كوريتيبا

(تم التحويل من Curitiba)

Curitiba (Tupi: "Pine Nut Land", البرتغالية البرازيلية: [kuɾiˈtʃibɐ])[2] is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Paraná. The city's population numbered approximately 1,879,355 people اعتبارا من 2015, making it the eighth most populous city in the country, and the largest in Brazil's South Region. The Curitiba Metropolitan area comprises 26 municipalities[3] with a total population of over 3.2 million (IBGE estimate in 2010),[4] making it the seventh most populous in the country.

Curitiba
Município de Curitiba
Municipality of Curitiba
Clockwise from Top: Skyline from Barigui Park; 24 Hours Street; Paço da Liberdade; The Botanical Garden of Curitiba, Oscar Niemeyer Museum; Palace Avenue building.
Clockwise from Top: Skyline from Barigui Park; 24 Hours Street; Paço da Liberdade; The Botanical Garden of Curitiba, Oscar Niemeyer Museum; Palace Avenue building.
الختم الرسمي لـ Curitiba
Seal
الكنية: 
Cidade Modelo ("Model City"); Capital Ecológica do Brasil ("Ecological Capital of Brazil"); Cidade Verde ("Green City"); Capital das Araucárias ("Capital of Araucarias"); A Cidade da Névoa Eterna ("The City of Eternal Fog")
الشعار: 
A Cidade da Gente (Our City; The People's City)
موقع Curitiba
Curitiba is located in البرازيل
Curitiba
Curitiba
Location in Brazil
الإحداثيات: 25°25′S 49°15′W / 25.417°S 49.250°W / -25.417; -49.250Coordinates: 25°25′S 49°15′W / 25.417°S 49.250°W / -25.417; -49.250
Country البرازيل
RegionSouth
StateBandeira do Paraná.svg Paraná
Founded29 March 1693
Incorporated1842
الحكومة
 • MayorRafael Greca (PMN)
المساحة
 • Municipality430٫9 كم² (166٫4 ميل²)
 • الحضر
319٫4 كم² (123٫3 ميل²)
 • العمران
15٬416٫9 كم² (5٬952 ميل²)
المنسوب
934٫6 m (3٬066٫3 ft)
التعداد
 (2017)[1]
 • Municipality1٬908٬359 (8th)
 • الكثافة4٬062/km2 (10٬523/sq mi)
 • العمرانية
3٬400٬000 (7th)
 • الكثافة العمرانية210٫9/km2 (546٫2/sq mi)
منطقة التوقيتUTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC-2 (UTC-2)
CEP
80000-000 to 82999-999
مفتاح الهاتف+55 (41)
الموقع الإلكترونيCuritiba, Paraná

Curitiba is an important cultural, political, and economic centre in Latin America.[5] The city sits on a plateau at 932 مترs (3,058 قدم) above sea level. It is located 105 kiloمترs (65 ميل) west of the seaport of Paranaguá and is served by the Afonso Pena International and Bacacheri airports. The city hosts the Federal University of Paraná, established in 1912.

In the 1700s, Curitiba possessed a favorable location between cattle-breeding country and marketplaces, leading to a successful cattle trade and the city's first major expansion. Later, between 1850 and 1950, it grew due to logging and agricultural expansion in the Paraná State (first Araucaria logging, later mate and coffee cultivation and in the 1970s wheat, corn and soybean cultivation). In the 1850s, waves of European immigrants arrived in Curitiba, mainly Germans, Italians, Poles and Ukrainians, contributing to the city's economic and cultural development.[6] Nowadays, only smaller numbers of foreign immigrants arrive, primarily from Middle Eastern[7] and other South American countries.

The biggest expansion occurred after the 1960s, with innovative urban planning that changed the population size from some hundreds of thousands to more than a million people.[8] Curitiba's economy is based on industry and services and is the fourth largest in Brazil.[9] Economic growth occurred in parallel to a substantial inward flow of Brazilians from other cities of the country, as approximately half of the city's population was not born in Curitiba.[10]

Curitiba sports one of the few high Brazilian Human Development Index readings at 0.856, and in 2010 was awarded the Global Sustainable City Award, given to cities and municipalities that excel in sustainable urban development.[11] According to US magazine Reader's Digest, Curitiba is the best "Brazilian Big City" in which to live.[12][13] Curitiba crime rate is considered low by Brazilian standards and the city is considered one of the safest cities in Brazil for youth.[14] The city is also the best to invest in the country.[15] Curitiba was one of the host cities of the 1950 FIFA World Cup, and again for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Despite the excellent social indicators, the city has a higher unemployment rate compared to other cities in the state[16]

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الاسم

 
منظر جوي لحيي باتل و أگوا ڤردي



التاريخ

 
Map of Curitiba in 1894 (Portuguese edition).


 
Nossa Senhora da Luz Cathedral and Downtown Curitiba in 1900.

The Paranaguá-Curitiba railroad was opened in 1885.[17]


Geography

Climate

 
Fog in the Botanical Garden.
بيانات مناخ Curitiba (1961–1990)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 34.1
(93.4)
34.8
(94.6)
33.5
(92.3)
30.3
(86.5)
28.3
(82.9)
28.2
(82.8)
27.8
(82)
30.6
(87.1)
32.8
(91)
32.8
(91)
34.0
(93.2)
33.1
(91.6)
34٫8
(94٫6)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 26.6
(79.9)
26.7
(80.1)
25.7
(78.3)
23.1
(73.6)
21.1
(70)
19.6
(67.3)
19.4
(66.9)
20.9
(69.6)
21.3
(70.3)
22.6
(72.7)
24.5
(76.1)
25.4
(77.7)
23٫1
(73٫6)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) 20.4
(68.7)
20.6
(69.1)
19.6
(67.3)
17.2
(63)
14.5
(58.1)
13.1
(55.6)
12.9
(55.2)
14.1
(57.4)
15.0
(59)
16.5
(61.7)
18.2
(64.8)
19.3
(66.7)
16٫8
(62٫2)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 16.4
(61.5)
16.3
(61.3)
15.4
(59.7)
12.8
(55)
10.2
(50.4)
8.4
(47.1)
8.1
(46.6)
9.2
(48.6)
10.8
(51.4)
12.5
(54.5)
14.0
(57.2)
15.4
(59.7)
12٫5
(54٫5)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) 8.2
(46.8)
6.8
(44.2)
3.9
(39)
-4.0
(24.8)
-2.3
(27.9)
-4.0
(24.8)
-5.2
(22.6)
-5.2
(22.6)
-5.4
(22.3)
-1.5
(29.3)
-0.9
(30.4)
3.6
(38.5)
−5٫4
(22٫3)
هطول mm (inches) 171.8
(6.764)
157.6
(6.205)
138.8
(5.465)
94.8
(3.732)
101.0
(3.976)
115.6
(4.551)
98.8
(3.89)
73.4
(2.89)
119.2
(4.693)
133.3
(5.248)
126.9
(4.996)
152.3
(5.996)
1٬483٫4
(58٫402)
Humidity 79.0 80.0 80.0 79.0 82.0 82.7 81.0 79.0 82.0 82.0 80.0 82.0 80٫7
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 15 12 12 8 7 7 6 7 9 10 10 13 116
Sunshine hours 184.4 160.8 172.0 164.2 178.3 160.2 173.4 175.4 134.1 155.5 177.0 170.9 2٬006٫2
Source: INMET[18]

Vegetation

 
Frost in Curitiba.
 
Botanical gardens greenhouse in Curitiba


Panoramic view of Barigui Park.


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Hydrography

 
Iguaçu River, running by the south region of the city.

الطبوغرافيا

 
The Mountain Range of the Sea, "Serra do Mar."


الحكم

 
مقر بلدية مدينة كوريتيبا


Demographics

 
Brazilians of Ukrainian descent celebrating Easter in Curitiba.
Old Polish house at João Paulo II park ("Pope's Park").
Ukrainian memorial at Tingui Park.
Memorial of Japanese immigrants at Japan's Square.



الاقتصاد

 
Oi Panoramic Tower.
 
Downtown Curitiba skyline.
 
The "Paço Municipal" built in 1916.



العلاقات الدولية

البلدات التوأم - المدن الشقيقة

Curitiba is twinned with:


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اتفاقيات التعاون

In addition Curitiba has cooperation agreements with:

Notable people

 
Landscape with Canoe on the Margin (1922). Painting by Alfredo Andersen (São Paulo Museum of Art, São Paulo).
 
Araucárias of Botanical Garden.
 
Passeio Público.

Architecture

References

  1. ^ "IBGE releases population estimates for municipalities in 2017. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) (August 30, 2017)". Ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  2. ^ The European Portuguese pronunciation is [kuɾiˈtiβɐ].
  3. ^ "Mapa da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba – Paraná". Curitiba-parana.com. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  4. ^ "IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". Web.archive.org. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Curitiba". Rnestrangeiros.com.br. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  6. ^ "Tradições Culturais" (in portuguese). Curitiba-parana.net. Retrieved 7 March 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  7. ^ "A imigração árabe muçulmana em Curitiba" (in Portuguese). Etni-cidade. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2008. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  8. ^ "Dados do IBGE sobre Curitiba" (in Portuguese). IBGE. Retrieved 31 July 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  9. ^ "Cidades Brasileiras, Curitiba" (in Portuguese). SuaPesquisa. Retrieved 31 July 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  10. ^ "Quase metade de Curitiba é dos "estrangeiros"" (in Portuguese). Bem Paraná. Retrieved 6 August 2008.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  11. ^ "The Brazilian city Curitiba awarded the Globe Sustainable City Award 2010". globeforum.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  12. ^ "Brazil Outsourcing: Curitiba Comes On Strong as 'Silicon Valley South'". Nearshore Americas. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  13. ^ "Bestcitiestolivein.net". Bestcitiestolivein.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2013. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)
  14. ^ "As 10 capitais mais seguras para os jovens do Brasil". Planetasustentavel.abril.com.br. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  15. ^ "Curitiba é eleita a melhor cidade do Brasil pelo ranking Istoé/Austin Ratings - ISTOÉ DINHEIRO". Istoedinheiro.com.br. 18 September 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  16. ^ http://www.gazetadopovo.com.br/economia/pos-e-carreira/por-que-o-mercado-de-trabalho-de-curitiba-ainda-continua-demitindo-868i7lb2m3rmofjytl3yhy1l5
  17. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة pr2
  18. ^ "NORMAIS CLIMATOLÓGICAS DO BRASIL 1961-1990" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Retrieved 4 July 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  19. ^ "Curitiba in Brazil Adopts Akureyri as Sister Town". Iceland Review Online. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  20. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ "Cidades-irmãs" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Curitiba. Retrieved 22 May 2007.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  21. ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Coimbra. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  22. ^ "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  23. ^ "Kraków - Miasta Bliźniacze" [Kraków - Twin Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  24. ^ "Honorowe Miasta Bliźniacze – Kurytyba (Brazylia)" (in Polish). Krakow.pl. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2006.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  25. ^ "Online Directory: Florida, USA". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2008.
  26. ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [Lisbon - Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

Bibliography

وصلات خارجية

السيحة