مناحم بيجن

(تم التحويل من مناحم بيگن)

مناحم بيگن (بالعبرية: מְנַחֵם בֵּגִיןMenaḥem Begin, تـُنطق [menaˈχem ˈbeɡin]  (Speaker Icon.svg استمع); پولندية: Menachem Begin (Polish documents, 1931–1937);[1][2] روسية: Менахем Вольфович Бегин, romanized: Menakhem Volfovich Begin؛ عاش 16 أغسطس 1913 - 9 مارس 1992) سياسي إسرائيلي ومؤسس حزب ليكود وسادس رئيس وزراء لإسرائيل.

مناحم بيگن
מנחם בגין
Menachem Begin, Andrews AFB, 1978.JPG
Begin in 1978
السادس رئيس وزراء إسرائيل
في المنصب
21 يونيو 1977 – 10 اكتوبر 1983
الرئيس
سبقهإسحق رابين
خلـَفهإسحق شامير
Ministerial roles
1967–1970Minister in the PM's Office
1980–1981Minister of Defense
1983Minister of Defense
Faction represented in the Knesset
1948–1965Herut
1965–1973Gahal
1973–1981Likud
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد(1913-08-16)16 أغسطس 1913
برست، كانت في الامبراطورية الروسية، والآن في بلاروس
توفي9 مارس 1992(1992-03-09) (aged 78)
تل أبيب, إسرائيل
الحزبليكود
الزوجAliza Arnold (ز. 1939; و. 1982)
الأنجال3, including Ze'ev Binyamin
المدرسة الأمUniversity of Warsaw
التوقيع
الخدمة العسكرية
الولاء
الفرع/الخدمة
الرتبة
المعارك/الحروبJewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine
1947–48 civil war in Mandatory Palestine
1948 Arab–Israeli War


Before the creation of the state of Israel, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah. He proclaimed a revolt, on 1 February 1944, against the British mandatory government, which was opposed by the Jewish Agency. As head of the Irgun, he targeted the British in Palestine.[3] Later, the Irgun fought the Arabs during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine and, as its chief, Begin was described by the British government as the "leader of the notorious terrorist organisation". It declined him an entry visa to the United Kingdom between 1953 and 1955. However, Begin's overtures of friendship eventually paid off and he was granted a visa in 1972, five years prior to becoming prime minister.[4]

Begin was elected to the first Knesset, as head of Herut, the party he founded, and was at first on the political fringe, embodying the opposition to the Mapai-led government and Israeli establishment. He remained in opposition in the eight consecutive elections (except for a national unity government around the Six-Day War), but became more acceptable to the political center. His 1977 electoral victory and premiership ended three decades of Labor Party political dominance.

Begin's most significant achievement as Prime Minister was the signing of a peace treaty with Egypt in 1979, for which he and Anwar Sadat shared the Nobel Prize for Peace. In the wake of the Camp David Accords, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula, which had been captured from Egypt in the Six-Day War. Later, Begin's government promoted the construction of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Begin authorized the bombing of the Osirak nuclear plant in Iraq and the invasion of Lebanon in 1982 to fight PLO strongholds there, igniting the 1982 Lebanon War. As Israeli military involvement in Lebanon deepened, and the Sabra and Shatila massacre, carried out by Christian Phalangist militia allies of the Israelis, shocked world public opinion,[5] Begin grew increasingly isolated.[6] As IDF forces remained mired in Lebanon and the economy suffered from hyperinflation, the public pressure on Begin mounted. Depressed by the death of his wife Aliza in November 1982, he gradually withdrew from public life, until his resignation in October 1983.

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Biography

 
Begin (top center) with his parents, his sister Rachel, and his brother Herzl in Poland, 1932

Menachem Begin was born to Zeev Dov and Hassia Begun in what was then Brest-Litovsk in the Russian Empire (today Brest, Belarus). He was the youngest of three children.[7] On his mother's side he was descended from distinguished rabbis. His father, a timber merchant, was a community leader, a passionate Zionist, and an admirer of Theodor Herzl. The midwife who attended his birth was the grandmother of Ariel Sharon.[8]

After a year of a traditional cheder education Begin started studying at a "Tachkemoni" school, associated with the religious Zionist movement. In his childhood, Begin, like most Jewish children in his town, was a member of the Zionist scouts movement Hashomer Hatzair. He was a member of Hashomer Hatzair until the age of 13, and at 16, he joined Betar.[9] At 14, he was sent to a Polish government school,[10] where he received a solid grounding in classical literature.

Begin studied law at the University of Warsaw, where he learned the oratory and rhetoric skills that became his trademark as a politician, and viewed as demagogy by his critics.[11]

 
Begin reviews a Betar lineup in Poland in 1939. Next to him is Moshe (Munya) Cohen

During his studies, he organized a self-defense group of Jewish students to counter harassment by anti-Semites on campus.[12] He graduated in 1935, but never practiced law. At this time he became a disciple of Vladimir "Ze'ev" Jabotinsky, the founder of the nationalist Revisionist Zionism movement and its youth wing, Betar.[13] His rise within Betar was rapid: at 22, he shared the dais with his mentor at the Betar World Congress in Kraków.[14] The pre-war Polish government actively supported Zionist youth and paramilitary movements. Begin's leadership qualities were quickly recognised.[بحاجة لمصدر] In 1937[15] he was the active head of Betar in Czechoslovakia and became head of the largest branch, that of Poland. As head of Betar's Polish branch, Begin traveled among regional branches to encourage supporters and recruit new members. To save money, he stayed at the homes of Betar members. During one such visit, he met his future wife Aliza Arnold, who was the daughter of his host. The couple married on 29 May 1939. They had three children: Binyamin, Leah and Hassia.[16]

Living in Warsaw in Poland, Begin encouraged Betar to set up an organization to bring Polish Jews to Palestine. He unsuccessfully attempted to smuggle 1,500 Jews into Romania at the end of August 1939. Returning to Warsaw afterward, he left three days after the German 1939 invasion began, first to the southwest and then to Wilno.

 
NKVD mugshots of Menachem Begin, 1940

In September 1939, after Germany invaded Poland, Begin, in common with a large part of Warsaw's Jewish leadership, escaped to Wilno (today Vilnius), then eastern Poland, to avoid inevitable arrest. The town was soon occupied by the Soviet Union, but from 28 October 1939, it was the capital of the Republic of Lithuania. Wilno was a predominately Polish and Jewish town; an estimated 40 percent of the population was Jewish, with the YIVO institute located there. As a prominent pre-war Zionist and reserve status officer-cadet, on 20 September 1940, Begin was arrested by the NKVD and detained in the Lukiškės Prison. In later years he wrote about his experience of being tortured. He was accused of being an "agent of British imperialism" and sentenced to eight years in the Soviet gulag camps. On 1 June 1941 he was sent to the Pechora labor camps in Komi Republic, the northern part of European Russia, where he stayed until May 1942. Much later in life, Begin recorded and reflected upon his experiences in the interrogations and life in the camp in his memoir White Nights.

In July 1941, just after Germany attacked the Soviet Union, and following his release under the Sikorski–Mayski agreement because he was a Polish national, Begin joined the Free Polish Anders' Army as a corporal officer cadet. He was later sent with the army to Palestine via the Persian Corridor, where he arrived in May 1942.[17]

Upon arriving in Palestine, Begin, like many other Polish Jewish soldiers of the Anders' Army, faced a choice between remaining with the Anders' Army to fight Nazi Germany in Europe, or staying in Palestine to fight for establishment of a Jewish state. While he initially wished to remain with the Polish army, he was eventually persuaded to change his mind by his contacts in the Irgun, as well as Polish officers sympathetic to the Zionist cause. Consequently, General Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski, the second-in-command of the Army, issued Begin with a "leave of absence without an expiration" which gave Begin official permission to stay in Palestine. In December 1942 he left Anders's Army and joined the Irgun.[18]

During the Holocaust, Begin's father was among the 5,000 Brest Jews rounded up by the Nazis at the end of June 1941. Instead of being sent to a forced labor camp, they were shot or drowned in the river. His mother and his elder brother Herzl also were murdered in the Holocaust.[19]


Jewish underground

 
Begin in his Polish Army uniform with his wife Aliza in Tel Aviv, December 1942.
 
Lt Jabotinsky in uniform 38th RF

وُلد مناحيم بيجن في 16 اغسطس 1913 في روسيا البيضاء ودرس فيها حتى أنهى المرحلة الثانوية ومن ثمّة، سافر إلى بولندا في عام 1938 حيث التحق بجامعة وارسو" لدراسة القانون. تعرّف بيجن على العمل الصهيوني من خلال "منظمة بيتار" اليهودية البولندية التي ترأسها في عام 1939. حصل على جائزة نوبل للسلام مناصفة مع الرئيس المصري الراحل أنور السادات.

 
نص كتاب مناحيم بيجن ... سيرة حياته انقر على الصورة للمطالعة

المنفى في معسكر السوفياتي

 
صورة الاعتقال لدى NKVD لمناحم بيگن، 1940

الهجرة إلى فلسطين

في العام 1939، اجتاحت القوات الألمانية النازية بولندا في بداية الحرب العالمية الثانية فاضطر بيجن إلى النفاذ بجلده ومغادرة بولندا إلى الإتحاد السوفييتي. ولم يستقبل السوفييت بيغن بالأحضان، بل ألقوا القبض عليه وقامت السلطات السوفييتية بنفيه إلى صحراء سيبيريا في عام 1940. وبعد عام في سيبيريا، أطلقت السلطات السوفييتية سراحه حيث قام بالإنظمام إلى صفوف الجيش البولندي لمدة عام واحد ومن بعدها قرر الهجرة إلى فلسطين في عام 1942.

 
مناحيم بيغن

نشاطه في فلسطين

السرية اليهودية

نتيجة فكر بيجن الصهيوني، عمل على تأسيس منظمة صهيونية عسكرية أطلق عليها اسم "إرجون تسڤاي ليؤمي". واقترن اسم إرجون بعمليات الإرهاب الفظيعة في حق الشعب الفلسطيني وأسهمت الإرجون في ترحيل الفلسطينيين من ديارهم بفعل العمليات الإرهابية، ومن أشهر عمليات الإرجون الإرهابية على الشعب الفلسطيني، مذبحة دير ياسين التي راح ضحيتها 360 فلسطيني ومذبحة بئر السبع، كما ذكر مناحيم بيغن في كتابه "التمرد. قصة إرجون". ولإيمان بيغن ان البريطانيين يعيقون تأسيس الدولة الإسرائيلية، فقد نال البريطانيون نصيبهم من الأذى عندما قامت الإرجون بنسف مقر قيادة القوات البريطانية في فندق الملك داود في عام 1948. ولم تُستثنى هيئة الأمم المتحدة من إرهاب مناحيم بيجن عندما أقدمت الإرجون على إغتيال ممثلها، "الكونت برنادوت" عندما قدم الكونت إقتراحات لهيئة الأمم لحل الإشكالات بين اليهود والفلسطينيين، ولم ترق تلك الإقتراحات لليهود، فتعاونت الإرجون مع عصابة شتيرن والهاجاناه على الإجهاز على الكونت في 17 سبتمبر 1948.

ألتلينا وحرب الاستقلال

 
Altalena on fire after being shelled near Tel-Aviv


العمل السياسي

سنة المعارضة حيروت

بعد الإعلان الرسمي لقيام دولة إسرائيل، قامت الحكومة الإسرائيلية المؤقّتة بحل جميع التنظيمات العسكرية وكان تنظيم إرجون من بينها، فتوجّه مناحيم بيغن إلى العمل السياسي. أسس بيجن حزب "حيروت Herut" (الحرية)، وأصبح عضواً في الكنيست عام 1949، وتزعم المعارضة فيه حتى عام 1967، حين انضم إلى حكومة الوحدة الوطنية، وشغل منصب وزير بدون حقيبة، وذلك حتى عام 1970، حين انسحب وحزبه من الوزارة، نتيجة قبول حكومة جولدا مائير لمشروع روجرز، للانسحاب من الأراضي المحتلة، عام 1967. وفي عام 1970، أنضم بيجن إلى ائتلاف الليكود. وزاول العمل السياسي حتّى ترأّس حزب الليكود في عام 1973.

رئاسة الليكود

رئيس الوزراء

 
Menachem Begin in 1978


في 17 مايو 1977، تمكّن مناحيم بيجن من ان يصبح سادس رئيس وزراء لإسرائيل. وفي 21 يونيه، شكل بيجن الحكومة. وقد عُرفَ عنه، كرئيس للوزراء، بأنه لا يقبل المساومات، خاصة فيما يتعلق بقضية الأراضي التي تحتلها إسرائيل، إلاّ أنَّه أجرى مباحثات سلام مع الرئيس المصري محمد أنور السادات، أدت بعد مشوار طويل، إلى توقيع اتفاقية كامب ديفيد، برعاية جيمي كارتر، الرئيس الأمريكي. والاتفاقية تضمنت خططاً للانسحاب الإسرائيلي من شبه جزيرة سيناء المصرية، على مراحل، كما نصت الاتفاقية، كذلك، على منح الفلسطينيين حق الحكم الذاتي للضفة الغربية وقطاع غزة.


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كامب ديفيد

 
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin acknowledge applause during a joint session of Congress in Washington, D.C., during which President Jimmy Carter announced the results of the Camp David Accords, 18 September 1978.
 
Prime Minister Menachem Begin engages Zbigniew Brzezinski in a game of chess at Camp David, 1978


  • ترأُّس الوفد الإسرائيلي المُفاوض مع الوفد المصري، وتمخضت المفاوضات عن توقيع أول معاهدة سلام بين دولة عربية وأسرائيل. وتحققت المعاهدة في عام 1979.

قصف المفاعل النووي العراقي

  • أقلعت الطائرات الحربية الإسرائيلية متوجهة إلى العراق في عام 1981 بهدف ضرب المفاعل النووي العراقي. وصرح بيغن عندها "انا لن نسمح بأي حال من الاحوال ان نمكّن اعداءنا من تطوير اسلحة الدمار الشامل لاستخدامها ضد الشعب الاسرائيلي".


غزو لبنان

  • وفي أثناء توليه رئاسة الوزراء، أعطى الضوء الأخضر للجيش الإسرائيلي بغزو لبنان، في يونيو 1982، للقضاء على المقاومة الفلسطينية في لبنان. وقام الجيش الإسرائيلي بمجزرة بشعة في مخيمات الفلسطينيين في صبرا وشاتيلا، هزت الضمير العالمي، وفضحت الممارسات اللاإنسانية للإسرائيليين ضد العرب. وكان لتلك المجزرة صدى عالمي، إذ دانتها جميع دول العالم، وكان من تداعيات الغزو الإسرائيلي للبنان، أن استقال مناحم بيجن من منصبه عام 1983، واعتزل الحياة السياسية. وتوفي في تل أبيب في 9 مارس 1992.

التقاعد من الحياة العامة

أقواله

"لا مزيد من الحروب، لا مزيد من إراقة الدماء، لا مزيد من التهديدات"
     - مخاطباً الشعب المصري في 11 نوفمبر 1977.

"الفلسطينيون وحوش تمشي على قدمين"
     - خطاب في الكنيست، 25 يونيو 1982.

نهايته

بعد موت زوجته "أليزا"، تدهورت حالة بيغن الصحية فقام الرجل على تقديم استقالتة من رئاسة الوزراء في اغسطس 1983 وظّل يصارع المرض حتّى فارق الحياة في 9 مارس 1992 عن عمر يناهز الـ 78 عام.

المصادر

  1. ^ "Брестский краевед обнаружил в архиве польский паспорт Менахема Бегина". planetabelarus.by.
  2. ^ "Poland's urban legend about Menachem Begin". blogs.timesofisrael.com.
  3. ^ John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, at 102 (Farrar, Straus and Giroux 2007).
  4. ^ Oren, Amir (7 July 2011). "British Documents Reveal: Begin Refused Entry to U.K. in 1950s". Haaretz.
  5. ^ Gwertzman, Bernard. "Christian Militiamen Accused of a Massacre in Beirut Camps; U.S. Says the Toll Is at Least 300" Archived 2 مارس 2014 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times. 19 September 1982.
  6. ^ Thompson, Ian. Primo Levi: A Life. 2004, page 436.
  7. ^ "Menachem Begin Biography". www.ibiblio.org.
  8. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (19 November 1984). "Books Of The Times". The New York Times.
  9. ^ "Museum - מרכז מורשת מנחם בגין". Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  10. ^ Bernard Reich, Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport, 1990 p.71
  11. ^ Anita Shapira Begin on the Couch Archived 18 أغسطس 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Haaretz Books, in Hebrew
  12. ^ Ahronovitz, Esti (22 February 2012). "Begin's Legacy / The Man Who Transformed Israel". Haaretz.
  13. ^ Haber, Eitan (1978). Menahem Begin: The Legend and the Man. New York: Delacorte. ISBN 978-0-440-05553-2.
  14. ^ Shilon, Avi (2012). Menachem Begin: A Life. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. pp. 13–15.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  15. ^ "מנחם בגין". GOV.IL (in العبرية). Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  16. ^ Lehr Wagner, Heather: Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin: negotiating peace in the Middle East
  17. ^ Haber, Eitan (1978). Menachem Begin: The Legend and the Man. New York: Delacorte Press. ISBN 978-0-440-05553-2.
  18. ^ Sources differ on how Begin left Anders' Army. Many indicate that he was discharged, e.g.:
    • Eitan Haber (1979). Menachem Begin: The Legend and the Man. Dell Publishing Company. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-440-16107-3. "A while later Anders's Chief of Staff, General Ukolitzky, did agree to the release of six Jewish soldiers to go to the United States on a campaign to get the Jewish community to help the remnants of European Jewry. The Chief of Staff, who was well acquainted with Dr. Kahan, invited him to his office for a drink. There were a number of senior officers present, and Kahan realized that this was a farewell party for Ukolitzky. 'I'm leaving here on a mission, and my colleagues are throwing a party but the last document I signed was an approval of release for Menahem Begin.'"
    • Bernard Reich (1990) Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-26213-5. p. 72. "In 1942 he arrived in Palestine as a soldier in General Anders's (Polish) army. Begin was discharged from the army in December 1943."
    • Harry Hurwitz (2004). Begin: His Life, Words and Deeds. Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 978-965-229-324-4. p. 9. "His friends urged him to desert the Anders Army, but he refused to do any such dishonourable thing and waited until, as a result of negotiations, he was discharged and permitted to enter Eretz Israel, then under British mandatory rule".
    • "Biography – White Nights" Archived 13 فبراير 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Menachem Begin Heritage Center. Retrieved 16 January 2012. "Many of the new recruits deserted the army upon their arrival, but Begin decidedly refused to follow suit. 'I swore allegiance to the Polish army – I will not desert,' he resolutely told his friends when he was reunited with them on Jewish soil. Begin served in the Polish army for about a year and a half with the rank of corporal... At the initiative of Aryeh Ben-Eliezer and with the help of Mark Kahan, negotiations began with the Polish army regarding the release of five Jewish soldiers from the army, including Begin, in return for which the members of the IZL delegation would lobby in Washington for the Polish forces. The negotiations lasted many weeks until they finally met with success: The Polish commander announced the release of four of the soldiers. Fortunately, Begin was among them."
    Others give differing views, e.g.:
    • Amos Perlmutter (1987). The Life and Times of Menachem Begin Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-18926-2. p. 134. "In the Ben Eliezer-Mark Kahan version, Begin received a complete, honorable release from the Anders Army. The truth is that he only received a one-year leave of absence, a kind of extended furlough, in order to enable him to join an Anders Army Jewish delegation which would go to the United States seeking help for the Polish government-in-exile. The delegation never materialized, mainly due to British opposition. Begin, however, never received an order to return to the ranks of the Army."
  19. ^ Grunor, Jerry A. (2005). Let My People Go. iUniverse. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-595-36769-6.

كتب من تأليف مناحم بيجن

  • The Revolt (ISBN 0-8402-1370-0)
  • White nights: The story of a prisoner in Russia (ISBN 0-06-010289-6)

قراءات اضافية

  • Ze'ev Schiff and Ehud Ya'ari, Israel's Lebanon War, Touchstone, 1985
  • Ilan Peleg, Begin’s foreign policy, 1977-1983 : Israel’s move to the right, Greenwood Press, 1987
  • Colin Shindler, The Land Beyond Promise : Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream, I.B.Tauris, 2002
  • Eric Silver, Begin: a biography, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1984
  • Sasson Sofer, Begin: an anatomy of leadership, Basil Blackwell, 1988

وصلات خارجية

مواقع رسمية

وصلات مختلفة

مناصب حزبية
سبقه
حزب جديد
زعيم حزب حيروت
1948-1973
تبعه
حزب ليكود
سبقه
حزب جديد
زعيم حزب ليكود
1973-1982
تبعه
إسحاق شامير
مناصب سياسية
سبقه
إسحاق رابين
رئيس وزراء إسرائيل
1977-1983
تبعه
إسحاق شامير
سبقه
موشيه ديان
وزير خارجية إسرائيل تبعه
إسحاق شامير
سبقه
عيزر ڤايتسمان
وزير دفاع إسرائيل
1980-1981
تبعه
أرييل شارون

قالب:Israeli Nobel Laureates

قالب:1978 Nobel Prize winners قالب:Refusenik movement and 1990s post-Soviet aliyah