جمعية تنظيم الأسرة الأمريكية

(تم التحويل من Planned Parenthood)

Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. (PPFA), or Planned Parenthood, is a nonprofit organization that provides reproductive health care in the United States and globally. It is a tax-exempt corporation under Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3)[4] and a member association of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). PPFA has its roots in Brooklyn, New York, where Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in 1916. Sanger founded the American Birth Control League in 1921,[5] which changed its name to Planned Parenthood in 1942.

Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood logo.svg
الاختصارPPFA
سبقهاAmerican Birth Control League
التشكل16 أكتوبر 1916; منذ 105 سنين (1916-10-16[note 1]
الغرضReproductive health
المقر الرئيسي
المنطقة served
United States, and worldwide through Planned Parenthood Global and IPPF[1]
الأعضاءhip
600+ clinic locations[2]
  • 58 medical or related affiliates
  • 101 non-medical affiliates[3]
Acting President
Alexis McGill Johnson
الموقع الإلكترونيخطأ لوا في وحدة:Official_website على السطر 90: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

Planned Parenthood consists of 159 medical and non-medical affiliates, which operate over 600 health clinics in the U.S.[2][3] It partners with organizations in 12 countries globally.[2][3] The organization directly provides a variety of reproductive health services and sexual education, contributes to research in reproductive technology and advocates for the protection and expansion of reproductive rights.[3] Research shows that closures of Planned Parenthood clinics lead to increases in maternal mortality rates.[6][7]

PPFA is the largest single provider of reproductive health services, including abortion, in the U.S.[11] In their 2014 Annual Report, PPFA reported seeing over 2.5 million patients in over 4 million clinical visits and performing a total of nearly 9.5 million discrete services including 324,000 abortions.[14] Its combined annual revenue is دولار1٫3 billion, including approximately US$530 million in government funding such as Medicaid reimbursements.[3][13] Throughout its history, PPFA and its member clinics have experienced support, controversy, protests,[15] and violent attacks.[16]

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History


Origins

 
Margaret Sanger (1922), the first president and founder of Planned Parenthood

The origins of Planned Parenthood date to October 16, 1916, when Margaret Sanger, her sister Ethel Byrne, and Fania Mindell opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in the Brownsville section of the New York borough of Brooklyn.[17] They distributed birth control, birth control advice, and birth control information. All three women were arrested[18][19][20] and jailed for violating provisions of the Comstock Act, accused of distributing obscene materials at the clinic. The so-called Brownsville trials brought national attention and support to their cause. Sanger and her co-defendants were convicted on misdemeanor charges, which they appealed through two subsequent appeals courts. While the convictions were not overturned,[21] the judge who issued the final ruling also modified the law to permit physician-prescribed birth control. The women's campaign led to major changes in the laws governing birth control and sex education in the United States.[22]

In 1921, the clinic was organized into the American Birth Control League,[5] the core of the only national birth-control organization in the U.S. until the 1960s. By 1941, it was operating 222 centers and had served 49,000 clients.[23] However, some found its title offensive and "against families", so the League began discussions for a new name.[24] In 1938, a group of private citizens organized the Citizens Committee for Planned Parenthood to aid the American Birth Control League in spreading scientific knowledge about birth control to the general public. In 1942, the League officially changed its name to the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.[24]

Largely relying on a volunteer workforce, by 1960 the Federation had provided family planning counseling in hundreds of communities across the country.[23] Planned Parenthood was one of the founding members of the International Planned Parenthood Federation when it was launched at a conference in Bombay (now Mumbai), India, in 1952.[23][25]

Both Planned Parenthood and Margaret Sanger are strongly associated with the abortion issue today.[26][27] For much of the organization's history, however, and throughout Sanger's life, abortion was illegal in the U.S., and discussions of the issue were often censored.[28] During this period, Sanger – like other American advocates of birth control – publicly condemned abortion, arguing that it would not be needed if every woman had access to birth control.[28]

After Sanger

 
A Planned Parenthood supporter participates in a demonstration in support of the organization
 
Leana Wen in April 2017


Services

The services provided by PPFA affiliates vary by location, with just over half of all Planned Parenthood affiliates in the U.S. performing abortions.[29] Services provided by PPFA include birth control and long-acting reversible contraception;[30] emergency contraception; clinical breast examinations; cervical cancer screening; pregnancy testing and pregnancy options counseling; prenatal care; testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections; sex education; vasectomies; LGBT services; and abortion.[31][32] Contrary to the assumption of some, Planned Parenthood conducts cancer screenings but does not provide mammograms.[33]

In 2013, PPFA reported seeing 2.7 million patients in 4.6 million clinical visits.[12] Roughly 16% of its clients are teenagers.[2][34] According to PPFA, in 2014 the organization provided 3.6 million contraceptive services, 4.5 million sexually transmitted infection services, about 1 million cancer related services, over 1 million pregnancy tests and prenatal services, over 324,000 abortion services,[35] and over 100,000 other services, for a total of 9.5 million discrete services.[12] PPFA is well known for providing services to minorities and the poor;[36][37] according to PPFA, approximately four out of five of their clients have incomes at or below 150 percent of the federal poverty level.[31][38] Services for men's health include STD testing and treatment, vasectomy procedures, and erectile dysfunction services.[39] Education is available regarding male birth control and lowering the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.[40]

Planned Parenthood won the 2020 Webby Award for Machine Learning and Bots for their Sex Education chatbot.[41]

Facilities

 
Location in Houston, Texas

PPFA has two national offices in the U.S.: one in Washington, D.C., and one in New York City. It has three international offices, including a hub office in London, England. It has 68 medical and related affiliates and 101 other affiliates including 34 political action committees.[3] These affiliates together operate more than 700 health centers in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.[2][42][43] PPFA owns about US$54 million in property, including real estate. In addition, PPFA spends a little over US$1 million per year for rented space.[3] The largest facility, a US$26 million, 78,000-قدم-مربع (7,200-متر-مربع) structure, was completed in Houston, Texas, in May 2010.[44]

Worldwide availability

PPFA's international outreach and other activities are performed by Planned Parenthood Global, a division of PPFA,[3][45] and by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which now consists of more than 149 Member Associations working in more than 189 countries.[46] The IPPF is further associated with International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates in the Caribbean and the Americas,[47] and IPPF European Network,[48] as well as other organizations like Family Planning Queensland, Pro Familia (Germany) (de) and mouvement français pour le planning familial (French Movement for Family Planning) (fr). Offices are located in New York, NY; Washington, D.C.; Miami, FL; Guatemala City, Guatemala; Abuja, Nigeria; and Nairobi, Kenya. The organization's focus countries are Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Kenya.[49] The Bloomberg Philanthropies donated US$50 million for Planned Parenthood Global's reproductive health and family planning efforts in Tanzania, Nicaragua, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Uganda.[50] Among specific countries and territories serviced by Planned Parenthood Global's reproductive planning outreach are Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominican Republic, Barbados, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, Guyana, Cape Verde and Samoa.[45][46]

Funding

 
Planned Parenthood headquarters on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C.

Planned Parenthood has received federal funding since 1970, when President Richard Nixon signed into law the Family Planning Services and Population Research Act, amending the Public Health Service Act. Title X of that law provides funding for family planning services, including contraception and family planning information. The law had support from both Republicans and Democrats.[51] Nixon described Title X funding as based on the premise that "no American woman should be denied access to family planning assistance because of her economic condition."[52]

Donors to Planned Parenthood have included the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Buffett Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Turner Foundation, the Cullmans, and others.[53][54][55][56] The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's contributions to the organization have been specifically marked to avoid funding abortions.[53] Some donors, such as the Buffett Foundation, have supported reproductive health that can include abortion services.[53] Pro-life groups have advocated the boycott of donors to Planned Parenthood.[57] Corporate donors include CREDO Mobile.[58]

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 2014, total revenue was US$1٫3 billion: non-government health services revenue was US$305 million, government revenue (such as Medicaid reimbursements) was US$528 million, private contributions totaled US$392 million, and US$78 million came from other operating revenue.[59] According to Planned Parenthood, 59% of the group's revenue is put towards the provision of health services, while non-medical services such as sex education and public policy work make up another 15%; management expenses, fundraising, and international family planning programs account for about 16%, and 10% of the revenue in 2013–2014 was not spent.[59]

Planned Parenthood receives over a third of its money in government grants and contracts (about US$528 million in 2014).[60][59] By law (Hyde Amendment), federal funding cannot be allocated for abortions (except in rare cases),[61] but some opponents of abortion have argued that allocating money to Planned Parenthood for the provision of other medical services allows other funds to be reallocated for abortions.[37]

A coalition of national and local anti-abortion groups have lobbied federal and state governments to stop funding Planned Parenthood. As a result, federal and state legislators have proposed legislation to reduce funding levels.[61][62] Eight statesقالب:NsmdnsAlabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, New Hampshire, Ohio, and Utahقالب:Nsmdnshave enacted such proposals.[73] In some cases, the courts have overturned such actions, citing conflict with federal or state laws; in others the federal executive branch has provided funding in lieu of the states.[65][66][74] In some states, Planned Parenthood was completely or partially defunded.[75][76]


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Debate and opposition

Margaret Sanger and eugenics

In the 1920s, various theories of eugenics were popular among intellectuals in the U.S.[77] In her campaign to promote birth control, Sanger teamed with eugenics organizations such as the American Eugenics Society, although she argued against many of their positions.[78][79] Scholars describe Sanger as believing that birth control and sterilization should be voluntary, and not based on race.[80] Sanger advocated for "voluntary motherhood"—the right to choose when to be pregnant—for all women, as an important element of women's rights.[81][82] As part of her efforts to promote birth control, however, Sanger found common cause with proponents of eugenics, believing that she and they both sought to "assist the race toward the elimination of the unfit".[83]

Critics of Planned Parenthood often refer to Sanger's connection with supporters of eugenics to discredit the organization by associating it, and birth control, with the more negative modern view of eugenics.[84][85] Planned Parenthood has responded to this effort directly in a leaflet acknowledging that Sanger agreed with some of her contemporaries who advocated the voluntary hospitalization or sterilization of people with untreatable, disabling, or hereditary conditions, and limits on the immigration of the diseased. The leaflet also states that Planned Parenthood "finds these views objectionable and outmoded" but says that it was compelled to discuss the topic because "anti-family planning activists continue to attack Sanger [...] because she is an easier target" than Planned Parenthood.[86]

Abortion

Planned Parenthood has occupied a central position in the abortion debate in the U.S., and has been among the most prominent targets of the U.S. pro-life movement for decades. Some members of Congress, overwhelmingly Republican, have attempted since the 1980s to end federal funding of the organization,[60] nearly leading to a government shutdown over the issue in 2011.[87] Planned Parenthood has consistently maintained that federal money received by Planned Parenthood is not used to fund abortion services, but pro-life activists have argued that the federal funding frees up other resources that are, in turn, used to provide abortions.[60]

Planned Parenthood is the largest single provider of abortions in the U.S.,[88] but pro-choice advocates have argued that the organization's family planning services reduce the need for abortions; in the words of Megan Crepeau of the Chicago Tribune, Planned Parenthood could be "characterized as America's largest abortion preventer".[89][90] Pro-life activists dispute the evidence that greater access to contraceptives reduces abortion frequency.[91]


See also

Notes

  1. ^ Planned Parenthood dates its beginnings to 1916, when Margaret Sanger opened her first birth control center in Brooklyn. Its predecessor, the American Birth Control League, was founded in 1921, and the organization adopted the name Planned Parenthood in 1942.

References

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  3. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د "Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Inc.) and Related Entities, Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Information, Audited, June 30, 2013 and 2014" (PDF). www.plannedparenthood.org. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
  4. ^ Planned Parenthood Annual Report 2012–2013, p. 18.
  5. ^ أ ب Kathryn Cullen-DuPont (August 1, 2000). Encyclopedia of women's history in America. Infobase Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8160-4100-8. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة :0
  7. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة :1
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  84. ^ Valenza, Charles (January–February 1985). "Was Margaret Sanger a Racist?" (PDF). Family Planning Perspectives. 17 (1): 44–46. doi:10.2307/2135230. JSTOR 2135230. PMID 3884362. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
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  89. ^ Crepeau, Megan (April 4, 2011). "The great Republican bait-and-switch". Chicago Tribune.
  90. ^ * Finn, Robin, "Anti-Abortion Advocates? Bring 'Em On, Texan Says", The New York Times, March 10, 2006. Quote: "PLANNED PARENTHOOD serves five million Americans and concentrates 90 percent of its efforts on preventing unwanted pregnancies, Ms. Richards, says, not terminating them. 'No one does more to reduce the need for abortions in this country than Planned Parenthood.'"[1]
    • Also, Emily Stewart, director of public policy for Planned Parenthood said: "Without a doubt, when women have access to birth control, it reduces unintended pregnancies" [2]
  91. ^ Rovner, Julie (September 7, 2011). "Conservatives Step Up Attacks On Public Funding For Birth Control". NPR. Retrieved July 21, 2015.

Further reading

  • Manon Perry, Broadcasting Birth Control: Mass Media and Family Planning. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2013.

External links

قالب:Wikimedia

قالب:International Planned Parenthood Federation