پلويشتي

(تم التحويل من Ploieşti)

پلويشتي (Ploiești ؛ UK /plɔɪˈɛʃti/؛ الأمريكي /plɔːˈjɛʃt(i)/؛[4][5][6][7] رومانية: [ploˈjeʃtʲ]) مدينة تقع على بعد 60 كم شمال عاصمة رومانيا بوخارست، عاصمة مقاطعة پراهوڤا. عدد سكانها 232.452 نسمة (إحصاء 2002).

پلويشتي

Ploiești
Casa Luca Elefterescu, azi Muzeul Ceasului "Nicolae Simache" (2).JPG
Ploiesti-Catedrala-3.JPG
BancaRomaneasca-2.JPG
Casa Ghiță Stoenescu, azi clinica Alfa Medical Center, Bd. Independenței nr. 27, Ploiești (1).JPG
Casa Radu Stanian, fosta Casa Căsătoriilor, Ploiești (2).JPG
Left to right: Nicolae Simache Clock Museum, St. John the Baptist Cathedral, the former Creditul Prahovei, the Ghiță Stoenescu House, the Radu Stanian House.
درع پلويشتي
Coat of arms
الكنية: 
Capitala Aurului Negru
(English: Capital of Black Gold)
الموقع في مقاطعة پراهوڤا
الموقع في مقاطعة پراهوڤا
پلويشتي is located in رومانيا
پلويشتي
پلويشتي
Location of Ploiești within Romania
الإحداثيات: 44°56′N 26°2′E / 44.933°N 26.033°E / 44.933; 26.033Coordinates: 44°56′N 26°2′E / 44.933°N 26.033°E / 44.933; 26.033
البلدFlag of Romania.svg رومانيا
المقاطعةStema Prahova.svg پراهوڤا
الوضعCounty seat
الحكومة
 • العمدة (2020–2024)Andrei Volosevici[1] (PNL)
المساحة
 • مدينة58٫28 كم² (22٫50 ميل²)
المنسوب
160 m (520 ft)
التعداد
 • مدينة209٬945
 • Estimate 
(2016)[3]
233٬663
 • الكثافة3,394/km2 (8٬790/sq mi)
 • العمرانية
266٬4571
منطقة التوقيتUTC+2 (EET)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
100xxx
مفتاح الهاتف(+40) 44
Car platePH
الموقع الإلكترونيploiesti.ro
1 Ploiești metropolitan area is a proposed project.

Part of the historical region of Muntenia, it is located 56 kم (184,000 قدم) north of Bucharest. The area of the city is around 60 kم2 (650,000,000 قدم2). It borders the Blejoi commune in the North, Bărcănești and Brazi communes in the South, Târgșoru Vechi in the West and Bucov and Berceni communes in the East. Ploiești has direct access to the Prahova Valley, one of the most important alpine tourism areas in Romania.

Ploiești is an important transport hub, linking Bucharest with Transylvania and Moldavia. According to the 2011 Romanian census, there were 201,226 people living within the city of Ploiești, making it the 9th most populous in the country.

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التاريخ

WWII refineries
(monthly metric tonnes)
:[8]
  1. Astra Romania (146,000)
  2. Colombia Aquila (45,000)
  3. Concordia Vega (110,000)
  4. Creditul Minier (45,000)
  5. Dacia Romana (15,000)
  6. Phoenix (65,000)
  7. Romana Americana (92,000)
  8. Standard Petrol Block[1] (36,000)
  9. Unirea Sperantza (33,000)
  10. Xenia (22,000)


الحرب العالمية الثانية

 
Columbia Aquila refinery burning after the raid of B-24 Liberator bombers, Operation Tidal Wave

المناحي التاريخية

Census Ethnic composition
السنة التعداد رومانيون مجر ألمان صرب يهود غجر روس يونان أوكران
1930 79,149 69,139 1,591 1,307
2011 201,226 199,221 109 69 - - 1289 44 - 8

الاقتصاد

 
A3 motorway يربط پلويشتي ببوخارست، 60 كم إلى الجنوب.


الديمغرافيا

التعداد التاريخي
السنةتعداد±%
1810 2٬024—    
1859 26٬468+1207.7%
1899 45٬107+70.4%
1912 56٬460+25.2%
1930 79٬149+40.2%
1948 95٬632+20.8%
1956 114٬544+19.8%
1966 146٬922+28.3%
1977 199٬699+35.9%
1992 252٬715+26.5%
2002 232٬527−8.0%
2011 209٬945−9.7%
المصدر: Census data

أقرب البلدات

Town Direction Distance
straight line distance road distance rail distance
București S 56 km 60 km 59 km
Brăila E 155 km 170 km 176 km
Pitești W 91 km 111 km 149 km
Brașov NW 86 km 114 km 110 km
Târgoviște V 46 km 51 km 52 km
Buzău NE 66 km 71 km 69 km
Urziceni SE 55 km 60 km 55 km

الجيولوجيا

The Mio-Pliocene Zone in the Ploiești region has been exploited for hydrocarbons and coal since the 19th Century.[9] The zone extends from the flysch on the north to the Moesian Platform on the south.[10] The zone is marked by alternating deposits of Clay, Marl, Shale and Sand, conglomerate, Salt and Limestone.[11] Structural traps and stratigraphic traps are formed from Salt Diapirism which gave rise to anticline folds and faulting.[11] There are four major alignments of the anticlines, all parallel to the Carpathian Range.[11] Pliocene sands are the main oil and gas producers, in particular the Meotian (60%) and Dacian (29%), followed by the Miocene Sarmatian (5%) but some oil exists in Miocene Helvetian and Oligocene sandstones.[12] Major producing structures include Moreni-Gura Ocnitei, Baicoi-Tintea and Boldesti.[11]

الجغرافيا

 
Teleajen River in Prahova County

أقرب البلدات

البلدة الاتجاه المسافة
straight line distance road distance rail distance
București S 56 كم 60 كم 59 كم
Brăila E 155 km 170 km 176 km
Pitești W 91 km 111 km 149 km
Brașov NW 86 km 114 km 110 km
Târgoviște V 46 km 51 km 52 km
Buzău NE 66 km 71 km 69 km
Urziceni SE 55 km 60 km 55 km

المناخ

بيانات مناخ پلويشتي
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 1
(34)
4
(39)
10
(50)
18
(64)
23
(73)
27
(81)
28
(82)
28
(82)
24
(75)
18
(64)
10
(50)
3
(37)
16٫2
(61٫2)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -6
(21)
-3
(27)
0
(32)
6
(43)
10
(50)
14
(57)
16
(61)
15
(59)
11
(52)
6
(43)
1
(34)
-3
(27)
5٫6
(42٫1)
هطول mm (inches) 40.6
(1.598)
35.6
(1.402)
38.1
(1.5)
45.7
(1.799)
71.1
(2.799)
76.2
(3)
63.5
(2.5)
58.4
(2.299)
43.2
(1.701)
33
(1.3)
48.3
(1.902)
43.2
(1.701)
596٫9
(23٫5)
Source: Weather Channel


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السياسة

The Ploiești Municipal Council, elected in the 2012 local elections, is made up of 27 councillors, with the following party composition:

    الحزب المقاعد المجلس الحالي
51.9% Social Liberal Union 14                            
37% Democratic Liberal Party 10                    
11.1% People's Party – Dan Diaconescu 3      

العلاقات الدولية

البلدات التوأم - المدن الشقيقة

پلويشتي متوأمة مع:

سكان البلدة

معرض الصور

انظر أيضاً

الملاحظات والمراجع

^1 Sources provide differing estimates regarding Romanian production:
  • 1942: The Axis Oil Position in Europe, November 1942 by the Hartley Committee estimated that "Romanian oil fields" contributed 33% of Axis supplies.[18]
  • 1944: "Ploiești, thirty-five miles (8.0 kم) from Bucharest, supplied one-third of all the oil fuel Germany required for war purposes."[19]
  • 1999: The fragile, concentrated Bucharest facilities provided "60% of Germany's crude oil supply"[20]
  1. ^ "Results of the 2020 local elections". Central Electoral Bureau. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  2. ^ "2011 Census press release" (PDF) (in الرومانية). INSSE Prahova. February 2, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 1, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
  3. ^ "Populaţia României pe localitati la 1 ianuarie 2016" (in الرومانية). INSSE. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 2017-10-27. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  4. ^ قالب:Cite American Heritage Dictionary
  5. ^ "Ploeşti". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  6. ^ "Ploiești" (US) and قالب:Cite Oxford Dictionaries
  7. ^ قالب:Cite Merriam-Webster
  8. ^ "U.S. Air Force photo" [ك‍] [diagram] in Gurney, Gene (Major, USAF) (1962). "The War in the Air: a pictorial history of World War II Air Forces in combat". New York: Bonanza Books: 121. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ Paraschiv, P., and Olteau, G., Oil Fields of Ploiești District, Romania, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, AAPG Memoir 14, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1970, p. 401.
  10. ^ Paraschiv, P., and Olteau, G., Oil Fields of Ploiești District, Romania, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, AAPG Memoir 14, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1970, p. 399.
  11. ^ أ ب ت ث Paraschiv, P., and Olteau, G., Oil Fields of Ploiești District, Romania, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, AAPG Memoir 14, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1970, p. 425.
  12. ^ Paraschiv, P., and Olteau, G., Oil Fields of Ploieşti District, Romania, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, AAPG Memoir 14, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1970, p. 415.
  13. ^ Pawlewicz, M., Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria, US Dept. Interior USGS Bulletin 2204-F, 2007, p. 9
  14. ^ Pawlewicz, M., Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria, US Dept. Interior USGS Bulletin 2204-F, 2007, p. 6
  15. ^ Pawlewicz, M., Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria, US Dept. Interior USGS Bulletin 2204-F, 2007, p. 5
  16. ^ "Radom - Miasta partnerskie". Miasto Radom [City of Radom] (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-07. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  17. ^ "Radom - miasta partnerskie" (in Polish). radom.naszestrony.pl. Retrieved 2013-08-07.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  18. ^ US Secretary (January 1943). Casablanca Conference: Papers and Minutes of Meetings. Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library; COMBINED CHIEFS OF STAFF: Conference proceedings, 1941–1945; Box 1: Office of the Combined Chiefs of Staff. pp. 40–43, 88, 256. Brehon Somervell[inside front cover] … DECLASSIFIED … 10/29/73 … U.S. SECRET … BRITISH MOST SECRET … COPY NO. 32[inside back cover]CS1 maint: location (link)
  19. ^ Turner, S.J., F. R. G. S -- maps (1944). Vol. 2 [September 3, 1941—August 15, 1943]. Pictorial History of the Second World War. Wm. H. Wise & Co., Inc. pp. 519–1020 [986].
  20. ^ Modrovsky, Robert J. (April 1999). 1 August 1943 -- Today's Target is Ploesti: A Departure from Doctrine (pdf) |format= requires |url= (help). p. 4.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Prahova County

قالب:بذرة جغرافيا رومانيا