گريتا گاربو

گرِتا گاربو Greta Garbo (و. 18 سبتمبر 190515 أبريل 1990) هي ممثلة سويدية المولد, اشتهرت بعد أن مثلت في الفيلم الصامت (Gösta Berlings saga) المأخوذ من رواية لسلمى لاگرلوف, ذهبت إلى هوليوود وبفترة قصيرة أصبحت أكثر نجوم السينما شعبية في العالم, توقفت عن التمثيل عام 1942.

گريتا گاربو
Garbo Lenox Publicity.jpg
Garbo in a publicity still for Susan Lenox (1931)
وُلِدَ
Greta Lovisa Gustafsson

(1905-09-18)18 سبتمبر 1905
ستوكهولم، السويد
توفي15 أبريل 1990(1990-04-15) (عن عمر 84 عاماً)
نيويورك، نيويورك، الولايات المتحدة
المهنةممثلة
سنوات النشاط1920–1941
الموقع الإلكترونيhttp://www.gretagarbo.com/

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الطفولة والشباب

العمل

العمل في سن مبكرة (1920–1924)

 
Garbo in her first leading role with Lars Hanson in the Swedish The Saga of Gösta Berling (1924), directed by Mauritz Stiller


الأفلام الصامتة (1925–1929)

 
Garbo's 8th Hollywood silent, Wild Orchids (1929)

Queen of MGM (1930–1939)

 
Garbo in her first talkie, Anna Christie (1930)


 
In Mata Hari (1931)
 
In Anna Karenina (1935)

آخر عمل (1940–1948)

 
"Garbo Laughs!" With Melvyn Douglas in Ernst Lubitsch's comedy Ninotchka (1939)

الإعتزال

 
Garbo signing her US citizenship papers, in 1950

العلاقات

وفاتها

 
Gravestone of Greta Garbo

الجوائز والتكريمات

 
A German postage stamp featuring Garbo

الإرث

 
Garbo in a publicity still for Inspiration (1931)

أفلامها

Film credits
Year Title Role Director Co-star Notes
1920 Mr. and Mrs. Stockholm Go Shopping Elder sister بالسويدية: Herrskapet Stockholm ute på inköp;
An advertisement. Garbo's segment is often known as How Not to Dress.[1]
1921 The Gay Cavalier Garbo played an extra. بالسويدية: En lyckoriddare;
Uncredited. The film is lost.
1921 Our Daily Bread Companion بالسويدية: Konsum Stockholm Promo;[1] An advertisement
1922 Peter the Tramp Greta بالسويدية: Luffar-Petter;[1] A two-reel comedy; Garbo's first part in a commercial film
1924 Saga of Gosta Berling, TheThe Saga of Gosta Berling Elizabeth Dohna Stiller, MauritzMauritz Stiller Hanson, LarsLars Hanson بالسويدية: Gösta Berling's Saga; Garbo’s first leading part in a feature-length film, directed by her mentor, the celebrated Mauritz Stiller.
1925 Joyless Street, TheThe Joyless Street Greta Rumfort Pabst, G. W.G. W. Pabst Nielsen, AstaAsta Nielsen بالألمانية: Die freudlose Gasse; Garbo plays the principal role in this German film made by renowned director Pabst
1926 Torrent Leonora Moreno
aka La Brunna
Bell, MontaMonta Bell Cortez, RicardoRicardo Cortez First American movie. All of Garbo's subsequent movies were made in Hollywood and produced by MGM.
1926 Temptress, TheThe Temptress Elena Niblo, FredFred Niblo Moreno, AntonioAntonio Moreno Stiller was originally assigned to direct; his directing methods and personality led to conflicts with MGM producer Irving Thalberg who fired him.
1926 Flesh and the Devil Felicitas Brown, ClarenceClarence Brown Gilbert, JohnJohn Gilbert First of seven Garbo movies directed by Clarence Brown and first of four with co-star John Gilbert
1927 Love Anna Karenina Goulding, EdmundEdmund Goulding Gilbert, JohnJohn Gilbert Adapted from the novel Anna Karenina by Tolstoy
1928 Divine Woman, TheThe Divine Woman Marianne Seastrom, VictorVictor Seastrom Hanson, LarsLars Hanson The film is lost; only a 9 minute reel exists.
1928 Mysterious Lady, TheThe Mysterious Lady Tania Fedorova Niblo, FredFred Niblo Nagel, ConradConrad Nagel
1928 Woman of Affairs, AA Woman of Affairs Diana Merrick Furness Brown, ClarenceClarence Brown Gilbert, JohnJohn Gilbert The first of seven Garbo films with actor Lewis Stone who, with the exception of Wild Orchids, played secondary roles.
1929 Wild Orchids Lillie Sterling Franklin, SidneySidney Franklin Asther, NilsNils Asther
1929 Single Standard, TheThe Single Standard Arden Stuart Hewlett Robertson, John S.John S. Robertson Asther, NilsNils Asther,
Brown, John MackJohn Mack Brown
1929 Kiss, TheThe Kiss Irene Guarry Feyder, JacquesJacques Feyder Nagel, ConradConrad Nagel Garbo's, and MGM's, last silent picture
1930 Anna Christie Anna Christie Brown, ClarenceClarence Brown Bickford, CharlesCharles Bickford,
Dressler, MarieMarie Dressler
Garbo's first talkie and first Academy Award nomination for Best Actress
1930 Romance Madame Rita Cavallini Brown, ClarenceClarence Brown Gordon, GavinGavin Gordon Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
1930 Anna Christie Anna Christie Feyder, JacquesJacques Feyder Junkermann, HansHans Junkermann,
Viertel, SalkaSalka Viertel
MGM's German version of Anna Christie was also released in 1930; Salka Viertel, Garbo's close friend, later co-wrote several of her screenplays.
1931 Inspiration Yvonne Valbret Brown, ClarenceClarence Brown Montgomery, RobertRobert Montgomery
1931 Susan Lenox (Her Fall and Rise) Susan Lenox Leonard, Robert Z.Robert Z. Leonard Gable, ClarkClark Gable
1931 Mata Hari Mata Hari Fitzmaurice, GeorgeGeorge Fitzmaurice Novarro, RamonRamon Novarro After the multi-star Grand Hotel, Garbo's highest grossing film
1932 Grand Hotel Grusinskaya Goulding, EdmundEdmund Goulding Barrymore, JohnJohn Barrymore,
Barrymore, LionelLionel Barrymore,
Crawford, JoanJoan Crawford,
Beery, WallaceWallace Beery
Academy Award for Best Picture
1932 As You Desire Me Zara aka Marie Fitzmaurice, GeorgeGeorge Fitzmaurice Douglas, MelvynMelvyn Douglas,
Stroheim, Erich vonErich von Stroheim
First of three movies with Douglas
1933 Queen Christina Queen Christina Mamoulian, RoubenRouben Mamoulian Gilbert, JohnJohn Gilbert
1934 Painted Veil, TheThe Painted Veil Katrin Koerber Fane Boleslavski, RichardRichard Boleslavski Brent, GeorgeGeorge Brent
1935 Anna Karenina Anna Karenina Brown, ClarenceClarence Brown March, FredricFredric March New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress
1936 Camille Marguerite Gautier Cukor, GeorgeGeorge Cukor Taylor, RobertRobert Taylor New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress
National Board of Review Best Acting Award
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
1937 Conquest Countess Marie Walewska Brown, ClarenceClarence Brown Boyer, CharlesCharles Boyer MGM lost more money on this picture than any prior to 1949[بحاجة لمصدر];
1939 Ninotchka Nina Ivanovna "Ninotchka" Yakushova Lubitsch, ErnstErnst Lubitsch Douglas, MelvynMelvyn Douglas National Board of Review Best Acting Award
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated—New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress
1941 Two-Faced Woman Karin Borg Blake Cukor, GeorgeGeorge Cukor Douglas, MelvynMelvyn Douglas National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Best Acting Award


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المصادر

  1. ^ أ ب ت The Saga of Gosta Berling (DVD). New York: Kino International. 2006. قالب:UPC.
  2. ^ Bacon, Henry (1998). Visconti: Explorations of Beauty and Decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 208 ff. ISBN 978-0-521-59960-3. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  3. ^ Beugnet, Martine; Schmid, Marion (2004). Proust at the Movies. Studies in European Cultural Transition. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 50 ff. ISBN 978-0-7546-3541-3. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  4. ^ Biery 1928a. When I wasn't thinking, wasn't wondering what it was all about, this living; I was dreaming. Dreaming how I could become a player.
  5. ^ Biery 1928a. I hated school. I hated the bonds they put on me. There were so many things outside. I liked history best but I was afraid of the map—geography you call it. But I had to go to go to school like other children. The public school, just as you have in this country.
  6. ^ Biery 1928a. I didn't play much. Except skating and skiing and throwing snowballs. I did most of my playing by thinking. I played a little with my brother and sister, pretending we were in shows. Like other children. But usually I did my own pretending. I was up and down. Very happy one moment, the next moment – there was nothing left for me.
  7. ^ Biery 1928a. Then I found a theater. I must have been six or seven. Two theaters, really. One was a cabaret; one a regular theater, – across from one another. And there was a back porch to both of them. A long plank on which the actors and actresses walked to get in the back door. I used to go there at seven o'clock in the evening, when they would be coming in, and wait until eight-thirty. Watch them come in; listen to them getting ready. The big back door was always open even in the coldest weather. Listen to their voices doing their parts in the productions. Smell the grease paint! There is no smell in the world like the smell of the backyard of a theater. No smell that will mean as much to me – ever. Night after night, I sat there dreaming. Dreaming when I would be inside – getting ready.
  8. ^ Biery 1928c. Mr. Stiller is an artist. He does not understand about the American factories. He has always made his own pictures in Europe, where he is the master. In our country it is always the small studio. He does not understand the American Business. He could speak no English. So he was taken off the picture. It was given to Mr. Niblo. How I was broken to pieces, nobody knows. I was so unhappy I did not think I could go on.
  9. ^ Billquist, Fritiof (1960). Garbo: A Biography. New York: Putnam. p. 106. OCLC 277166. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  10. ^ Brown, John Mason (1965). The worlds of Robert E. Sherwood: Mirror to His Times, 1896–1939. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-313-20937-6. Retrieved 20 July 2010. I want to go on record as saying that Greta Garbo in The Temptress knocked me for a loop. I had seen Miss Garbo once before, in The Torrent. I had been mildly impressed by her visualeffectiveness. In The Temptress, however, this effectiveness proves positively devastating. She may not be the best actress on the screen. I am powerless to formulate an opinion on her dramatic technique. But there is no room for argument as to the efficacy of her allure... [She] qualifies herewith as the official Dream Princess of the Silent Drama Department of Life.
  11. ^ Conway, Michael; McGregor, Dion; Ricci, Mark (1968). The Films of Greta Garbo. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-86369-552-0. Retrieved 20 July 2010. Harriette Underhill in the New York Herald Tribune: 'This is the first time we have seen Miss Garbo and she is a delight to the eyes! We may also add that she is a magnetic woman and a finished actress. In fact, she leaves nothing to be desired. Such a profile, such grace, such poise, and most of all, such eyelashes. They swish the air at least a half-inch beyond her languid orbs. Miss Garbo is not a conventional beauty, yet she makes all other beauties seem a little obvious.قالب:'-
  12. ^ Crafton, Donald (22 November 1999). The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926–1931. History of the American Cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 206–7. ISBN 978-0-520-22128-4. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  13. ^ Crafton, Donald (22 November 1999). The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926–1931. History of the American Cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-520-22128-4. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  14. ^ Crafton, Donald (22 November 1999). The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926–1931. History of the American Cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 494–5. ISBN 978-0-520-22128-4. Retrieved 17 July 2010. In December 1929, according to the volume of Photoplay fan mail (...) Garbo remained the leading female star.
  15. ^ D'Amico, Silvio (1962). Enciclopedia dello spettacolo (in Italian). Rome: Casa editrice Le Maschere. p. 901. Retrieved 25 July 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  16. ^ Flamini, Roland (22 February 1994). Thalberg: The Last Tycoon and the World of M-G-M. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 978-0-517-58640-2. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  17. ^ Forrest, Jennifer; Koos, Leonard R. (2002). Dead Ringers: The Remake in Theory and Practice. SUNY Series, Cultural Studies in Cinema/Video. Abany: State University of New York Press. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-0-7914-5169-4. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  18. ^ Furhammar, Leif (1991). Filmen i Sverige: en historia i tio kapitel (in Swedish). Höganäs: Wiken. p. 129. ISBN 978-91-7119-517-3. Retrieved 24 July 2010. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  19. ^ Gever, Martha (8 September 2003). Entertaining Lesbians: Celebrity, Sexuality, and Self-Invention. Cambridge: New York. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-415-94480-9. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  20. ^ Golden, Eve (2001). Golden images: 41 essays on silent film stars. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-7864-0834-4. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  21. ^ Hall, Hadaunt (22 February 1926). "A New Swedish Actress". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 July 2010. In this current effort Greta Garbo, a Swedish actress, who is fairly well known in Germany, makes her screen bow to American audiences. As a result of her ability, her undeniable prepossessing appearance and her expensive taste in fur coats, she steals most of the thunder in this vehicle
  22. ^ Hall, Morduant (11 October 1926). "The Temptress Another Ibanez Story". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  23. ^ Jacobs, Lea (2 April 2008). The Decline of Sentiment: American Film in the 1920s. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 258–9. ISBN 978-0-520-25457-2. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  24. ^ Katchmer, George A. (1991). Eighty Silent Film Stars: Biographies and Filmographies of the Obscure to the Well Known. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-89950-494-0. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  25. ^ Kellow, Brian (November 2004). The Bennetts: An Acting Family. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-8131-2329-5. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  26. ^ Koszarski, Richard (4 May 1994). An Evening's Entertainment: The Age of the Silent Feature Picture, 1915–1928. History of the American Cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-520-08535-0. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  27. ^ Lektyr (in Swedish). 9 (3). 17. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Check date values in: |date= and |year= / |date= mismatch (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  28. ^ Limbacher, James L. (1968). Four Aspects of the Film. Aspects of film. New York: Brussel & Brussel. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-405-11138-9. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  29. ^ Mariani, John (29 December 1975). "The Greatest Movie Set Ever". New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC. 9 (1): 54. ISSN 0028-7369. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  30. ^ NYTimes 1936. A woman held out a letter of introduction she said was written by a mutual friend, and Garbo said coldly: "I never accept letters."
  31. ^ NYTimes 1936. (Garbo) refused to write her name for autograph hunters or to pose for newsreels.
  32. ^ NYTimes 1936. For the first time since she achieved international eminence in the motion-picture world, Miss Garbo granted an interview to the press and received the reporters en masse in the smoking lounge while the ship was at Quarantine.
  33. ^ "Greta Garbo Honored". The New York Times. 3 November 1983. p. 17. Retrieved 25 July 2010. Greta Garbo was made a Commander of the Swedish Order of the North Star yesterday by order of King Carl XVI Gustaf, the King of Sweden. The private ceremony in the New York home of Mrs. Jane Gunther was also attended by Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Gruson. The honor, extended only to foreigners, was presented to Miss Garbo by Count Wilhelm Wachtmeister, the Swedish Ambassador to the United States, in recognition of the actress's distinguished service to Sweden. Miss Garbo, born in Stockholm, is now an American citizen.
  34. ^ NYTimes 1990. In a rare statement to reporters she acknowledged, "I feel able to express myself only through my roles, not in words, and that is why I try to avoid talking to the press."
  35. ^ NYTimes 1990. A declaration often attributed to her was, "I want to be alone." Actually she said, "I want to be let alone."
  36. ^ NYTimes 1990. Her penchant for privacy broke all of Hollywood's rules, said her biographer, John Bainbridge. Except at the start of her career, he wrote in Garbo, she "granted no interviews, signed no autographs, attended no premieres, answered no fan mail."
  37. ^ Parish, James Robert; Bowers, Ronald L. (1973). The MGM Stock Company: The Golden Era. London: Allan. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-7110-0501-3. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  38. ^ Reid, John Howard (January 2006). Cinemascope 3: Hollywood Takes the Plunge. Morrisville, NC: Lulu Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4116-7188-1. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  39. ^ Rivera-Viruet, Rafael J.; Resto, Max (2008). Hollywood... Se Habla Español: Hispanics in Hollywood Films ... Yesterday, today and tomorrow. New York: Terramax Entertainment. pp. 31–37. ISBN 978-0-9816650-0-9. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  40. ^ Sjölander, Ture (1971). Garbo. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-06-013926-1. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  41. ^ "Garbo: A TCM Original Documentary". TurnerClassicMovies.com. Turner Classic Movies. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  42. ^ Thomsen, Bodil Marie (1997). Filmdivaer: Stjernens figur i Hollywoods melodrama 1920–40. [Anmeldelse] (in Danish). Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-87-7289-397-6. Retrieved 20 July 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  43. ^ "People, Mar. 1, 1971". Time. 1 March 1971. Retrieved 26 July 2010. Hardly since General Douglas MacArthur's 'I shall return' has so momentous a comeback loomed. According to Italian Cinema Director Luchino Visconti, fabled Film Star Greta Garbo, 65, who has been dodging cameras for 30 years, has actually asked to play in his forthcoming movie version of Marcel Proust's seven-volume Remembrance of Things Past. The role that caught her fancy: Maria Sophia, the sixtyish Queen of Naples, who will have only one scene. Nothing has been signed as yet, but Visconti sounded as if Garbo's reappearance was already a fait accompli. Said he: 'I am very pleased at the idea that this woman, with her severe and authoritarian presence, should figure in the decadent and rarefied climate of the world described by Proust.قالب:'-
  44. ^ "The Torrent Review". Variety. 1 January 1926. Retrieved 20 July 2010. Greta Garbo, making her American debut as a screen star, has everything with looks, acting ability and personality. When one is a Scandinavian and can put over a Latin characterization with sufficient power to make it most convincing, need there be any more said regarding her ability? She makes The Torrent worthwhile.
  45. ^ Vieira, Mark A. (15 November 2009). Irving Thalberg: Boy Wonder to Producer Prince. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-520-26048-1. Retrieved 22 July 2010.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  46. ^ Walker, Alexander; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (October 1980). Garbo: A Portrait. New York: Macmillan. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-02-622950-0. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  47. ^ Ware, Susan; Braukman, Stacy Lorraine (2004). Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary: Completing the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-0-674-01488-6. Retrieved 24 July 2010. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  48. ^ Wollstein, Hans J. (1994). Strangers in Hollywood: The History of Scandinavian Actors in American Films from 1910 to World War II. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8108-2938-1. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  49. ^ Zierold, Norman J. (1969). Garbo. New York: Stein and Day. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-8128-1212-1. Retrieved 20 July 2010. قالب:-'Greta Garbo vitalizes the name part of this picture. She is the Temptress. Her tall, swaying figure moves Cleopatra-ishly from delirious Paris to the virile Argentine. Her alluring mouth and volcanic, slumbrous eyes enfire men to such passion that friendships collapse.' Dorothy Herzog, New York Mirror (1926):

قائمة المراجع


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

وصلات خارجية

  اقرأ اقتباسات ذات علاقة بگريتا گاربو، في معرفة الاقتباس.

قالب:AFI 100 Stars