افتح القائمة الرئيسية

مستشار ألمانيا

مستشار جمهورية ألمانيا الاتحادية (يُعرف في الألمانية باسم Bundeskanzler ("المستشار الاتحادي")، أو Kanzler اختصاراً) هو رئيس الحكومة الألمانية، يوصف نظام الحكم الألماني، بحق، بأنه "ديموقراطية المستشار". فالمستشار هو العضو الوحيد في الحكومة المنتخبة من البوندستاگ (البرلمان الألماني)، وهو وحده مسئول أمامه. وتجد هذه المسؤولية تعبيراً لها في ما يسمى "حجب الثقة البناء". ولقد تبنى القانون الأساسي هذه العبارة عن عمد مستفيدا من تجربة سابقة تهدف إلى منع مجموعات المعارضة، التي تتفق في ما بينها على رفض الحكومة دون الاتفاق على برنامج بديل، من أن تسقط الحكومة دون المقدرة على انتخاب حكومة بديلة. لذلك ينبغي على البرلمان عند حجب الثقة عن المستشار، أن ينتخب في الوقت نفسه بأكثرية اصواته خلفا له. لقد جرت حتى الآن محاولتان لإسقاط المستشار بناء على مبدأ حجب الثقة البناء لكن واحدة منها فقط تكللت بالنجاح: في عام 1982 حُجبت الثقة عن المستشار الاتحادي آنذاك هلموت شميت، وانتُخب المستشار هلموت كول خلفا له. أما حجب الثقة عن الوزراء الاتحاديين بصورة منفردة فلا ينص عليه القانون الأساسي.

مستشار جمهورية ألمانيا الاتحادية
Bundesadler Bundesorgane.svg
Angela Merkel 24092007.jpg
الحالي
أنگلا مركل

منذ 22 نوفمبر 2005
عيـَّنهرئيس ألمانيا
مدة المنصبمدة المستشار في المنصب تنتهي بانعقاد بوندستاگ لأول جلساته أو بأن يقيله من منصبه الرئيس (على سبيل المثال على إثر تصويت بناء بعدم الثقة).[1]
مفتتـِح المنصبكونراد أدناور
تشكيل1949
النائبنائب المستشار
الموقعwww.bundeskanzlerin.de

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فهرست

تاريخ المنصب



آلية التعيين

 
البوندسكانتسلرآمت Bundeskanzleramt (القنصلية) في برلين هو مقر المستشار
 
قصر شاومبورگ في بون هو المقر الثاني لاقامة المستشار


تصويت عدم الثقة


مستشار جمهورية ألمانيا الاتحادية (منذ 1949)

The 1949 German constitution, the Basic Law (Grundgesetz), invests the chancellor (German, Bundeskanzler) with broad powers to initiate government policy. For that reason, some observers refer to the German political system as a "chancellor democracy". Whichever major party (CDU/CSU or SPD) does not hold the chancellorship usually calls its leading candidate for the federal election "chancellor-candidate" (Kanzlerkandidat). The federal government (Bundesregierung) consists of the chancellor and cabinet ministers.

Role

West Germany's 1949 constitution, the Basic Law (Grundgesetz), invests the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) with central executive authority. Since the 1961 election, the two major parties (CDU/CSU and SPD) call their leading candidates for the federal election "chancellor-candidate" (Kanzlerkandidat), although this is not an official term and any party can nominate a Kanzlerkandidat (even if that party has no chance at all of leading or even becoming part of a government coalition). The Federal Government (Bundesregierung) consists of the Federal Chancellor and their cabinet ministers, called Bundesminister (Federal Ministers).

The chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Basic Law and from their status as leader of the party (or coalition of parties) holding a majority of seats in the Bundestag ("Federal Diet", the lower house of the German Federal Parliament). With the exception of Helmut Schmidt, Gerhard Schröder (from 2004 to 2005) and Angela Merkel (since 2018) the chancellor has usually also been chairman of their own party.

The first chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, set many precedents that continue today and established the chancellorship as the clear focus of power in Germany. Under the provisions of the Basic Law giving him the power to set guidelines for all fields of policy, Adenauer arrogated nearly all major decisions to himself. He often treated his ministers as mere extensions of his authority rather than colleagues. While his successors have tended to be less domineering, the chancellor has acquired enough ex officio authority (in addition to his/her constitutional powers) that Germany is often described by constitutional law experts as a "chancellor democracy".

 
The cabinet bench in the Reichstag building (to the left of the flag) with the raised seat of the chancellor in the front row

The chancellor determines the composition of the Federal Cabinet. The President formally appoints and dismisses cabinet ministers, on the recommendation of the chancellor; no parliamentary approval is needed. According to the Basic Law, the chancellor may set the number of cabinet ministers and dictate their specific duties. Chancellor Ludwig Erhard had the largest cabinet, with 22 ministers, in the mid-1960s. Helmut Kohl presided over 17 ministers at the start of his fourth term in 1994; the 2002 cabinet, the second of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, had 13 ministers, and the Angela Merkel cabinet as of 22 November 2005 had 15.

Article 65 of the Basic Law sets forth three principles that define how the executive branch functions:

  • The "chancellor principle" makes the chancellor responsible for all government policies; this is also known as the Richtlinienkompetenz (roughly translated as "guideline setting competence"). Any formal policy guidelines issued by the chancellor are legally binding directives that cabinet ministers must implement. Cabinet ministers are expected to introduce specific policies at the ministerial level that reflect the chancellor's broader guidelines.
  • The "principle of ministerial autonomy" entrusts each minister with the freedom to supervise departmental operations and prepare legislative proposals without cabinet interference so long as the minister's policies are consistent with the chancellor's broader guidelines.
  • The "cabinet principle" calls for disagreements between federal ministers over jurisdictional or budgetary matters to be settled by the cabinet.


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نائب المستشار

 
The 18th Vice-Chancellor of Germany, Olaf Scholz

The Chancellor must appoint one of the cabinet ministers as Vice Chancellor, who may deputise for the Chancellor, if they are absent or unable to perform their duties. Although the Chancellor is theoretically free to choose any cabinet minister as Vice Chancellor, he or she prefers, in coalition governments the Vice Chancellor is usually the highest-ranking minister of the second biggest coalition party.

If the Chancellor's term in office ends or if they resign, the Bundestag has to elect a new Chancellor. The President of Germany may ask the former Chancellor to act as Chancellor until a new office holder is elected, but if they are unwilling or unable to do so, the President may also appoint the Vice Chancellor as Acting Chancellor until a successor is elected. This has happened once: On 7 May 1974 Chancellor Willy Brandt resigned as a consequence of the Guillaume Affair, an espionage scandal. In his letter of resignation to President Gustav Heinemann he wrote:

Dear Mr. President, I take the political responsibility for mishandlings in context of the espionage affair "Guillaume" and declare my resignation from the office of Chancellor. At the same time, I ask you to accept my resignation immediately and to appoint my deputy, Federal Minister Scheel, as Acting Chancellor, until a successor is elected. Sincerely, Willy Brandt.[2]

President Heinemann followed the request. Walter Scheel was appointed as Acting Chancellor and served for nine days until the election of Helmut Schmidt on 16 May 1974.

The 18th and current Vice Chancellor of Germany is Olaf Scholz, who also serves as Federal Minister of Finance in the Fourth Merkel cabinet.

قائمة المستشارين (منذ 1949)

Chancellors of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundeskanzler)
پورتريه Name
(Birth–Death)
(Home state)
Previous service Term of office Political party Vice Chancellor Cabinets
Took Office Left Office
  Konrad Adenauer
(1876–1967)
(North Rhine-Westphalia)
President of the Parliamentary Council (1948-1949) 15 September 1949 16 October 1963
(resigned)
CDU Franz Blücher (1949–1957), Ludwig Erhard (1957–1963) Adenauer I, Adenauer II, Adenauer III, Adenauer IV, Adenauer V
  Ludwig Erhard
(1897–1977)
(Bavaria)
Vice-Chancellor of Germany (1957-1963)
Federal Minister for Economic Affairs (1949–1963)
16 October 1963 1 December 1966
(resigned)
CDU Erich Mende (1963–1966), Hans-Christoph Seebohm (1966) Erhard I, Erhard II
  Kurt Georg Kiesinger
(1904–1988)
(Baden-Württemberg)
Minister President of Baden-Württemberg (1958–1966) 1 December 1966 22 October 1969 CDU Willy Brandt (1966–1969) Kiesinger
  Willy Brandt
(1913–1992)
(West Berlin)
Vice-Chancellor of Germany (1966–1969)
Federal Minister of Foreign Affairs (1966–1969)
22 October 1969 7 May 1974
(resigned)
SPD Walter Scheel (1969–1974, Acting Chancellor from 7 May 1974 until 16 May 1974) Brandt I, Brandt II
  Helmut Schmidt
(1918–2015)
(Hamburg)
Federal Minister of Finance (1972-1974) 16 May 1974 1 October 1982
(replaced by a Constructive vote of no confidence)
SPD Hans-Dietrich Genscher (1974–1982), Egon Franke (1982) Schmidt I, Schmidt II, Schmidt III
  Helmut Kohl
(1930–2017)
(Rhineland-Palatinate)
Minister President of Rhineland-Palatinate (1969-1976) 1 October 1982 27 October 1998 CDU Hans-Dietrich Genscher (1982–1992), Jürgen Möllemann (1992–1993), Klaus Kinkel (1993–1998) Kohl I, Kohl II, Kohl III, Kohl IV, Kohl V
  Gerhard Schröder
(b. 1944)
(Lower Saxony)
Minister President of Lower Saxony (1990–1998) 27 October 1998 22 November 2005 SPD Joschka Fischer (1998–2005) Schröder I, Schröder II
  Angela Merkel
(b. 1954)
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)
Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (1994-1998) 22 November 2005 Incumbent CDU Franz Müntefering (2005–2007), Frank-Walter Steinmeier (2007–2009), Guido Westerwelle (2009–2011), Philipp Rösler (2011–2013), Sigmar Gabriel (2013–2018), Olaf Scholz (incumbent since 2018) Merkel I, Merkel II, Merkel III, Merkel IV


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المستشارون السابقون الأحياء

قائمة المستشارين

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "Acting in accordance with the constitution". Regierungonline. The Press and Information Office of the Federal Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  2. ^ https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/handschriftliche-r%C3%BCcktrittserkl%C3%A4rung-von-bundeskanzler-news-photo/545935043[dead link]

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