الاتحاد (الحرب الأهلية الأمريكية)

(تم التحويل من Union (American Civil War))

خلال الحرب الأهلية الأمريكية، كان الاتحاد، المعروف أيضًا باسم الشمال، يستخدم للإشارة إلى الولايات المتحدة بقيادة الرئيس ابراهام لنكن. وقد عارضها الولايات الكونفدرالية الأمريكية الانفصالية (CSA)، والتي تسمى بشكل غير رسمي "الكونفدرالية" أو " الجنوب". تم تسمية الاتحاد على اسم هدفه المعلن المتمثل في الحفاظ على الولايات المتحدة كاتحاد دستوري. يتم استخدام "الاتحاد" في دستور الولايات المتحدة للإشارة إلى التكوين التأسيسي للشعب، وإلى الدول في الاتحاد. في سياق الحرب الأهلية، غالبًا ما تم استخدامه كمرادف لـ "الولايات الشمالية الموالية لحكومة الولايات المتحدة"؛[1] بهذا المعنى، يتألف الاتحاد من 20 ولاية حرة وخمسة ولايات حدودية.

الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية

1861–1865
The flag of the United States of America from 1861 to 1863, with 34 stars for all the 34 states. In 1863 a 35th star was added to represent the new state of West Virginia (the loyal northwestern counties of Virginia), and in 1864 a 36th star for Nevada (previously the Nevada Territory)
العلم
(1861-1863)
درع الولايات المتحدة أثناء الحرب
Seal
Map of the division of the states in the American Civil War (1861–1865). ██ Northern free states loyal to the United States ██ Southern slave states which seceded and formed the Confederacy██ Southern slave states which remained in the Union (border states) and West Virginia██ U.S. territories, with the exception of the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma)
Map of the division of the states in the American Civil War (1861–1865). ██ Northern free states loyal to the United States ██ Southern slave states which seceded and formed the Confederacy██ Southern slave states which remained in the Union (border states) and West Virginia██ U.S. territories, with the exception of the Indian Territory (later Oklahoma)
المكانةالدولة الكفل
العاصمةWashington D.C.
اللغات الشائعة
الدين الأغلبية:
پروتستانتية
الأقلية:
الكاثوليكية
اليهودية
ديانة الأمريكان الأصليين
الحكومةجمهورية دستورية رئاسية
الرئيس 
ابراهام لنكن
• 1865
Andrew Johnson
رئيس مجلس النواب 
• 1861–1863
Galusha A. Grow
• 1863–1865
Schuyler Colfax
كبير قضاة الولايات المتحدة 
• 1861–1864
Roger B. Taney
• 1864–1865
Salmon P. Chase
التشريعالكونگرس الأمريكي
• Upper House
مجلس الشيوخ الأمريكي
• Lower House
مجلس النواب الأمريكي
الحقبة التاريخيةالحرب الأهلية الأمريكية
1860–1861
4 مارس 1861
12-13 أبريل 1861
1 يناير 1863
1864
13-16 يوليو 1863
مارس 1865
14 أبريل 1865
9 أبريل-6 نوفمبر 1865
Currencyدولار أمريكي
Today part ofالولايات المتحدة


كان جيش الاتحاد تشكيلًا جديدًا يتكون في الغالب من وحدات حكومية، جنبًا إلى جنب مع وحدات من الجيش الأمريكي] النظامي. كانت الولايات الحدودية ضرورية كقاعدة إمداد لغزو الاتحاد للكونفدرالية، وأدرك لينكولن أنه لا يمكنه الفوز في الحرب دون السيطرة عليها،[2] خاصة ولاية ماريلاند، التي تقع شمال العاصمة الوطنية واشنطن العاصمة وفرت المنطقة الشمالية الشرقية والغربية الوسطى العليا الموارد الصناعية لحرب آلية تنتج كميات كبيرة من الذخائر والإمدادات، فضلا عن تمويل الحرب. قدم الشمال الشرقي والغرب الأوسط الجنود والطعام والخيول والدعم المالي ومعسكرات التدريب. تم إنشاء مستشفيات الجيش في جميع أنحاء الاتحاد. كان لدى معظم الولايات الشمالية حكام جمهوريين دعموا بقوة المجهود الحربي وقمعوا التخريب المناهض للحرب، لا سيما تلك التي نشأت في 1863-1864.[3]


دعم الحزب الديمقراطي بشدة الحرب في بداية عام 1861، ولكن بحلول عام 1862، انقسم بين ديمقراطيي الحرب والعنصر المناهض للحرب المعروف باسم ديموقراطيو السلام، بقيادة المتطرف " كوبرهيدس".I[4] حقق الديمقراطيون مكاسب انتخابية كبيرة في عام 1862 في انتخابات الولايات، وعلى الأخص في نيويورك. لقد فقدوا الأرض في عام 1863، خاصة في ولاية أوهايو. في عام 1864، شن الجمهوريون حملة تحت شعار حزب الاتحاد الوطني، والتي جذبت العديد من الديمقراطيين والجنود في الحرب.[5] وحققوا نصرًا ساحقًا لنكن وكامل بطاقته ضد المرشح الديمقراطي George B. McClellan.


كانت سنوات الحرب مزدهرة للغاية باستثناء المناطق التي دمر فيها القتال الجاد وحرب العصابات الريف. تم تحفيز الازدهار من خلال الإنفاق الحكومي الضخم وإنشاء نظام مصرفي وطني جديد تمامًا. استثمرت دول الاتحاد الكثير من المال والجهد في تنظيم الدعم النفسي والاجتماعي لزوجات الجنود وأراملهم وأيتامهم وللجنود أنفسهم. كان معظم الجنود متطوعين، على الرغم من أن العديد منهم تطوع بعد عام 1862 للهروب من التجنيد والاستفادة من المنح النقدية السخية المعروضة من الولايات والمحليات. كانت مقاومة التجنيد ملحوظة في بعض المدن الكبرى، لا سيما في أجزاء من مدينة نيويورك، مع أعمال الشغب المضادة للتجنيد في يوليو 1863 وفي بعض المناطق النائية مثل مناطق تعدين الفحم في بنسلفانيا.


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أصل التسمية

 
Charleston Mercury Secession Broadside, 1860—"The Union" had been a way to refer to the American Republic.



الحجم والقوة

 
The Union had large advantages in men and resources at the start of the war, and the ratio grew steadily in favor of the Union. In the chart, "cauc men" means white men (Caucasian).




الرأي العام

الرئيس لنكولن

الكونجرس

المعارضة

 
Anti-Lincoln Copperhead pamphlet from 1864
 
Lincoln met with his Cabinet for the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation draft on July 22, 1862.


الرؤوس النحاسية


العسكرية

تجنيد المتطوعين

 
Union soldiers on the Mason's Island (Theodore Roosevelt Island), 1861
 
Union soldiers before Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg, May 1863


دوافع الجنود

حرب الأوراق

الظروف الطبية

 
Field hospital after the Battle of Savage's Station (1862)




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أسرى الحرب

مشروع أعمال الشغب

 
New York City draft riots


الاقتصاد

تمويل الحرب

التعريفات

منح الأراضي

الزراعة

تجارة القطن

قادة الصناعة والأعمال والمخترعون العسكريون

المجتمع

الدين

الميثوديون

العائلة

الأطفال

الاتحاديون في الولايات الجنوبية والحدودية

 
Confederate soldiers hanging pro-Union bridge-burning conspirators




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حرب العصابات

مزوري

 
Quantrill's 1863 raid burned the town of Lawrence and killed 164 defenders.


كنتكي


ولايات الاتحاد

List of Wikipedia articles on Union states and major cities:

* Border states with slavery in 1861

أقاليم الاتحاد

The Union-controlled territories in April 1861 were:[6]

The Indian Territory saw its own civil war, as the major tribes held slaves and endorsed the Confederacy.[7]

انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  1. ^ "Books and Manuscript Submission Guide". Army University Press. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  2. ^ Lincoln, Abraham. The Papers And Writings Of Abraham Lincoln, Volume 2: 1860–1865 (in الإنجليزية). Jazzybee Verlag. p. 94. ISBN 9783849679682.
  3. ^ Smith, Michael T.; Engle, Stephen D. (2018). "Review of GATHERING TO SAVE A NATION: Lincoln and the Union's War Governors, EngleStephen D". Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 59 (3): 361–363. ISSN 0024-6816. JSTOR 26564816.
  4. ^ Thomas, Benjamin P. (2008-09-26). Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (in الإنجليزية). SIU Press. p. 377. ISBN 9780809328871.
  5. ^ Thomas, Benjamin P. (2008-09-26). Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (in الإنجليزية). SIU Press. p. 428. ISBN 9780809328871.
  6. ^ Ray C. Colton, The Civil War in the Western Territories: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah (1984)
  7. ^ John Spencer and Adam Hook, The American Civil War in Indian Territory (2006)

الهوامش

الاستطلاعات

  • Cashin, Joan E. ed. The War Was You and Me: Civilians in the American Civil War (2001),
  • Fellman, Michael et al. This Terrible War: The Civil War and its Aftermath (2nd ed. 2007), 544 page university textbook
  • Flaherty, Jane (June 2009). ""The Exhausted Condition of the Treasury" on the Eve of the Civil War". Civil War History. 55 (2): 244–277. doi:10.1353/cwh.0.0058. ISSN 1533-6271 – via Project MUSE.
  • Ford, Lacy K., ed. A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction. (2005). 518 pp. 23 essays by scholars excerpt and text search
  • Gallman, J. Matthew. The North Fights the Civil War: The Home Front (1994), survey
  • Gallman, J. Matthew. Northerners at War: Reflections on the Civil War Home Front (2010), essays on specialized issues
  • Heidler, David and Jeanne Heidler, eds, Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2002) 2740pp
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988), 900 page survey; Pulitzer prize
  • Nevins, Allan. War for the Union, an 8-volume set (1947–1971). the most detailed political, economic and military narrative; by Pulitzer Prize winner; vol 1–4 cover 1848–61; vol 5. The Improvised War, 1861–1862; 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863; 7. The Organized War, 1863–1864; 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865
  • Resch, John P. et al., Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 2: 1816–1900 (2005)

السياسة

  • Bogue, Allan G. The Congressman's Civil War (1989)
  • Carman, Harry J. and Reinhard H. Luthin. Lincoln and the Patronage (1943), details on each state
  • Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln (1999) the best biography; excerpt and text search
  • Engle, Stephen D. Gathering to Save a Nation: Lincoln and the Union's War Governors (u of North Carolina Press, 2016). 725 pp.
  • Fish, Carl Russell (1902). "Lincoln and the Patronage". The American Historical Review. 8 (1): 53–69. doi:10.2307/1832574. ISSN 0002-8762. JSTOR 1832574 – via JStor.
  • Gallagher, Gary W. The Union War (2011), emphasizes that the North fought primarily for nationalism and preservation of the Union
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (2005) excerpts and text search, on Lincoln's cabinet
  • Green, Michael S. Freedom, Union, and Power: Lincoln and His Party during the Civil War. (2004). 400 pp.
  • Harris, William C. Lincoln and the Union Governors (Southern Illinois University Press, 2013) 162 pp.
  • Hesseltine, William B. Lincoln and the War Governors (1948)
  • Kleppner, Paul. The Third Electoral System, 1853–1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Culture (1979), statistical study of voting patterns.
  • Lawson, Melinda. Patriot Fires: Forging a New American Nationalism in the Civil War North (University Press of Kansas, 2002).
  • Luthin, Reinhard H. The first Lincoln campaign (1944) on election of 1860
  • Neely, Mark. The Divided Union: Party Conflict in the Civil War North (2002)
  • Paludan, Philip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (1994), thorough treatment of Lincoln's administration
  • Rawley, James A. The Politics of Union: Northern Politics during the Civil War (1974).
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997) online edition
  • Silbey, Joel. A Respectable Minority: The Democratic Party in the Civil War Era (1977).
  • Smith, Adam I. P. No Party Now: Politics in the Civil War North (Oxford University Press, 2006)
  • Smith, Michael Thomas. The Enemy Within: Fears of Corruption in the Civil War North (2011) online review
  • Weber, Jennifer L. Copperheads: The Rise and Fall of Lincoln's Opponents in the North (2006) excerpt and text search

الدستورية والقانونية

الاقتصاد

  • Brandes, Stuart. Warhogs: A History of War Profits in America (1997), pp. 67–88; a scholarly history of the munitions industry; concludes profits were not excessive
  • Clark, Jr., John E. Railroads in the Civil War: The Impact of Management on Victory and Defeat (2004)
  • Cotterill, R. S. "The Louisville and Nashville Railroad 1861–1865," American Historical Review (1924) 29#4 pp. 700–715 in JSTOR
  • Fite, Emerson David. Social and industrial conditions in the North during the Civil War (1910) online edition, old but still quite useful
  • Hammond, Bray. "The North's Empty Purse, 1861–1862," American Historical Review, October 1961, Vol. 67 Issue 1, pp. 1–18 in JSTOR
  • Hill, Joseph A. "The Civil War Income Tax," Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 8, No. 4 (July 1894), pp. 416–452 in JSTOR; appendix in JSTOR
  • Lowenstein , Roger. Ways and Means: Lincoln and His Cabinet and the Financing of the Civil War (2022); major scholarly survey; online review
  • Merk, Frederick. Economic history of Wisconsin during the Civil War decade (1916) online edition
  • Smith, Michael Thomas. The Enemy Within: Fears of Corruption in the Civil War North (2011) details on Treasury Department, government contracting, and the cotton trade
  • Weber, Thomas. The northern railroads in the Civil War, 1861–1865 (1999)
  • Wilson, Mark R. The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State, 1861–1865. (2006). 306 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Ziparo, Jessica. This grand experiment: When women entered the federal workforce in Civil War–Era Washington, DC (UNC Press Books, 2017).
  • Zonderman, David A. "White Workers and the American Civil War." Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History (2021).

الفكر والثقافة

  • Aaron, Daniel. The Unwritten War: American Writers and the Civil War (2nd ed. 1987)
  • Brownlee, Peter John et al., eds. Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North (2013) online review
  • Foote, Lorien and Kanisorn Wongsrichanalai. So Conceived and So Dedicated: Intellectual Life in the Civil War Era North (2015)
  • Gallman, J. Matthew. Defining Duty in the Civil War: Personal Choice, Popular Culture, and the Union Home Front (2015) how civilians defined their roles. online review
  • Fredrickson, George M. The Inner Civil War: Northern Intellectuals and the Crisis of the Union (1993)
  • Stevenson, Louise A. The Victorian Homefront: American Thought and Culture, 1860–1880 (1991)
  • Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (1962)

الطب

  • Adams, George Worthington. Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War (1996), 253pp; excerpt and text search
  • Clarke, Frances M. War Stories: Suffering and Sacrifice in the Civil War North (University of Chicago Press, 2012)
  • Grant, S.-M. "'Mortal in this season': Union Surgeons and the Narrative of Medical Modernisation in the American Civil War." Social History of Medicine (2014)
  • Maxwell, William Quentin. Lincoln's Fifth Wheel: The Political History of the U.S. Sanitary Commission (1956) online edition
  • Schroeder-Lein, Glenna R. The Encyclopedia of Civil War Medicine (2012) excerpt and text search

السباق

  • McPherson, James M. Marching Toward Freedom: The Negro's Civil War (1982); first edition was The Negro's Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted During the War for the Union (1965),
  • Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the Civil War (1953), standard history excerpt and text search
  • Voegeli, V. Jacque. Free But Not Equal: The Midwest and the Negro during the Civil War (1967).

الدين والعرق

  • Brodrecht, Grant R. "Our Country: Northern Evangelicals and the Union during the Civil War and Reconstruction." Ph.D. diss., University of Notre Dame, 2008.
  • Burton, William L. Melting Pot Soldiers: The Union Ethnic Regiments (1998)
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D. "German-Americans and Civil War Politics: A Reconsideration of the Ethnocultural Thesis." Civil War History 37 (1991): 232–246.
  • Kleppner, Paul. The Third Electoral System, 1853–1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Culture (1979).
  • Miller, Randall M., Harry S. Stout and Charles Reagan Wilson, eds. Religion and the American Civil War (1998) online edition
  • Miller, Robert J. Both Prayed to the Same God: Religion and Faith in the American Civil War. (2007). 260pp
  • Moorhead, James. American Apocalypse: Yankee Protestants and the Civil War, 1860–1869 (1978).
  • Noll, Mark A. The Civil War as a Theological Crisis. (2006). 199 pp.
  • Stout, Harry S. Upon the Altar of the Nation: A Moral History of the Civil War. (2006). 544 pp.

التاريخ الاجتماعي والديموغرافي

  • Brownlee, Peter John, et al. Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North (University of Chicago Press, 2013) 193 pp. heavily illustrated.
  • Morehouse, Maggi M. and Zoe Trodd, eds. Civil War America: A Social and Cultural History with Primary Sources (2013), 29 short essays by scholars excerpt
  • Raus, Edmund J. Banners South: Northern Community at War (2011), about Cortland, New York
  • Vinovskis, Maris A., ed. Toward a Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays (1991), new social history; quantitative studies
  • Vinovskis, Maris A., ed. "Have Social Historians Lost the Civil War? Some Preliminary Demographic Speculations," Journal of American History Vol. 76, No. 1 (June 1989), pp. 34–58 in JSTOR
  • Veit, Helen Zoe, ed. Food in the Civil War Era: The North (Michigan State University Press, 2014)

العسكرية

  • Geary James W. We Need Men: The Union Draft in the Civil War (1991).
  • Geary James W. "Civil War Conscription in the North: A Historiographical Review." Civil War History 32 (September 1986): 208–228.
  • Hams, Emily J. "Sons and Soldiers: Deerfield, Massachusetts, and the Civil War," Civil War History 30 (June 1984): 157–71
  • Hess, Earl J. "The 12th Missouri Infantry: A Socio-Military Profile of a Union Regiment," Missouri Historical Review 76 (October 1981): 53–77.
  • Cimbala, Paul A. and Randall M. Miller, eds. Union Soldiers and the Northern Home Front: Wartime Experiences, Postwar Adjustments. (2002)
  • Costa, Dora L., and Matthew E. Kahn. "Cowards and heroes: Group loyalty in the American Civil War." Quarterly Journal of Economics 118.2 (2003): 519-548. Statistical study based on sample of 32,000 Union soldiers. online
  • Current, Richard N. (1992). Lincoln's Loyalists: Union Soldiers from the Confederacy. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508465-9.
  • McPherson, James. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1998), based on letters and diaries
  • Miller, William J. Training of an Army: Camp Curtin and the North's Civil War (1990)
  • Mitchell; Reid. The Vacant Chair. The Northern Soldier Leaves Home (1993).
  • Rorabaugh, William J. "Who Fought for the North in the Civil War? Concord, Massachusetts, Enlistments," Journal of American History 73 (December 1986): 695–701 in JSTOR
  • Roseboom, Eugene H. The Civil War Era, 1850–1873 (1944), Ohio
  • Scott, Sean A. "'Earth Has No Sorrow That Heaven Cannot Cure': Northern Civilian Perspectives on Death and Eternity during the Civil War," Journal of Social History (2008) 41:843–866
  • Wiley, Bell I. The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (1952)

الولاية والمحلية

  • Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia...1863 (1864), detailed coverage of events in all countries; online; for online copies see Annual Cyclopaedia. Each year 1861 to 1902 includes several pages on each U.S. state.
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. American Civil War: A State-by-State Encyclopedia (2 vol 2015) 1019pp excerpt
  • Aley, Ginette et al. eds. Union Heartland: The Midwestern Home Front during the Civil War (2013)
  • Bak, Richard. A Distant Thunder: Michigan in the Civil War. (2004). 239 pp.
  • Baker, Jean H. The Politics of Continuity: Maryland Political Parties from 1858 to 1870 (1973)
  • Baum, Dale. The Civil War Party System: The Case of Massachusetts, 1848–1876 (1984)
  • Bradley, Erwin S. The Triumph of Militant Republicanism: A Study of Pennsylvania and Presidential Politics, 1860–1872 (1964)
  • Castel, Albert. A Frontier State at War: Kansas, 1861–1865 (1958)
  • Cole, Arthur Charles. The Era of the Civil War 1848–1870 (1919) on Illinois
  • Coulter, E. Merton. The Civil War and Readjustment in Kentucky (1926),
  • Current, Richard N. The History of Wisconsin: The Civil War Era, 1848–1873 (1976).
  • Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio's war: the Civil War in documents (2006), primary sources excerpt and text search
  • Dilla, Harriette M. Politics of Michigan, 1865–1878 (Columbia University Press, 1912) online at Google books
  • Gallman, Matthew J. Mastering Wartime: A Social History of Philadelphia During the Civil War. (1990)
  • Hall, Susan G. Appalachian Ohio and the Civil War, 1862–1863 (2008)
  • Holzer, Harold. State of the Union: New York and the Civil War (2002) Essays by scholars
  • Hubbard, Mark. Illinois's War: The Civil War in Documents (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Karamanski, Theodore J. Rally 'Round the Flag: Chicago and the Civil War (1993).
  • Leech, Margaret. Reveille in Washington, 1860–1865 (1941), Pulitzer Prize
  • Miller, Richard F. ed. States at War, Volume 1: A Reference Guide for Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont in the Civil War (2013) excerpt
    • Miller, Richard F. ed. States at War, Volume 2: A Reference Guide for New York in the Civil War (2014) excerpt
  • Nation, Richard F. and Stephen E. Towne. Indiana's War: The Civil War in Documents (2009), primary sources excerpt and text search
  • Niven, John. Connecticut for the Union: The Role of the State in the Civil War (Yale University Press, 1965)
  • O'Connor, Thomas H. Civil War Boston (1999)
  • Parrish, William E. A History of Missouri, Volume III: 1860 to 1875 (1973) (ISBN 0-8262-0148-2)
  • Pierce, Bessie. A History of Chicago, Volume II: From Town to City 1848–1871 (1940)
  • Schouler, William (1868). A History of Massachusetts in the Civil War. Boston: E.P. Dutton & Co. ISBN 9781582180014. OCLC 2662693.
  • Ponce, Pearl T. Kansas's War: The Civil War in Documents (2011) excerpt and text search
  • Raus, Edmund J. Banners South: Northern Community at War (2011) about Cortland, New York
  • Roseboom, Eugene. The Civil War Era, 1850–1873, History of Ohio, vol. 4 (1944) online, Detailed scholarly history
  • Siddali, Silvana R. Missouri's War: The Civil War in Documents (2009), primary sources excerpt and text search
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. Indiana Politics during the Civil War (1949)
  • Taylor, Paul. "Old Slow Town": Detroit during the Civil War (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2013). x, 248 pp.
  • Thornbrough, Emma Lou. Indiana in the Civil War Era, 1850–1880 (1965)
  • Ware, Edith E. Political Opinion in Massachusetts during the Civil War and Reconstruction, (1916). full text online

المرأة والأسرة

  • "Bonnet Brigades at Fifty: Reflections on Mary Elizabeth Massey and Gender in Civil War History," Civil War History (2015) 61#4 pp. 400–444.
  • Anderson, J. L. "The Vacant Chair on the Farm: Soldier Husbands, Farm Wives, and the Iowa Home Front, 1861–1865," Annals of Iowa (2007) 66: 241–265
  • Attie, Jeanie. Patriotic Toil: Northern Women and the American Civil War (1998). 294 pp.
  • Bahde, Thomas. "'I never wood git tired of wrighting to you.'" Journal of Illinois History (2009). 12:129-55
  • Cashin, Joan E. "American Women and the American Civil War" Journal of Military History (2017) 81#1 pp. 199–204.
  • Giesberg, Judith. Army at Home: Women and the Civil War on the Northern Home Front (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Giesberg, Judith Ann. "From Harvest Field to Battlefield: Rural Pennsylvania Women and the U.S. Civil War," Pennsylvania History (2005). 72: 159–191
  • Harper, Judith E. Women during the Civil War: An Encyclopedia. (2004). 472 pp.
  • McDevitt, Theresa. Women and the American Civil War: an annotated bibliography (Praeger, 2003).
  • Marten, James. Children for the Union: The War Spirit on the Northern Home Front. Ivan R. Dee, 2004. 209 pp.
  • Massey, Mary. Bonnet Brigades: American Women and the Civil War (1966), excellent overview North and South; reissued as Women in the Civil War (1994)
    • "Bonnet Brigades at Fifty: Reflections on Mary Elizabeth Massey and Gender in Civil War History," Civil War History (2015) 61#4 pp. 400–444.
    • Giesberg, Judith. "Mary Elizabeth Massey and the Civil War Centennial." Civil War History 61.4 (2015): 400–406. online
  • Rodgers, Thomas E. "Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front," Indiana Magazine of History 97#2 (2001), pp. 105–128 in JSTOR
  • Silber, Nina. Daughters of the Union: Northern Women Fight the Civil War. (Harvard UP, 2005). 332 pp.
  • Venet, Wendy Hamand. A Strong-Minded Woman: The Life of Mary Livermore. (U. of Massachusetts Press, 2005). 322 pp.

المصادر الأولية

وصلات خارجية

  اقرأ اقتباسات ذات علاقة بالاتحاد (الحرب الأهلية الأمريكية)، في معرفة الاقتباس.