Greeks; 10,000 Bulgarians; 4,000 Armenians; 12,000 Jews; and 2,000 more citizens of unclassified ethnic/religious backgrounds.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Adrianople was a vital fortress defending Ottoman Constantinople and Eastern Thrace during the Balkan Wars of 1912–13. It was briefly occupied by the Bulgarians in 1913, following the Siege of Adrianople. The Great Powers–Britain, Italy, France, and Russia–attempted to coerce the Ottoman Empire into ceding Adrianople to Bulgaria during the temporary winter truce of the First Balkan War. The belief that that government was willing to give up the city created a political scandal in the Ottoman government in Constantinople (as Adrianople was a former capital of the Empire), leading to the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état. Although it was victorious in the coup, the Committee of Union and Progress under Enver Pasha was unable to stop the Bulgarians from capturing the city after the fighting resumed in the Spring. Despite relentless pressure from the Great powers (Russia, Britain, France) the Ottoman empire never officially ceded the city to Bulgaria. Edirne was swiftly reconquered by the Ottoman empire during the Second Balkan War under the leadership of Enver Pasha (who would proclaim himself the "second conqueror of Adrianople", after Murad I) following the total collapse of the Bulgarian military might in the region.

The entire Armenian population of the city was deported during the Armenian genocide on 27–28 October 1915 and 17–18 February 1916, ending up in Syria and Mesopotamia. Their property and businesses were sold at low prices to Turkish Muslims.[14]

It was ceded to Greece by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920, but recaptured and annexed by Turkey after the decisive Greek defeat at the end of the Greco-Turkish War, also known as the Western Front of the larger Turkish War of Independence, in 1922. During the Greek administration, Edirne (officially known as Adrianople) was the capital of the Adrianople Prefecture.

Adrianople became known in Western languages as "Edirne" circa 1930.[15] From 1934 onwards Edirne was the seat of the Second Inspectorate General, in which an Inspector General governed the provinces Edirne, Çanakkale, Tekirdaĝ and Kırklareli.[16] The Inspectorate Generals governmental posts were abandoned in 1948,[17] but the legal framework of them was only abolished in 1952, under the government of the Democrat Party.[18]

According to the 2007 census, Edirne Province had a population of 382,222 inhabitants. The city is a commercial centre for woven textiles, silks, carpets and agricultural products.

Panoramic view of the city from جامع السليمية.

الجغرافيا

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المناخ

Edirne has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, and a temperate oceanic climate (Do) in the Trewartha climate classification. Edirne has hot, moderately dry summers and chilly, wet and often snowy winters.

بيانات مناخ Edirne (1991–2020, extremes 1930–2020)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 20.5
(68.9)
23.3
(73.9)
28.0
(82.4)
33.5
(92.3)
37.1
(98.8)
42.6
(108.7)
44.1
(111.4)
41.9
(107.4)
39.9
(103.8)
35.8
(96.4)
28.0
(82.4)
22.8
(73)
44٫1
(111٫4)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 7.1
(44.8)
10.2
(50.4)
14.3
(57.7)
19.8
(67.6)
25.5
(77.9)
30.1
(86.2)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
27.9
(82.2)
21.0
(69.8)
14.4
(57.9)
8.4
(47.1)
20٫4
(68٫7)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 2.8
(37)
4.8
(40.6)
8.3
(46.9)
13.2
(55.8)
18.5
(65.3)
22.9
(73.2)
25.3
(77.5)
25.4
(77.7)
20.6
(69.1)
14.8
(58.6)
9.3
(48.7)
4.4
(39.9)
14٫2
(57٫6)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -0.4
(31.3)
0.7
(33.3)
3.5
(38.3)
7.3
(45.1)
12.1
(53.8)
16.1
(61)
18.2
(64.8)
18.3
(64.9)
14.2
(57.6)
9.9
(49.8)
5.4
(41.7)
1.2
(34.2)
8٫9
(48)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -19.5
(-3.1)
-19.0
(-2.2)
-12.0
(10.4)
-4.1
(24.6)
0.7
(33.3)
6.0
(42.8)
8.0
(46.4)
8.9
(48)
0.2
(32.4)
-3.7
(25.3)
-9.4
(15.1)
-14.9
(5.2)
−19٫5
(−3٫1)
هطول mm (inches) 65.8
(2.591)
53.3
(2.098)
52.8
(2.079)
44.0
(1.732)
57.5
(2.264)
46.0
(1.811)
39.6
(1.559)
24.0
(0.945)
39.2
(1.543)
66.1
(2.602)
66.4
(2.614)
70.5
(2.776)
625٫2
(24٫614)
Avg. precipitation days 10.50 9.57 11.57 11.23 11.70 9.90 6.47 4.57 6.40 8.90 10.00 11.47 112٫3
Sunshine hours 68.2 98.9 130.2 171.0 229.4 255.0 288.3 279.0 198.0 136.4 87.0 58.9 2٬000٫3
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[19]

المعالم

 
قصر العدالة
 
Administrative building backside of the Grand Synagogue of Edirne

الثقافة والشراكة مع اوروبا

 
المنازل في إدرنه
 
البلدية
 
كتابة زخرفية ورمزية تتكون من حرفي "و" على جدران 'مسجد اولو'

الاقتصاد

من جملة ما تشتهر به إدرنه صناعة الجبن الأبيض وصناعة الصابون.


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معرض صور

انظر أيضاً

البلدات التوأم

أشخاص بارزون

Sultans
  • Bayezid I (1360—1403), Ottoman sultan from 1389 to 1402
  • Mahmud I (1696—1754), Ottoman sultan from 1730 to 1754
  • Mehmed the Conqueror (1432–1481), Ottoman sultan who conquered Constantinople (today Istanbul)
  • Mustafa II (1664–1703), Ottoman sultan from 1695 to 1703
  • Osman III (1699—1757), Ottoman sultan from 1754 to 1757
  • Şahin Giray (1745-1787), last khan of Crimea
تاريخيا
معاصرون

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

https://www.academia.edu/23674853/Edirne_Ta%C5%9F_K%C3%B6pr%C3%BCleri_Edirne_Stone_Bridges

  1. ^ "HGK" (PDF). General Command of Mapping.
  2. ^ "Edirne". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  3. ^ قالب:Cite Merriam-Webster
  4. ^ أ ب "Edirne". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2021-07-25.
  6. ^ "In 1363 the Ottoman capital moved from Bursa to Edirne, although Bursa retained its spiritual and economic importance." Ottoman Capital Bursa. Official website of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 19 December 2014. Contradicted by refs cited in Conquest of Adrianople
  7. ^ Keegan, John (1993). A History of Warfare. Random House. pp. 70–71. ISBN 0-7126-9850-7.
  8. ^ Hupchick, Dennis (2017). The Bulgarian-Byzantine Wars for Early Medieval Balkan Hegemony: silver-lined skulls and blinded armies. US: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 107. ISBN 9783319562056.
  9. ^ Saint-Guillain, G. (1216) Identities and Allegiances in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204, Routledge, p. 66
  10. ^ "It served as the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1413 until 1458 and flourished as an administrative, commercial, and cultural centre." "Edirne" Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 December 2014
  11. ^ John Kingsley Birge, The Bektashi Order of Dervishes, 1982 (p 60 - 62)
  12. ^ "Adrianopel" in Nordisk familjebok (2nd edition, 1904)
  13. ^ "Bahaʼi Reference Library - The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Page 196". Reference.bahai.org. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  14. ^ Kévorkian, Raymond (2011). The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History (in الإنجليزية). Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 546–548. ISBN 978-0-85771-930-0.
  15. ^ Romein, Jan (translated by R. T. Clark). The Asian Century: A History of Modern Nationalism in Asia (De eeuw van Azie). University of California Press, 1962. p. 170. "In 1930 geographical names were 'turkicized'. [...] Adrianople Edirne, and so on."
  16. ^ Cagaptay, Soner (2006). Islam, Secularism, and Nationalism in Modern Turkey; Who is a Turk. Routledge. p. 47.
  17. ^ Bayir, Derya (2016-04-22). Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law (in الإنجليزية). Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-317-09579-8.
  18. ^ Bozarslan, Hamit (2008-04-17). Fleet, Kate; Faroqhi, Suraiya; Kasaba, Reşat; Kunt, I. Metin (eds.). The Cambridge History of Turkey (in الإنجليزية). Cambridge University Press. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-521-62096-3.
  19. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in التركية). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2021.

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للاستزادة

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Edirne

قالب:Edirne District