افتح القائمة الرئيسية

أرض مطوقة أو منعزلة

(تم التحويل من Enclave and exclave)

An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.[1] Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, and enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters.[2]:60 An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory (of one or more states).[3] Many exclaves are also enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly surrounded by another state.[1] Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, and Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are the only completely enclaved states. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states.[4]The Azeri exclave of Nakhchivan is an example of an exclave.

Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves.[4]:116[5]:12–14 Enclaves and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states (Monaco, Gambia and Brunei are semi-enclaves), while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state.[4]

A pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently — in particular by wheeled traffic — only through the territory of another country.[6]:283 Pene-enclaves are also called functional enclaves or practical enclaves.[5]:31 Many pene-exclaves partially border their own territorial waters (i.e., they are not surrounded by other nations' territorial waters). A pene-enclave can also exist entirely on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. A commonly cited example is the Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, Austria, that is only accessible from Germany to the north.


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فهرست

Characteristics

Explicative diagram of territorial discontinuities: Enclaves and exclaves
Different territories (countries, states, counties, municipalities, etc.) are represented by different colours and letters; separated parts of the same territory are represented by the same colour and letter, with a different number added to each smaller part of that territory (the main part is identified by the letter only).
  • A (red):
    • possesses 3 exclaves (A1, A2 and A3): it is impossible to go from the main part of A to any of these parts going only through territory of A; however:
      • A1 and A2 are not enclaves: neither of them is surrounded by a single "foreign" territory;
      • A3 is an enclave: it is totally surrounded by B;
    • contains 1 enclave (E): "foreign" territory totally surrounded by territory of A;
    • possesses 2 counter-enclaves, or second-order enclaves (A4 and A5): territories belonging to A which are encroached inside the enclave E;
    • contains 1 counter-counter-enclave, or third-order enclave (E1).
  • B (yellow):
    • contains 2 enclaves (A3 and D).
  • C (green):
    • continuous territory.
  • D (orange):
    • is an enclaved territory: it is territorially continuous, but its territory is totally surrounded by a single "foreign" territory (B).
  • E (purple):
    • is an enclaved territory: it is encroached inside A;
    • contains 2 enclaves (A4 and A5), which are counter-enclaves of A;
    • possesses 1 counter-enclave (E1), which is a counter-counter-enclave as viewed by A and contained within A5.
In topological terms, A and E are non-connected surfaces, and B, C and D are connected surfaces. However, C and D are also simply connected surfaces, while B is not (it has genus 2, the number of "holes" in B).

Enclaves exist for a variety of historical, political and geographical reasons. For example, in the feudal system in Europe, the ownership of feudal domains was often transferred or partitioned, either through purchase and sale or through inheritance, and often such domains were or came to be surrounded by other domains. In particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire, and these domains (principalities, etc.) exhibited many of the characteristics of sovereign states. Prior to 1866 Prussia alone consisted of more than 270 discontiguous pieces of territory.[2]:61


Enclave versus exclave

For illustration, in the figure (above), A1 is a semi-enclave (attached to C and also bounded by water that only touches C's territorial water). Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C. The territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B. The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave.

Enclaved countries

 
Position of Lesotho within South Africa

Three nations are completely surrounded by another country:

The Principality of Monaco is not an enclave, although it only borders France, because it possesses a coastline and territorial waters. For the same reason, Canada, The Gambia, and Portugal are also not enclaves.

Historically, four of the Bantustans (or "Black homelands") of South Africa were granted nominal independence, unrecognized internationally, by the Nationalist government from 1976 until their reabsorption in 1994. Others remained under government rule from 1948 to 1994. Being heavily partitioned, various parts of these Bantustans were true enclaves.

The United States' constitutional principle of tribal sovereignty treats federally-recognized Indian reservations as quasi-independent enclaves.

جيوب خارجية حقيقية

 
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

True exclave is an extension of the concept of true enclave. Examples include:


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Related constructs and terms

Enclaves within enclaves

 
Map showing the non-contiguous Belgian exclaves of Baarle-Hertog in the Netherlands which, in turn, has Dutch enclaves within it.

الجيوب العرقية

An ethnic enclave is a community of an ethnic group inside an area in which another ethnic group predominates. Ghettos, Little Italys, barrios and Chinatowns are examples. These areas may have a separate language, culture and economic system.


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Extraterritoriality

Diplomatic missions, such as embassies and consulates, as well as military bases, are usually exempted from the jurisdiction of the host country, i.e., the laws of the host nation in which an embassy is located do not typically apply to the land of the embassy or base itself. This exemption from the jurisdiction of the host country is defined as extraterritoriality. Areas and buildings enjoying some forms of extraterritoriality are not true enclaves since, in all cases, the host country retains full sovereignty. In addition to embassies, some other areas enjoy a limited form of extraterritoriality.

Examples of this include:

أرض يملكها بلد أجنبي

Some areas of land in a country are owned by another country and in some cases it has special privileges, such as being exempt from taxes. These lands are not enclaves and do not have extraterritoriality since, in all cases, there is no transfer of sovereignty.

Examples of this include:

 
Land for the Captain Cook Monument was deeded outright to the British Government by the independent nation of Hawaii in 1877.
  • The Vimy Memorial in France, which commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge. The French government permanently granted a land area of about 91 ها (220 أكرs) to Canada as a war memorial in 1922 in recognition of Canada's military contributions in World War I in general and at Vimy Ridge in particular.[20]
  • Two cemeteries on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, United States, one on Ocracoke Island and one on Hatteras Island in the town of Buxton, are owned by the United Kingdom. Both contain the graves of British seamen whose bodies washed ashore after World War II U-Boat attacks that occurred on 10 April (San Delfino – one body) and 11 May 1942 (HMT Bedfordshire – 5 bodies).[21] Four graves are at Ocracoke and two at Buxton; three of the bodies were never identified; one of them could be that of a Canadian seaman.[22] The plot of land at Ocracoke "has been forever ceded to England" and is maintained by the U.S. Coast Guard.[23] The plot was leased to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission for as long as the land remained a cemetery.[22] The graves on Hatteras Island are maintained by the U.S. National Park Service.[24]
  • The Captain Cook Monument at Kealakekua Bay and about 25 قدم مربعs (2.3 م2) of land around it in Hawaii, United States, the place where James Cook was killed in 1779, is owned by the United Kingdom.[25][26][27][28] An historian on the occasion of the monument's 50th anniversary recorded in 1928 that the white stone "obelisk monument [was] erected to the memory of Captain Cook, about 1876, and on land deeded outright to the British Government by Princess Likelike, sister of King Kalakaua, about the same year, so that that square is absolute British Territory."[29] Hawaii was a sovereign nation at the time. According to a recent writer, "The land under the monument was deeded to the United Kingdom in 1877 and is considered as sovereign non-embassy land owned by the British Embassy in Washington DC. ... the Hawaiian State Parks agency maintained that as sovereign British territory it was the responsibility of the UK to maintain the site."[30]
  • Tiwinza in Peru: In the 1998 peace agreement following the 1995 Cenepa War, Peru ceded to Ecuador the property, but not the sovereignty, of one square kilometer within Tiwinza (where 14 Ecuadorian soldiers were buried). Ecuador had established a frontier military outpost in Tiwinza, an area that was specified in the agreement as belonging to Peru.[31][32]
 
The John F. Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede, United Kingdom placed on land given to the United States of America in 1965.

Unusual cross-border transport channels

Highway of one state passing through another state's territory

This arrangement is less common as highways are more easily re-aligned. Examples include:


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب Raton, Pierre (1958). "Les enclaves". Annuaire français de droit international. p. 186.
  2. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Melamid
  3. ^ Exclave. Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989, p. 497
  4. ^ أ ب ت Rozhkov-Yuryevsky, Yuri (2013). "The concepts of enclave and exclave and their use in the political and geographical characteristic of the Kaliningrad region". Baltic Region (2): 113–123. doi:10.5922/2079-8555-2013-2-11.
  5. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة EV
  6. ^ Robinson, G. W. S. (September 1959). "Exclaves". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 49 (3, [Part 1]): 283–295. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1959.tb01614.x. JSTOR 2561461.
  7. ^ "Assembly of Turkish American Associations". Ataa.org. Retrieved 2014-02-24.
  8. ^ "Malawi Tourism Guide". MalawiTMC. Retrieved 2017-05-08.
  9. ^ Arocha, Magaly (May 1999). "La Orden de Malta y su Naturaleza Jurídica (The Order of Malta and Its Legal Nature)". Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela: Analítica.com. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
  10. ^ "Notification of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Czech Republic". 20 August 2001. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  11. ^ Siebeck, Jürgen (23 October 2002). "Is Bohemia the sea?". Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  12. ^ Vališ, Zdeněk (28 April 2005). "Czech harbor in Hamburg, waiting for resurrection". Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  13. ^ "Czech leased areas in Hamburg and Stettin". Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  14. ^ "The Transport Agreement between the Czechoslovak Republic and the Polish People's Republic of 13 January 1956". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-10-26. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  15. ^ "domaines français de Sainte-Hélène". Domfrance.helanta.sh. Archived from the original on 2011-03-25. Retrieved 2012-09-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  16. ^ "Guernesey : Hauteville House". Paris.fr. 2012-08-28. Archived from the original on 2010-06-26. Retrieved 2012-09-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  17. ^ Source:American Battle Monument Commission
  18. ^ "The American Battle Monuments Commission". "The site, preserved since the war by the French Committee of the Pointe du Hoc, which erected an impressive granite monument at the edge of the cliff, was transferred to American control by formal agreement between the two governments on 11 January 1979 in Paris, with Ambassador Arthur A. Hartman signing for the United States and Secretary of State for Veterans Affairs Maurice Plantier signing for France". Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  19. ^ "Suworow monument". Andermatt-Urserntal Tourism. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
  20. ^ "Canada And Vimy Ridge – Background Information – Veterans Affairs Canada". Retrieved 2012-04-09.
  21. ^ Hickam, Homer H. (1996). Torpedo Junction: U-Boat War Off America's East Coast, 1942. Naval Institute Press. pp. 202–207. ISBN 1-55750-362-1.
  22. ^ أ ب "British Cemetery at Ocracoke, North Carolina". Retrieved 2013-02-24.
  23. ^ "Historic Ocracoke Village – A Walking Tour". Retrieved 2013-02-24.
  24. ^ "British Cemeteries". Retrieved 2013-02-24.
  25. ^ Horwitz, Tony. Oct. 2003, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before, Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-6455-8
  26. ^ Erickson, Lt Clayton, RCN (2012). "Captain Cook Monument at Kealakekua Cleaned and Repaired". Cook's Log. 35 (4). p. 38. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  27. ^ "Canadian Crew Cleans Cook Monument". 30 August 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  28. ^ Harris, Francis (22 Jul 2006). "Don't mention the murder – how Hawaii forgot Capt. Cook". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  29. ^ Taylor, Albert P. "HOW HAWAII HONORED CAPTAIN COOK, R.N., IN 1928". p. 29. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  30. ^ MacFarlane, John M. (2012). "The Captain Cook Memorial at Kealakakua Bay Hawaii". Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  31. ^ "Cronologia de la Historia Resumida del Ecuador". Retrieved 15 Feb 2017.
  32. ^ Jimenez, Carmen (27 Oct 1998). "Los presidentes de Perú y Ecuador firman la paz en Brasilia y delimitan su frontera". El País. Retrieved 15 Feb 2017.
  33. ^ "John F. Kennedy Memorial Act". Google docs [unofficial copy]. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
  34. ^ Evans, D. M. Emrys (1965). "John F. Kennedy Memorial Act, 1964". The Modern Law Review. 28 (6): 703–706. JSTOR 1092388. (free registration required to read relevant text on page 704)
  35. ^ "Franco-Turkish agreement of Ankara" (PDF) (in French and English). Retrieved 8 August 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  36. ^ 2006 Road Atlas Ireland, AA, pp. 36–37
  37. ^ Jan S. Krogh's Geosite on Sørdalen valley
  38. ^ "Driving directions". Google maps. Google. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  39. ^ Google Maps
  40. ^ "Senegal may tunnel under Gambia". BBC News. 2005-09-21.
  41. ^ http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Multinational__The_Gambia-Senegal__-_AR_-_Construction_of_the_Trans-Gambia_Bridge_and_Cross_Border_Improvement_.pdf
  42. ^ "Office of The Gambian President: State House Online: Yahya A.J.J. Jammeh". statehouse.gm. Archived from the original on 2015-08-08. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

المراجع

وصلات خارجية